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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases. As of 28 January 2016: * Compounds, 82.6 million entries (up from 54 million entries in Sept 2014), contains pure and characterized chemical compounds
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Research Center
A RESEARCH CENTER is a facility or building dedicated to research , commonly with the focus on a specific area. There are over 14,000 research centers in the United States. Centers apply varied disciplines including basic research and applied research in addition to non traditional techniques. However, a research center should not be confused with a research institute . Additionally, today many universities are establishing research centers to conduct a specific research or education activity. Over a hundred of research centers can be established in one university. This number certainly differs from a university to a university, but most of the research centers there do bring something to the scientific table. NOTABLE RESEARCH CENTERS * Ames Research Center * Bell Labs * Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering * Marine Sciences Research Center * Palo Alto Research Center * Thomas J. Watson Research Center * Biological Research Centre * Pennington Biomedical Research Center REFERENCES * ^ Evaluating Research Centers and Institutes for Success: A Manual and Guide with Case Studies William R. Tash WT right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Research_center additional terms may apply
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National Center For Biotechnology Information
The NATIONAL CENTER FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY INFORMATION (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The NCBI is located in Bethesda, Maryland and was founded in 1988 through legislation sponsored by Senator Claude Pepper . The NCBI houses a series of databases relevant to biotechnology and biomedicine and is an important resource for bioinformatics tools and services. Major databases include GenBank for DNA sequences and PubMed , a bibliographic database for the biomedical literature. Other databases include the NCBI Epigenomics database. All these databases are available online through the Entrez search engine. NCBI was directed by David Lipman , one of the original authors of the BLAST sequence alignment program and a widely respected figure in bioinformatics . He also leads an intramural research program, including groups led by Stephen Altschul (another BLAST co-author), David Landsman, Eugene Koonin (a prolific author on comparative genomics ), John Wilbur, Teresa Przytycka, and Zhiyong Lu. David Lipman stood down from his post in May 2017. NCBI is listed in the Registry of Research Data Repositories re3data.org
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Pubmed Identifier
PUBMED is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health maintains the database as part of the Entrez system of information retrieval . From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries . PubMed, first released in January 1996, ushered in the era of private, free, home- and office-based MEDLINE searching. The PubMed system was offered free to the public in June 1997, when MEDLINE searches via the Web were demonstrated, in a ceremony, by Vice President Al Gore
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Software License
A SOFTWARE LICENSE is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law , with or without printed material) governing the use or redistribution of software. Under United States copyright law all software is copyright protected, in source code as also object code form. The only exception is software in the public domain . A typical software license grants the licensee , typically an end-user , permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law. CONTENTS* 1 Software
Software
licenses and copyright law * 1.1 Ownership vs. licensing * 2 Proprietary software licenses * 3 Free and open-source software licenses * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links SOFTWARE LICENSES AND COPYRIGHT LAWMost distributed software can be categorized according to its license type (see table). Two common categories for software under copyright law, and therefore with licenses which grant the licensee specific rights, are proprietary software and free and open source software (FOSS)
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Database
A DATABASE is an organized collection of data . It is the collection of schemas , tables , queries , reports, views , and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS
DBMS
is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL , PostgreSQL , MongoDB , MariaDB , Microsoft SQL Server , Oracle , Sybase , SAP HANA , MemSQL , SQLite and IBM DB2 . A database is not generally portable across different DBMSs, but different DBMS
DBMS
can interoperate by using standards such as SQL
SQL
and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one DBMS. Database management systems are often classified according to the database model that they support; the most popular database systems since the 1980s have all supported the relational model as represented by the SQL
SQL
language
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Chemistry
CHEMISTRY is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter . Chemistry includes topics such as the properties of individual atoms , how atoms form chemical bonds to create chemical compounds , the interactions of substances through intermolecular forces that give matter its general properties, and the interactions between substances through chemical reactions to form different substances. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other natural sciences , including physics , geology and biology . For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics . The history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy , which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world
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Molecule
A MOLECULE is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds . Molecules are distinguished from ions by their lack of electrical charge . However, in quantum physics , organic chemistry , and biochemistry , the term _molecule_ is often used less strictly, also being applied to polyatomic ions . In the kinetic theory of gases , the term _molecule_ is often used for any gaseous particle regardless of its composition. According to this definition, noble gas atoms are considered molecules as they are in fact monoatomic molecules. A molecule may be homonuclear , that is, it consists of atoms of one chemical element , as with oxygen (O2); or it may be heteronuclear , a chemical compound composed of more than one element, as with water (H2O). Atoms and complexes connected by non-covalent interactions , such as hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds , are generally not considered single molecules. Molecules as components of matter are common in organic substances (and therefore biochemistry). They also make up most of the oceans and atmosphere. However, the majority of familiar solid substances on Earth, including most of the minerals that make up the crust , mantle , and core of the Earth , contain many chemical bonds, but are _not_ made of identifiable molecules
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National Library Of Medicine
The UNITED STATES NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE (NLM), operated by the United States federal government , is the world's largest medical library . Located in Bethesda, Maryland , the NLM is an institute within the National Institutes of Health . Its collections include more than seven million books , journals , technical reports , manuscripts , microfilms , photographs , and images on medicine and related sciences, including some of the world's oldest and rarest works. The current director of the NLM is Patricia Flatley Brennan . CONTENTS * 1 Publications and informational resources * 2 Toxicology and environmental health * 3 Radiation exposure * 4 Extramural division * 5 National Center for Biotechnology Information division * 6 History * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 Further reading * 11 External links PUBLICATIONS AND INFORMATIONAL RESOURCESSince 1879, the National Library of Medicine has published the Index Medicus , a monthly guide to articles in nearly five thousand selected journals. The last issue of Index Medicus was printed in December 2004, but this information is offered in the freely accessible PubMed , among the more than fifteen million MEDLINE journal article references and abstracts going back to the 1960s and 1.5 million references going back to the 1950s
