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Pseudotsuga
See text Pseudotsuga
Pseudotsuga
/ˌsjuːdoʊˈtsuːɡə/[1] is a genus of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae
Pinaceae
(subfamily Laricoideae). Common names include Douglas fir, Douglas-fir, Douglas tree, and Oregon
Oregon
pine. Pseudotsuga menziesii
Pseudotsuga menziesii
is widespread in western North America and is an important source of timber. The number of species has long been debated, but two in western North America
North America
and two to four in eastern Asia
Asia
are commonly acknowledged.[2][3] Nineteenth-century botanists had problems in classifying Douglas-firs, due to the species' similarity to various other conifers better known at the time; they have at times been classified in Pinus, Picea, Abies, Tsuga, and even Sequoia
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Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Oaxaca
(English: /wəˈhɑːkə/ wə-HAH-kə, Spanish: [waˈxaka] ( listen), from Nahuatl
Nahuatl
languages: Huāxyacac, pronounced [waːʃˈjakak] ( listen)), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca
Oaxaca
(Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico
Mexico
City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 (almost three quarters) are governed by the system of Usos y costumbres (customs and traditions)[9] with recognized local forms of self-governance
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Sequoia Sempervirens
Sequoia sempervirens
Sequoia sempervirens
/sɪˈkɔɪ.ə sɛmpərˈvaɪrənz/[2] is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
(formerly treated in Taxodiaceae). Common names include coast redwood, coastal redwood[3] and California redwood.[4] It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200–1,800 years or more.[5] This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots) and up to 29.2 feet (8.9 m) in diameter at breast height (dbh). These trees are also among the oldest living things on Earth
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Scone Palace
Scone Palace
Scone Palace
/ˈskuːn/ is a Category A listed historic house and 5 star tourism attraction near the village of Scone and the city of Perth, Scotland. Built of red sandstone with a castellated roof, it is one of the finest examples of late Georgian Gothic style in the United Kingdom. A place steeped in history, Scone was originally the site of an early Christian
Christian
church, and later an Augustinian
Augustinian
priory. In the 12th century, Scone Priory
Scone Priory
was granted abbey status and as a result an Abbot's residence – an Abbot's Palace – was constructed. It is for this reason (Scone's status as an abbey) that the current structure retains the name "Palace"
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Washington (state)
Washington (/ˈwɒʃɪŋtən/ ( listen)), officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
region of the United States. Named after George Washington, the first president of the United States, the state was made out of the western part of the Washington Territory, which was ceded by Britain in 1846 in accordance with the Oregon Treaty
Oregon Treaty
in the settlement of the Oregon
Oregon
boundary dispute. It was admitted to the Union as the 42nd state in 1889. Olympia is the state capital. Washington is sometimes referred to as Washington State to distinguish it from Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States, which is often shortened to Washington. Washington is the 18th largest state with an area of 71,362 square miles (184,827 km2), and the 13th most populous state with over 7.4 million people
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Hyphen
؋ ​₳ ​ ฿ ​₿ ​ ₵ ​¢ ​₡ ​₢ ​ $ ​₫ ​₯ ​֏ ​ ₠ ​€ ​ ƒ ​₣ ​ ₲ ​ ₴ ​ ₭ ​ ₺ ​₾ ​ ₼ ​ℳ ​₥ ​ ₦ ​ ₧ ​₱ ​₰ ​£ ​ 元 圆 圓 ​﷼ ​៛ ​₽ ​₹ ₨ ​ ₪ ​ ৳ ​₸ ​₮ ​ ₩ ​ ¥ 円Uncommon typographyasterism ⁂fleuron, hedera ❧index, fist ☞interrobang ‽irony punctuation ⸮lozenge ◊tie ⁀RelatedDiacritics Logic symbolsWhitespace charactersIn other scriptsChinese Hebrew Japanese Korean Category Portal Bookv t eThe hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation.[1] The hyphen should not be confused with dashes (‒, –, —, ―), which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign (−), which is also longer in some contexts. As an orthographic concept, the hyphen is a single entity
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Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant and is the principal lateral appendage of the stem.[1] The leaves and stem together form the shoot.[2] Leaves are collectively referred to as foliage, as in "autumn foliage".[3][4]Diagram of a simple leaf.Apex Midvein (Primary vein) Secondary vein. Lamina. Leaf
Leaf
margin Petiole Bud StemAlthough leaves can be seen in many different shapes, sizes and textures, typically a leaf is a thin, dorsiventrally flattened organ, borne above ground and specialized for photosynthesis. In most leaves, the primary photosynthetic tissue, the palisade mesophyll, is located on the upper side of the blade or lamina of the leaf[1] but in some species, including the mature foliage of Eucalyptus,[5] palisade mesophyll is present on both sides and the leaves are said to be isobilateral
