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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. NOTABLE RESEARCH CENTERS * Ames Research Center * Bell Labs * Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering * Marine Sciences Research Center * Palo Alto Research Center * Thomas J
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper . The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank for DNA sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine. NCBI was directed by David Lipman , one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program and a widely respected figure in bioinformatics
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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Software License
A SOFTWARE LICENSE is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law , with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain . A typical software license grants the licensee , typically an end-user , permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. CONTENTS* 1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law * 1.1 Ownership vs. licensing * 2 Proprietary software licenses * 3 Free and open-source software licenses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SOFTWARE LICENSES AND COPYRIGHT LAWMost distributed software can be categorized according to its license type (see table)
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Database
A DATABASE is an organized collection of data . It is the collection of schemas , tables , queries , reports, views , and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS
DBMS
is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL , PostgreSQL , MongoDB , MariaDB , Microsoft SQL Server , Oracle , Sybase , SAP HANA , MemSQL , SQLite and IBM DB2
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter . Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms , how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds , the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences , including physics , geology and biology . For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics . The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy , which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules
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National Library Of Medicine
The UNITED STATES NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE (NLM), operated by the United States
United States
federal government , is the world's largest medical library . Located in Bethesda, Maryland
Bethesda, Maryland
, the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health . Its collections include more than seven million books , journals , technical reports , manuscripts , microfilms , photographs , and images on medicine and related sciences, including some of the world's oldest and rarest works. The current director of the NLM is Patricia Flatley Brennan
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National Institutes Of Health
The NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s. It is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services with facilities mainly located in Bethesda, Maryland . It conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program. As of 2013 , the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic, translational, and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., or about US$26.4 billion
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Web User Interface
In computing, a WEB APPLICATION or WEB APP is a client–server computer program in which the client (including the user interface and client-side logic) runs in a web browser . Common web applications include webmail , online retail sales , online auctions , wikis , instant messaging services and many other functions. CONTENTS* 1 Definition and similar terms * 1.1 Mobile web applications * 2 History * 3 Interface * 4 Structure * 5 Business use * 6 Development * 7 Applications * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEFINITION AND SIMILAR TERMSThe general distinction between a dynamic web page of any kind and a "web application" is unclear. Web sites most likely to be referred to as "web applications" are those which have similar functionality to a desktop software application, or to a mobile app
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Extract
An EXTRACT is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material , often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water . Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form. The aromatic principles of many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond , cinnamon , cloves , ginger , lemon , nutmeg , orange , peppermint , pistachio , rose , spearmint , vanilla , violet , and wintergreen
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Complex (chemistry)
In chemistry , a COORDINATION COMPLEX consists of a central atom or ion , which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds , especially those of transition metals , are coordination complexes. A coordination complex whose centre is a metal atom is called a METAL COMPLEX
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Bioactivity
In pharmacology , BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY or PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter . When a drug is a complex chemical mixture, this activity is exerted by the substance's active ingredient or pharmacophore but can be modified by the other constituents. Among the various properties of chemical compounds, pharmacological/biological activity plays a crucial role since it suggests uses of the compounds in the medical applications. However, chemical compounds may show some adverse and toxic effects which may prevent their use in medical practice. Activity is generally dosage -dependent. Further, it is common to have effects ranging from beneficial to adverse for one substance when going from low to high doses. Activity depends critically on fulfillment of the ADME criteria
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High-throughput Screening
HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry . Using robotics , data processing/control software, liquid handling devices, and sensitive detectors, high-throughput screening allows a researcher to quickly conduct millions of chemical, genetic, or pharmacological tests. Through this process one can rapidly identify active compounds, antibodies, or genes that modulate a particular biomolecular pathway. The results of these experiments provide starting points for drug design and for understanding the interaction or role of a particular biochemical process in biology
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