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Predeterminism
PREDETERMINISM is the idea that all events are determined in advance. Predeterminism is the philosophy that all events of history , past, present and future, have been already decided or are already known (by God
God
, fate , or some other force), including human actions. Predeterminism is closely related to determinism . The concept of predeterminism is often argued by invoking causal determinism , implying that there is an unbroken chain of prior occurrences stretching back to the origin of the universe. In the case of predeterminism, this chain of events has been pre-established, and human actions cannot interfere with the outcomes of this pre-established chain. Predeterminism can be used to mean such pre-established causal determinism, in which case it is categorised as a specific type of determinism
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John Stuart Mill
JOHN STUART MILL (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism , he contributed widely to social theory , political theory and political economy . Dubbed "the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the nineteenth century", Mill's conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state and social control. Mill was a proponent of utilitarianism , an ethical theory developed by his predecessor Jeremy Bentham
Jeremy Bentham
, and contributed significantly to the theory of the scientific method . A member of the Liberal Party , he was also the first Member of Parliament to call for women\'s suffrage
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Henry Sidgwick
HENRY SIDGWICK (/ˈsɪdʒwɪk/ ; 31 May 1838 – 28 August 1900) was an English utilitarian philosopher and economist; he held the Knightbridge Professor of Moral Philosophy from the year 1883 until his death. He was one of the founders and first president of the Society for Psychical Research
Society for Psychical Research
and a member of the Metaphysical Society and promoted the higher education of women . His work in economics has also had a lasting influence. He also founded Newnham College in 1875, a women-only constituent college of the University of Cambridge. It was the second Cambridge college to admit women after Girton College . The co-founder of the college was Millicent Garrett Fawcett
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F. H. Bradley
FRANCIS HERBERT BRADLEY OM (30 January 1846 – 18 September 1924) was a British idealist philosopher . His most important work was Appearance and Reality (1893). CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Philosophy
Philosophy
* 3 Moral philosophy * 4 Legacy * 5 Books and publications * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links LIFEBradley was born at Clapham
Clapham
, Surrey
Surrey
, England
England
(now part of the Greater London
Greater London
area). He was the child of Charles Bradley , an evangelical preacher, and Emma Linton, Charles's second wife. A. C. Bradley was his brother. Educated at Cheltenham College and Marlborough College , he read, as a teenager, some of Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant
's Critique of Pure Reason
Critique of Pure Reason

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Randomness
RANDOMNESS is the lack of pattern or predictability in events. A random sequence of events, symbols or steps has no order and does not follow an intelligible pattern or combination. Individual random events are by definition unpredictable, but in many cases the frequency of different outcomes over a large number of events (or "trials") is predictable. For example, when throwing two dice , the outcome of any particular roll is unpredictable, but a sum of 7 will occur twice as often as 4. In this view, randomness is a measure of uncertainty of an outcome, rather than haphazardness, and applies to concepts of chance, probability , and information entropy . The fields of mathematics, probability, and statistics use formal definitions of randomness. In statistics, a random variable is an assignment of a numerical value to each possible outcome of an event space. This association facilitates the identification and the calculation of probabilities of the events
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David Hume
DAVID HUME (/ˈhjuːm/ ; born DAVID HOME; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS ) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher , historian , economist , and essayist , who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism , skepticism , and naturalism . Hume's empiricist approach to philosophy places him with John Locke
John Locke
, Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
, and Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
as a British Empiricist . Beginning with his A Treatise of Human Nature (1739), Hume strove to create a total naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature
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Thomas Hobbes
THOMAS HOBBES (/hɒbz/ ; 5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts THOMAS HOBBES OF MALMESBURY, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy . Hobbes is best known for his 1651 book Leviathan
Leviathan
, which established the social contract theory that has served as the foundation for most later Western political philosophy. In addition to political philosophy, Hobbes also contributed to a diverse array of other fields, including history , jurisprudence , geometry , the physics of gases , theology , ethics , and general philosophy
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Self-determination
The right of people to SELF-DETERMINATION is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations
United Nations
as authoritative interpretation of the Charter’s norms. It states that people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity , have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference. The concept was first expressed in the 1860s, and spread rapidly thereafter. During and after World War I, the principle was encouraged by both Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
and Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
. During World War II, the principle was included in the Atlantic Charter , signed on 14 August 1941, by Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D

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William James
WILLIAM JAMES (January 11, 1842 – August 26, 1910) was an American philosopher and psychologist who was also trained as a physician . The first educator to offer a psychology course in the United States, James was one of the leading thinkers of the late nineteenth century and is believed by many to be one of the most influential philosophers the United States has ever produced, while others have labeled him the "Father of American psychology". Along with Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce
and John Dewey
John Dewey
, James is considered to be one of the major figures associated with the philosophical school known as pragmatism , and is also cited as one of the founders of functional psychology . A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked James as the 14th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. He also developed the philosophical perspective known as radical empiricism
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Compatibilism
COMPATIBILISM is the belief that free will and determinism are compatible ideas, and that it is possible to believe in both without being logically inconsistent. Compatibilists believe freedom can be present or absent in situations for reasons that have nothing to do with metaphysics . They define free will as freedom to act according to one's motives without arbitrary hindrance from other individuals or institutions. For example, courts of law make judgments, without bringing in metaphysics, about whether an individual was acting of their own free will in specific circumstances. It is assumed in a court of law that someone could have done otherwise than they did—otherwise no crime would have been committed. Similarly, political liberty is a non-metaphysical concept. Statements of political liberty, such as the United States Bill of Rights , assume moral liberty, i.e. the ability to choose to do otherwise than one does
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Quantum Mechanics
QUANTUM MECHANICS (QM; also known as QUANTUM PHYSICS or QUANTUM THEORY), including quantum field theory , is a branch of physics which is the fundamental theory of nature at the small scales and energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles . Classical physics (the physics existing before quantum mechanics) derives from quantum mechanics as an approximation valid only at large (macroscopic ) scales. Quantum mechanics
Quantum mechanics
differs from classical physics in that: energy , momentum and other quantities are often restricted to discrete values (quantization ), objects have characteristics of both particles and waves (i.e. wave-particle duality ), and there are limits to the precision with which quantities can be known (uncertainty principle )
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Indeterminacy Principle
In quantum mechanics , the UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE, also known as HEISENBERG\'S UNCERTAINTY PRINCIPLE or HEISENBERG\'S INDETERMINACY PRINCIPLE, is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables , such as position x and momentum p, can be known. Introduced first in 1927, by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg
Werner Heisenberg
, it states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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ArXiv
The ARXIV (pronounced "archive ") is a repository of electronic preprints , known as e-prints , of scientific papers in the fields of mathematics , physics , astronomy , computer science , quantitative biology , statistics , and quantitative finance, which can be accessed online. In many fields of mathematics and physics, almost all scientific papers are self-archived on the arXiv repository. Begun on August 14, 1991, arXiv.org passed the half-million article milestone on October 3, 2008, and hit a million by the end of 2014. By 2014 the submission rate had grown to more than 8,000 per month. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Peer review * 3 Submission formats * 4 Access * 5 Copyright status of files * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORY A screenshot of the arXiv taken in 1994, using the browser NCSA Mosaic . At the time, HTML forms were a new technology
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive