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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria
Cambria
, the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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The Ocean Collective
THE OCEAN (a.k.a. The Ocean Collective) is a progressive metal band started in 2000 by German guitarist Robin Staps. The band's first stable line-up was formed by 2009 during recording sessions for Heliocentric and Anthropocentric . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Discography * 2.1 Studio albums * 2.2 Other releases * 2.3 Singles/music videos * 3 Members * 3.1 Current * 3.2 Timeline * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe Ocean was founded in 2000 by guitarist and songwriter Robin Staps. During the following two years, about 40 musicians joined and left the band until a stable line-up was established. July 2002 saw The Ocean play their first concert at Berlin's now defunct semi-legal Eimer Club. Shortly after, the band released their eponymous debut album featuring Islands/Tides, a 30-minute-long song that also constituted the substance of their early live shows. After a brief tour with Swedish crust punk outfit Coma in early 2003, the band signed to Make My Day Records, which then released Fogdiver, an EP consisting of five instrumental songs—despite the fact that on stage, at least two singers could be found. Unlike its predecessor, this recording received considerable acclaim from critics throughout a variety of genres. During winter and spring 2004, The Ocean recorded what was to become the material for their two following albums
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Precambrian (album)
PRECAMBRIAN is the third studio album by the German metal band The Ocean , released on November 5, 2007 through Metal Blade Records
Metal Blade Records
. It features several guest musicians, including Caleb Scofield ( Cave In
Cave In
, Zozobra , Old Man Gloom ), Nate Newton (Converge , Doomriders ), Dwid Hellion (Integrity ), Tomas Hallbom (Breach ), Erik Kalsbeek (Textures ) and musicians from the Berlin
Berlin
Philharmonic Orchestra . CONTENTS * 1 Development * 2 Track listing * 3 Personnel * 4 References * 5 External links DEVELOPMENTThe main concept of the album is based around the Precambrian , an early period in the formation of Earth. Hadean
Hadean
/Archaean (disc one) is heavy and raw just like their previous album Aeolian while Proterozoic (disc two) is more post-metal -influenced with the inclusion of symphonic and electronic elements like their first album Fluxion. The production of the album lasted more than six months after their tour in Europe in late 2006. All the drum tracks done by Torge Liessmann and most of the guitar tracks were recorded at Studio57, near Kokkola
Kokkola
, Finland
Finland
, where producer Jonas Olsson had also recorded and produced Callisto´s album Noir
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Cryptozoic Entertainment
CRYPTOZOIC ENTERTAINMENt is an American publisher of games, trading cards, and collectibles based on both licensed and original intellectual properties. The company is well known for publishing Epic Spell Wars of the Battle Wizards Duel at Mt. Skullzfyre, trading cards from the DC Comics
DC Comics
franchise, and the DC Comics
DC Comics
Deck-Building Game, a card game that features characters from DC Comics
DC Comics
and uses the Cerberus Engine. Cerberus is the company's proprietary deck-building system that is utilized in various games; all Cerberus games are compatible with each other, allowing gamers to intermix different decks and characters from different universes. Cryptozoic Entertainment has also produced products based on The Lord of the Rings , Attack on Titan , Ghostbusters , AMC 's The Walking Dead , Portal
Portal
, Rick and Morty , various Cartoon Network series, and other IPs. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Licensed games * 3 Original IP games * 4 Collectibles * 5 Trading cards * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYFounded in March 2010, Cryptozoic's first product was the World of Warcraft Trading Card
Trading Card
Game expansion Wrath Gate , released in May 2010. Cryptozoic produced 12 sets for the World of Warcraft Trading Card Game
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Geologic Time Scale
The GEOLOGIC TIME SCALE (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy ) to time, and is used by geologists , paleontologists , and other Earth scientists to describe the timing and relationships of events that have occurred during Earth\'s history . The table of geologic time spans, presented here, agrees with the nomenclature , dates and standard color codes set forth by the International Commission on Stratigraphy . Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that Earth is about 4.54 billion years old . The geology or _deep time _ of Earth's past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period. Different spans of time on the GTS are usually marked by changes in the composition of strata which correspond to those, and indicate major geological or paleontological events, such as mass extinctions . For example, the boundary between the Cretaceous period and the Paleogene period is defined by the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event , which marked the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and many other groups of life. Older time spans, which predate the reliable fossil record (before the Proterozoic eon ), are defined by their absolute age
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean . It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (_Arkhē_), meaning "beginning, origin". Its earliest use is from 1872, when it meant "of the earliest geological age." In earlier literature the Hadean
Hadean
Eon was included as part of the Archean. Instead of being based on stratigraphy , the beginning and end of the Archean
Archean