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National Institutes Of Health
The NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s. It is part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services with facilities mainly located in Bethesda, Maryland . It conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program (IRP) and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program. As of 2013 , the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic, translational, and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U.S., or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay , the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder , and the creation of vaccines against hepatitis , _ Haemophilus influenzae _ (HIB), and human papillomavirus (HPV)
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Web User Interface
In computing, a WEB APPLICATION or WEB APP is a client–server software application in which the client (or user interface) runs in a web browser . Common web applications include webmail , online retail sales , online auctions , wikis , instant messaging services and many other functions. CONTENTS* 1 Definition and similar terms * 1.1 Mobile web applications * 2 History * 3 Interface * 4 Structure * 5 Business use * 6 Development * 7 Applications * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEFINITION AND SIMILAR TERMSThe general distinction between a dynamic web page of any kind and a "web application" is unclear. Web sites most likely to be referred to as "web applications" are those which have similar functionality to a desktop software application, or to a mobile app . HTML5 introduced explicit language support for making applications that are loaded as web pages, but can store data locally and continue to function while offline. Single-page applications are more application-like because they reject the more typical web paradigm of moving between distinct pages with different URLs. Single-page frameworks like Sencha Touch and AngularJS might be used to speed development of such a web app for a mobile platform
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Extract
An EXTRACT is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material , often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water . Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form. The aromatic principles of many spices, nuts, herbs, fruits, etc., and some flowers, are marketed as extracts, among the best known of true extracts being almond , cinnamon , cloves , ginger , lemon , nutmeg , orange , peppermint , pistachio , rose , spearmint , vanilla , violet , and wintergreen . CONTENTS * 1 Extraction techniques * 2 Artificial extracts * 3 See also * 4 References EXTRACTION TECHNIQUESThe majority of natural essences are obtained by extracting the essential oil from the blossoms , fruit, roots, etc., or the whole plants, through four techniques: * Expression when the oil is very plentiful and easily obtained, as in lemon peel. * Absorption is generally accomplished by steeping in alcohol, as vanilla beans. * Maceration is used to create smaller bits of the whole, as in making peppermint extract, etc. * Distillation is used with maceration, but in many cases, it requires expert chemical knowledge and the erection of costly stills.The distinctive flavors of nearly all fruits, in the popular acceptance of the word, are desirable adjuncts to many food preparations, but only a few are practical sources of sufficiently concentrated flavor extract
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Complex (chemistry)
In chemistry , a COORDINATION COMPLEX consists of a central atom or ion , which is usually metallic and is called the coordination centre, and a surrounding array of bound molecules or ions, that are in turn known as ligands or complexing agents. Many metal-containing compounds , especially those of transition metals , are coordination complexes. A coordination complex whose centre is a metal atom is called a METAL COMPLEX. CONTENTS * 1 Nomenclature and terminology * 2 History * 3 Structures * 3.1 Geometry * 3.2 Isomerism * 3.2.1 Stereoisomerism * 3.2.1.1 Cis–trans isomerism and facial–meridional isomerism * 3.2.1.2 Optical isomerism * 3.2.2 Structural isomerism * 4 Electronic properties * 4.1 Color of transition metal complexes * 4.2 Colors of lanthanide complexes * 4.3 Magnetism * 4.4 Reactivity * 5 Classification * 6 Naming complexes * 7 Stability constant * 8 Application of coordination compounds * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links NOMENCLATURE AND TERMINOLOGY This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Bioactivity
In pharmacology , BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY or PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter . When a drug is a complex chemical mixture, this activity is exerted by the substance's active ingredient or pharmacophore but can be modified by the other constituents. Among the various properties of chemical compounds, pharmacological/biological activity plays a crucial role since it suggests uses of the compounds in the medical applications. However, chemical compounds may show some adverse and toxic effects which may prevent their use in medical practice. Activity is generally dosage -dependent. Further, it is common to have effects ranging from beneficial to adverse for one substance when going from low to high doses. Activity depends critically on fulfillment of the ADME criteria. To be an effective drug, a compound not only must be active against a target, but also possess the appropriate ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion) properties necessary to make it suitable for use as a drug. Whereas a material is considered bioactive if it has interaction with or effect on any cell tissue in the human body , pharmacological activity is usually taken to describe beneficial effects, i.e. the effects of drug candidates as well as a substance's toxicity
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High-throughput Screening
HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING (HTS) is a method for scientific experimentation especially used in drug discovery and relevant to the fields of biology and chemistry . Using robotics , data processing/control software, liquid handling devices, and sensitive detectors, high-throughput screening allows a researcher to quickly conduct millions of chemical, genetic, or pharmacological tests. Through this process one can rapidly identify active compounds, antibodies, or genes that modulate a particular biomolecular pathway. The results of these experiments provide starting points for drug design and for understanding the interaction or role of a particular biochemical process in biology. CONTENTS * 1 Assay plate preparation * 2 Reaction observation * 3 Automation systems * 4 Experimental design and data analysis * 4.1 Quality control * 4.2 Hit selection * 5 Techniques for increased throughput and efficiency * 5.1 Recent advances * 6 Increasing utilization of HTS in academia for biomedical research * 7 See also * 8 Further reading * 9 References * 10 External links ASSAY PLATE PREPARATION A robot arm handles an assay plate The key labware or testing vessel of HTS is the microtiter plate : a small container, usually disposable and made of plastic, that features a grid of small, open divots called _wells_. In general, modern (circa 2013) microplates for HTS have either 384, 1536, or 3456 wells
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