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Fascicle (botany)
In botany, a fascicle is a bundle of leaves or flowers growing crowded together; alternatively the term might refer to the vascular tissues that supply such an organ with nutrients.[1] However, vascular tissues may occur in fascicles even when the organs they supply are not fascicled. In zoology and animal anatomy the term fascicle refers to a small bundle, usually of fibres, nerves, or vessels.[2]Contents1 Etymology of fascicle and related terms 2 In pines 3 In flowering plants 4 In lower plants 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology of fascicle and related terms[edit] The term fascicle and its derived terms such as fasciculation are from the Latin fasciculus, the diminutive of fascis, a bundle.[3] Accordingly, such words occur in many forms and contexts wherever they are convenient for descriptive purposes
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Conifer Cone
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta
Pinophyta
(conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity. The name "cone" derives from the fact that the shape in some species resembles a geometric cone. The individual plates of a cone are known as scales. The male cone (microstrobilus or pollen cone) is structurally similar across all conifers, differing only in small ways (mostly in scale arrangement) from species to species. Extending out from a central axis are microsporophylls (modified leaves). Under each microsporophyll is one or several microsporangia (pollen sacs). The female cone (megastrobilus, seed cone, or ovulate cone) contains ovules which, when fertilized by pollen, become seeds
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Eucalyptus Regnans
Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
regnans, known variously as mountain ash, swamp gum, or stringy gum, is a species of Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus
native to Tasmania
Tasmania
and the state of Victoria in southeastern Australia. It is the tallest flowering plant and one of the tallest trees in the world, second to the coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). A straight-trunked tree with smooth grey bark and a stocking of rough brown bark to 5–20 metres (16–66 ft) above the ground, it regularly grows to 85 metres (279 ft), with the tallest living specimen, the Centurion, standing 99.82 metres (327.5 feet) tall in Tasmania. The white flowers appear in autumn
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Scotland
Scotland
Scotland
(/ˈskɒtlənd/; Scots: [ˈskɔtlənd]; Scottish Gaelic: Alba
Alba
[ˈal̪ˠapə] ( listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.[16][17][18] It shares a border with England
England
to the south, and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to the east and the North Channel and Irish Sea
Irish Sea
to the south-west. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands,[19] including the Northern Isles
Northern Isles
and the Hebrides. The Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
and continued to exist until 1707
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Variety (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in Latin: varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.[1] As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.[2]Contents1 Example 2 Definitions 3 Other nomenclature uses 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyExample[edit] The pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara
Escobaria vivipara
(Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade. The variety Escobaria vivipara var
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Subspecies
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.[2][3] A subspecies cannot be recognized independently. A species is either recognized as having no subspecies at all or at least two, including any that are extinct. The term is abbreviated "subsp." or "ssp."; plural: "subspecies". In zoology, under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, the subspecies is the only taxonomic rank below that of species that can receive a name. In botany and mycology, under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, other infraspecific ranks, such as variety, may be named
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Pacific
The Pacific Ocean
Ocean
is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
in the north to the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
(or, depending on definition, to Antarctica) in the south and is bounded by Asia
Asia
and Australia
Australia
in the west and the Americas
Americas
in the east. At 165,250,000 square kilometers (63,800,000 square miles) in area (as defined with an Antarctic
Antarctic
southern border), this largest division of the World Ocean—and, in turn, the hydrosphere—covers about 46% of Earth's water surface and about one-third of its total surface area, making it larger than all of Earth's land area combined.[1] Both the center of the Water Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
are in the Pacific Ocean
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