A PROPHAGE is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid . This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell . Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host.
Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain
chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a
process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication
begins via the
Main article: Zygotic induction
If a target cell doesn't have the same prophage, upon infection by a phage the lytic pathway is immediately activated. This phenomenon is called Zygotic induction .
* ^ Krupovic M, Prangishvili D, Hendrix RW, Bamford DH (2011). "Genomics of bacterial and archaeal viruses: dynamics within the prokaryotic virosphere" . Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 75 (4): 610–635. PMC 3232739 . PMID 22126996 . doi :10.1128/MMBR.00011-11 .
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