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Qinshihuang
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
* Huainanzi
Huainanzi
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Rectification Of Names
The RECTIFICATION OF NAMES (Chinese : 正名; pinyin : Zhèngmíng; Wade–Giles : Cheng-ming) largely known as a doctrine of feudal Confucian
Confucian
designations and relationships, behaving accordingly to ensure social harmony. Without such accordance society would essentially crumble and "undertakings would not be completed." Mencius
Mencius
extended the doctrine to include questions of political legitimacy . CONTENTS * 1 Mohism and Legalism * 2 Confucius * 3 Xunzi * 4 Modern applications * 5 Further reading * 6 Notes * 7 External links MOHISM AND LEGALISM Further information: Wu wei Further information: Chinese Legalism Because the rectification of names in the Analects
Analects
of Confucius appears to have been written later, it arguably originates in Mozi (470–391 BC). The scholarship of Herrlee G
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Fengjian
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
* Huainanzi
Huainanzi
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Wu Wei
WU WEI (traditional Chinese : 無爲; simplified Chinese : 无为; pinyin : wú wéi; a variant and derivatives: Japanese : 無為(むい); Korean : 無爲(무위); Vietnamese : Vô vi; English , lit. non-doing) is an important concept in Taoism
Taoism
that literally means non-action or non-doing. In the Tao
Tao
Te Ching , Lao Tzu explains that beings (or phenomena) that are wholly in harmony with the Tao behave in a completely natural, uncontrived way. The goal of spiritual practice for the human being is, according to Lao Tzu, the attainment of this purely natural way of behaving, as when the planets revolve around the sun. The planets effortlessly do this revolving without any sort of control, force, or attempt to revolve themselves, instead engaging in effortless and spontaneous movement
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School Of Diplomacy
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
* Huainanzi
Huainanzi
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Discourses On Salt And Iron
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
* Huainanzi
Huainanzi
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Chinese Law
CHINESE LAW is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. In the 20th and 21st century, law in China has been a complex mix of traditional Chinese approaches and appropriation of Western conventions . For most of the history of China , its legal system has been based on the Confucian philosophy of social control through moral education, as well as the Legalist emphasis on codified law and criminal sanction . Following the Revolution of 1911
Revolution of 1911
, the Republic of China
Republic of China
adopted a largely Western-style legal code in the civil law tradition (specifically German-influenced ). The establishment of the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
in 1949 brought with it a more Soviet-influenced system of socialist law . However, earlier traditions from Chinese history have retained their influence
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Traditional Chinese Law
TRADITIONAL CHINESE LAW refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China
China
up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell. It has undergone continuous development since at least the 11th century BC. This legal tradition is distinct from the common law and civil law traditions of the West – as well as Islamic law and classical Hindu law – and to a great extent, is contrary to the concepts of contemporary Chinese law. It incorporates elements of both Legalist and Confucian
Confucian
traditions of social order and governance. To Westerners, perhaps the most striking feature of the traditional Chinese criminal procedure is that it was an inquisitorial system where the judge, usually the district magistrate , conducts a public investigation of a crime, rather than an adversarial system where the judge decides between attorneys representing the prosecution and defense
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Pe̍h-ōe-jī
Southern Min
Southern Min
Amoy Taiwanese CREATOR Walter Henry Medhurst Elihu Doty John Van Nest Talmage TIME PERIOD 1830s–present CHILD SYSTEMS TLPA Taiwanese Romanization System
Taiwanese Romanization System
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters.PE̍H-ōE-Jī (pronounced ( listen ), abbreviated POJ, literally vernacular writing, also known as CHURCH ROMANIZATION) is an orthography used to write variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
Chinese, particularly Taiwanese Southern Min
Southern Min
and Amoy Hokkien
Hokkien

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Middle Chinese
MIDDLE CHINESE, formerly known as ANCIENT CHINESE, is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the _ Qieyun _, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions. The _fanqie _ method used to indicate pronunciation in these dictionaries, though an improvement on earlier methods, proved awkward in practice. The mid 12th-century _ Yunjing
Yunjing
_ and other rime tables incorporate a more sophisticated and convenient analysis of the _Qieyun_ phonology. The rime tables attest to a number of sound changes that had occurred over the centuries following the publication of the _Qieyun_. Linguists sometimes refer to the system of the _Qieyun_ as EARLY MIDDLE CHINESE and the variant revealed by the rime tables as LATE MIDDLE CHINESE. The dictionaries and tables describe pronunciations in relative terms, but do not give their actual sounds
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Old Chinese
OLD CHINESE, also called ARCHAIC CHINESE in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese , and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese . The earliest examples of Chinese are divinatory inscriptions on oracle bones from around 1250 BC, in the late Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
. Bronze inscriptions became plentiful during the following Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
. The latter part of the Zhou period saw a flowering of literature, including classical works such as the _ Analects
Analects
_, the _Mencius _, and the _Zuozhuan _. These works served as models for Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), which remained the written standard until the early twentieth century, thus preserving the vocabulary and grammar of late Old Chinese. Old Chinese
Old Chinese
was written with an early form of Chinese characters , with each character representing a monosyllabic word
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Chinese Legalism
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
* Huainanzi
Huainanzi
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Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius
The CRITICIZE LIN (BIAO), CRITICIZE CONFUCIUS CAMPAIGN (simplified Chinese : 批林批孔运动; traditional Chinese : 批林批孔運動; pinyin : pī Lín pī Kǒng yùndòng) (also called the ANTI-LIN BIAO, ANTI-CONFUCIUS CAMPAIGN) was a political propaganda campaign started by Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and his wife, Jiang Qing
Jiang Qing
, the leader of the Gang of Four
Gang of Four
. It lasted from 1973 until the end of the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
, in 1976. The campaign produced detailed Maoist interpretations of Chinese history, and was used as a tool by the Gang of Four
Gang of Four
to attack their enemies. The campaign continued in several phases, beginning as an academic attempt to interpret Chinese history according to Mao's political theories
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Guanzi (text)
Huang-Lao * Huangdi Sijing
Huangdi Sijing
* Huainanzi
Huainanzi
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Annals Of Lü Buwei
The LüSHI CHUN