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PubChem is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine, which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
(NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface. Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database.[1]

Contents

1 Databases 2 Searching 3 History 4 ACS's concerns 5 Database
Database
fields 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Databases[edit] PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases. As of 1 November 2017:

Compounds, 93.9 million entries [2] (up from 54 million entries in Sept 2014), contains pure and characterized chemical compounds.[3] Substances, 236 million entries[4] (up from 163 million entries in Sept 2014[5]), contains also mixtures, extracts, complexes and uncharacterized substances. BioAssay, bioactivity results from 1.25 million[6] (up from 6000 in Sept 2014[7]) high-throughput screening programs with several million values.

Searching[edit] Searching the databases is possible for a broad range of properties including chemical structure, name fragments, chemical formula, molecular weight, XLogP, and hydrogen bond donor and acceptor count. PubChem contains its own online molecule editor with SMILES/SMARTS and InChI support that allows the import and export of all common chemical file formats to search for structures and fragments. Each hit provides information about synonyms, chemical properties, chemical structure including SMILES and InChI strings, bioactivity, and links to structurally related compounds and other NCBI databases like PubMed. In the text search form the database fields can be searched by adding the field name in square brackets to the search term. A numeric range is represented by two numbers separated by a colon. The search terms and field names are case-insensitive. Parentheses and the logical operators AND, OR, and NOT can be used. AND is assumed if no operator is used. Example (Lipinski's Rule of Five):

0:500[mw] 0:5[hbdc] 0:10[hbac] -5:5[logp]

History[edit] PubChem was released in 2004.[8] ACS's concerns[edit] The American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
has raised concerns about the publicly supported PubChem database, since it appears to directly compete with their existing Chemical Abstracts Service.[9] They have a strong interest in the issue since the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
generates a large percentage of the society's revenue. To advocate their position against the PubChem database, ACS has actively lobbied the US Congress. Soon after PubChem's creation, the American Chemical Society
American Chemical Society
lobbied U.S. Congress to restrict the operation of PubChem, which they asserted competes with their Chemical Abstracts Service.[10] Database
Database
fields[edit]

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Identification numbers

• Identification number in current database [UID]

• Substance identification number [SID]

• Compound identification number [CID]

• BioAssay identification number [BAID], [AID]

General

• Any database field [ALL]

• Comment [CMT]

• Deposition date [DDAT], [DEPDAT]

• Depositor's external ID [SRID], [SRCID]

• Source name [SRC], [SRCNAM], [SRCNAME]

• Source release date [SRD], [SRDAT], [RLSDAT]

Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) term [MSHT], [MESHT]

• MeSH tree node [MSHN], [MESHTN]

• MeSH pharmacological actions [PHMA], [PHARMA]

Substance properties

• Substance synonyms [SYNO]

IUPAC
IUPAC
name [UPAC], [IUPAC]

International Chemical Identifier
International Chemical Identifier
(InChI) [INCHI]

• Molecular weight [MW], [MWT], [MOLWT]

• Chemical elements [ELMT], [EL]

• Non-Hydrogen atoms [HAC], [HACNT]

Isotope
Isotope
count [IAC], [IACNT]

• Total formal charge [TFC], [CHG], [CHRG]

• Chiral atom count [ACC], [ACCNT]

• Defined chiral atom count [ACDC], [ACDCNT]

• Undefined chiral atom count [ACUC], [ACUCNT]

Hydrogen bond
Hydrogen bond
acceptor count [HBAC], [HBACNT]

Hydrogen bond
Hydrogen bond
donor count [HBDC], [HBDCNT]

Tautomer
Tautomer
count [TC], [TCNT], [TTMC]

• Rotatable bond count [RBC], [RBCNT]

• XLogP[11] [XLGP], [LOGP]

Compound properties

• Compound synonyms [CSYN], [CSYNO]

• Component count [CC], [CCNT]

• Covalent unit (molecule) count [CUC], [CUCNT]

• Total bioactivity count [TAC]

See also[edit]

Chemical database

CAS Common Chemistry
Chemistry
- run by the American Chemical Society Comparative Toxicogenomics Database
Database
- run by North Carolina State University ChEMBL
ChEMBL
- run by European Bioinformatics Institute ChemSpider
ChemSpider
- run by UK's Royal Society of Chemistry DrugBank - run by the University of Alberta IUPAC
IUPAC
- run by Swiss based International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) Moltable - run by India's National Chemical Laboratory PubChem - run by the National Institute of Health, USA BindingDB - run by the University of California, San Diego SCRIPDB - run by the University of Toronto, Canada National Center for Biotechnology Information
National Center for Biotechnology Information
(NCBI) - run by the National Institute of Health, USA Entrez
Entrez
- run by the National Institute of Health, USA GenBank
GenBank
- run by the National Institute of Health, USA

References[edit]

^ " PubChem Source Information". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information.  ^ "Search Results for all compounds". Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ "all[filt] - PubChem Compound Results". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "all[filt] - PubChem Substance Results". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ "all[filt] - PubChem Substance Results". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "all[filt] - PubChem BioAssay Results". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 28 January 2016.  ^ "all[filt] - PubChem BioAssay Results". The PubChem Project. USA: National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ "About PubChem". Retrieved 3 May 2014.  ^ Kaiser J (May 2005). "Science resources. Chemists want NIH to curtail database". Science. 308 (5723): 774. doi:10.1126/science.308.5723.774a. PMID 15879180.  ^ " PubChem and the American Chemical Society". Reshaping Scholarly Communication. USA: University of California.  ^ Cheng T (Nov 2007). "Computation of octanol-water partition coefficients by guiding an additive model with knowledge". Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling. 47 (6): 2140–2148. doi:10.1021/ci700257y. PMID 17985865. 

External links[edit]

Wikidata
Wikidata
has the property: PubChem IDs (P662) (see talk; uses)

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