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Prophage
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Contents1 Prophage
Prophage
induction 2 Zygotic induction 3 References 4 See also Prophage
Prophage
induction[edit] Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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PubMed Identifier
PubMed
PubMed
is a free search engine accessing primarily the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine
United States National Library of Medicine
(NLM) at the National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
maintains the database as part of the Entrez
Entrez
system of information retrieval. From 1971 to 1997, MEDLINE online access to the MEDLARS Online computerized database primarily had been through institutional facilities, such as university libraries
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Circular Bacterial Chromosome
A circular bacterial chromosome is a bacterial chromosome in the form of a molecule of circular DNA. Unlike the linear DNA
DNA
of most eukaryotes, typical bacterial chromosomes are circular. Most bacterial chromosomes contain a circular DNA
DNA
molecule – there are no free ends to the DNA. Free ends would otherwise create significant challenges to cells with respect to DNA
DNA
replication and stability. Cells that do contain chromosomes with DNA
DNA
ends, or telomeres (most eukaryotes), have acquired elaborate mechanisms to overcome these challenges. However, a circular chromosome can provide other challenges for cells
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Plasmid
A plasmid is a small DNA
DNA
molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA
DNA
and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Viral Latency
Virus
Virus
latency (or viral latency) is the ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant (latent) within a cell, denoted as the lysogenic part of the viral life cycle.[1] A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. Latency is the phase in certain viruses' life cycles in which, after initial infection, proliferation of virus particles ceases. However, the viral genome is not fully eradicated
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Cell (biology)
The cell (from Latin
Latin
cella, meaning "small room"[1]) is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms. A cell is the smallest unit of life. Cells are often called the "building blocks of life"
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Lytic Cycle
The lytic cycle (/ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək), is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA
DNA
exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA
DNA
in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA
DNA
machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA
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Virulent
Virulence
Virulence
is a pathogen or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host. In the context of gene for gene systems, often in plants, virulence refers to a pathogen's ability to infect a resistant host.[1] In most other contexts, especially in animal systems, virulence refers to the degree of damage caused by a microbe to its host.[2] The pathogenicity of an organism - its ability to cause disease - is determined by its virulence factors.[3] The noun virulence derives from the adjective virulent. Virulent can describe either disease severity or a pathogen's infectivity.[4] The word virulent derives from the Latin word virulentus, meaning "a poisoned wound" or "full of poison."[4][5] In an ecological context, virulence can be defined as the host's parasite-induced loss of fitness
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Wikispecies
Wikispecies
Wikispecies
is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species; the project is directed at scientists, rather than at the general public
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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Caudovirales
Myoviridae Podoviridae SiphoviridaeThe Caudovirales
Caudovirales
are an order of viruses also known as the tailed bacteriophages (cauda is Latin for "tail").[1] Under the Baltimore classification scheme, the Caudovirales
Caudovirales
are group I viruses as they have double stranded DNA
DNA
(dsDNA) genomes, which can be anywhere from 18,000 base pairs to 500,000 base pairs in length.[2] The virus particles have a distinct shape; each virion has an icosohedral head that contains the viral genome, and is attached to a flexible tail by a connector protein.[2] The order encompasses a wide range of viruses, many of which containing genes of similar nucleotide sequence and function. Some tailed bacteriophage genomes can vary quite significantly in nucleotide sequence, however, even among the same genus
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Zygotic Induction
Zygotic induction occurs when a bacterial cell carrying the silenced DNA of a bacterial virus in its chromosome transfers the viral DNA along with its own DNA to another bacterial cell lacking the virus, causing the recipient of the DNA to break open.[1] In the donor cell, a repressor protein encoded by the prophage (viral DNA) keeps the viral genes turned off so that virus is not produced. When DNA is transferred to the recipient cell by conjugation, the viral genes in the transferred DNA are immediately turned on because the recipient cell lacks the repressor. As a result, lots of virus is made in the recipient cell, and lysis eventually occurs to release the new virus. Zygotic induction was discovered by Élie Wollman and François Jacob in 1954.[2] Historically, zygotic induction provided insight into the nature of bacterial conjugation
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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