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PubChem
PubChem is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine, which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface. Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database.[1]Contents1 Databases 2 Searching 3 History 4 ACS's concerns 5 Database
Database
fields 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksDatabases[edit] PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases
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Organism
In biology, an organism (from Greek: οργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life. It is a synonym for "life form". Organisms are classified by taxonomy into specified groups such as the multicellular animals, plants, and fungi; or unicellular microorganisms such as a protists, bacteria, and archaea.[1] All types of organisms are capable of reproduction, growth and development, maintenance, and some degree of response to stimuli. Humans are multicellular animals composed of many trillions of cells which differentiate during development into specialized tissues and organs. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote. Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea
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Tautomer
Tautomers (/ˈtɔːtəmə/)[1] are constitutional isomers of organic compounds that readily interconvert.[2][3][4] This reaction commonly results in the relocation of a proton. Tautomerism is relevant to the behavior of amino acids and nucleic acids, two of the fundamental building blocks of life. The concept of tautomerizations is called tautomerism. The chemical reaction interconverting the two is called tautomerization.Contents1 Examples 2 Prototropy 3 Valence tautomerism 4 See also 5 ReferencesExamples[edit]Some examples of tautomersKeto-enol tautomerization typically strongly favors the keto tautomer, but an important exception is the case of 1,3-diketones such as acetylacetone.Tautomerization is pervasive in organic chemistry. It is typically associated with polar molecules and ions containing functional groups that are at least weakly acidic
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Research Center
A research center is a facility or building dedicated to research, commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States.[1] Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute. Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. Notable research centers[edit]Ames Research
Research
Center Bell Labs Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering Marine Sciences Research
Research
Center Palo Alto Research
Research
Center Thomas J
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Congress Of The United States
535 voting members100 senators 435 representatives6 non-voting membersSenate political groups     Republican (51)      Democratic (47)      Independent (2) (caucusing with Democrats)House of Representatives political groups     Republican (238)      Democratic (193)      Vacant (4)ElectionsSenate last electionNovember 8, 2016House of Representatives last electionNovember 8, 2016Meeting place United States
United States
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Medical Subject Heading
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only.[2] It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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IUPAC Name
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.[1] Currently, preferred IUPAC names are written only for part of the organic compounds (see below)
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Chemical Element
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).[1] 118 elements are identified, of which the first 94 occur naturally on Earth
Earth
with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have exclusively radionuclides, which decay over time into other elements. Iron
Iron
is the most abundant element (by mass) making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust.[2] Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe
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Isotope
Isotopes
Isotopes
are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number. All isotopes of a given element have the same number of protons in each atom. The term isotope is formed from the Greek roots isos (ἴσος "equal") and topos (τόπος "place"), meaning "the same place"; thus, the meaning behind the name is that different isotopes of a single element occupy the same position on the periodic table. The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom. Each atomic number identifies a specific element, but not the isotope; an atom of a given element may have a wide range in its number of neutrons
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Formal Charge
In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) is the charge assigned to an atom in a molecule, assuming that electrons in all chemical bonds are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity.[1] When determining the best Lewis structure
Lewis structure
(or predominant resonance structure) for a molecule, the structure is chosen such that the formal charge on each of the atoms is as close to zero as possible. The formal charge of any atom in a molecule can be calculated by the following equation: F C = V − N −
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Chirality (chemistry)
Chirality
Chirality
/kaɪˈrælɪti/ is a geometric property of some molecules and ions. A chiral molecule/ion is non-superimposable on its mirror image. The presence of an asymmetric carbon center is one of several structural features that induce chirality in organic and inorganic molecules.[1][2][3][4] The term chirality is derived from the Greek word for hand, χειρ (kheir). The mirror images of a chiral molecule/ion are called enantiomers or optical isomers. Individual enantiomers are often designated as either right-handed or left-handed. Chirality
Chirality
is an essential consideration when discussing the stereochemistry in organic and inorganic chemistry
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Comparative Toxicogenomics Database
The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) is a public website and research tool launched in November 2004 that curates scientific data describing relationships between chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, GO annotations, pathways, and interaction modules
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PubMed
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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DrugBank
The DrugBank database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets.[1] As both a bioinformatics and a cheminformatics resource, DrugBank combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information.[1][2] Because of its broad scope, comprehensive referencing and unusually detailed data descriptions, DrugBank is more akin to a drug encyclopedia than a drug database. As a result, links to DrugBank are maintained for nearly all drugs listed in. DrugBank is widely used by the drug industry, medicinal chemists, pharmacists, physicians, students and the general public
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IUPAC
The International
International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International
International
Council for Science (ICSU).[2] IUPAC is registered in Zürich, Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director,[3] currently Lynn Soby.[4] IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
for the advancement of chemistry. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists
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Moltable
Moltable is a drug research initiative based in India, aimed at discovering new drugs to target cancer, AIDS, malaria and other potentially devastating infectious diseases, through chemoinformatics research
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