Eon are defined chronometrically . The eon's lower boundary or starting point of 4 Gya (4 billion years ago ) is officially recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth . The name Proterozoic comes from Greek and means "earlier life", the Greek root protero-,means "former, earlier" and zoic-, means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic . The well-identified events of this eon were the transition to an oxygenated atmosphere during the Paleoproterozoic ; several glaciations , which produced the hypothesized Snowball Earth during the Cryogenian Period in the late Neoproterozoic Era; and the Ediacaran Period (635 to 541 Ma) which is characterized by the evolution of abundant soft-bodied multicellular organisms and provides us with the first obvious fossil evidence of life on earth
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning _visible life_, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian , the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the _ Precambrian _ supereon, is now divided into the Hadean , Archaean and Proterozoic eons. The time span of the Phanerozoic starts with the rapid emergence of a number of animal phyla ; the evolution of those phyla into diverse forms; the emergence and development of complex plants ; the evolution of fish ; the emergence of insects and tetrapods ; and the development of modern fauna . Land plant life appeared in the early Phanerozoic eon. During this time span, tectonic forces caused the continents to move and eventually collect into a single landmass known as Pangaea , which then separated into the current continental landmasses
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Eoarchean
The EOARCHEAN ( /ˌiːoʊ.ɑːrˈkiːən/ ; also spelled EOARCHAEAN) is the first era of the Archean
Archean
Eon of the geologic record for which the Earth has a solid crust. It spans 400 million years from the end of the Hadean
Hadean
Eon 4 billion years ago (4000 Mya ) to the start of the Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
Era 3600 Mya. The beginnings of life on Earth have been dated to this era and evidence of cyanobacteria date to 3500 Mya, just outside this era. At that time, the atmosphere was without oxygen and the pressure values ranged from 10 to 100 bar (around 10 to 100 atmospheres). CONTENTS * 1 Chronology * 2 Geology * 3 Atmosphere * 4 Proposed subdivisions * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links CHRONOLOGYThe Eoarchean
Eoarchean
was formerly officially unnamed and informally referred to as the first part of the Early Archean
Archean
or Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
Era, both now obsolete names. The International Commission on Stratigraphy now officially recognizes the Eoarchean
Eoarchean
Era as the first part of the Archaean Eon , preceded by the Hadean
Hadean
Eon, during which the Earth is believed to have been essentially molten
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Paleoarchean
The PALEOARCHEAN ( /ˌpeɪlɪ.oʊ.ɑːrˈkiːən/ ; also spelled PALAEOARCHAEAN (formerly known as EARLY ARCHEAN)) is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon . It spans the period of time 3,600 to 3,200 million years ago —the era is defined chronometrically and not is referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth
Earth
. The name derives from Greek "Palaios" ancient. The oldest ascertained life form of fossilized bacteria in microbial mats , 3,480 million years old, found in Western Australia
Western Australia
, is from this era. The first supercontinent Vaalbara
Vaalbara
formed during this period. During this era, a large asteroid, about 37 to 58 kilometres (23–36 mi) wide, collided with the Earth
Earth
in the area of South Africa about 3.26 billion years ago, creating the features known as the Barberton greenstone belt . REFERENCES * ^ Borenstein, Seth (13 November 2013). "Oldest fossil found: Meet your microbial mom". AP News
AP News
. Retrieved 15 November 2013. * ^ Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M. (8 November 2013). "Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia". Astrobiology (journal) . 13 (12): 1103–24. PMC 3870916  . PMID 24205812 . doi :10.1089/ast.2013.1030 . Retrieved 15 November 2013
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Mesoarchean
The MESOARCHEAN ( /ˌmiːzoʊ.ɑːrˈkiː.ən/ , also spelled MESOARCHAEAN) is a geologic era within the Archean
Archean
Eon , spanning 3,200 to 2,800 million years ago . The era is defined chronometrically and is not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth. Fossils from Australia
Australia
show that stromatolites have lived on Earth since the Mesoarchean. The Pongola glaciation occurred around 2,900 million years ago . The first supercontinent Vaalbara
Vaalbara
broke up during this era about 2,800 million years ago . SEE ALSO * Geologic time scale
Geologic time scale
* Glacial period
Glacial period
* Ice age
Ice age
* Last glacial period
Last glacial period
REFERENCES * ^ Robert E. Kopp; Joseph L. Kirschvink; Isaac A. Hilburn & Cody Z. Nash (2005). "The Paleoproterozoic snowball Earth: A climate disaster triggered by the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102 (32): 11131–6. Bibcode :2005PNAS..10211131K. PMC 1183582  . PMID 16061801 . doi :10.1073/pnas.0504878102
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Neoarchean
Not to be confused with archaea , in spite of biological discussion commonly alluding to the only life forms of that era, e.g. microbes The NEOARCHEAN ( /ˌniː.oʊ.ɑːrˈkiː.ən/ ; also spelled NEOARCHAEAN) is a geologic era within the Archaean Eon . The Neoarchean spans the period from 2,800 to 2,500 million years ago —the period being defined chronometrically and not referenced to a specific level in a rock section on Earth
Earth
. CONTENTS * 1 Complex life * 2 Continental formation * 3 References * 4 External links COMPLEX LIFEDuring this era, oxygenic photosynthesis first evolved, releasing an abundance of oxygen, that first reacted with minerals and afterward was free to react with greenhouse gases of the atmosphere, leaving the Earth's surface free to radiate its energy to space. This is known as the oxygen catastrophe which was to happen later in the Paleoproterozoic from a poisonous buildup of oxygen in the atmosphere, released by these oxygen producing photoautotrophs, which evolved earlier in the Neoarchean. CONTINENTAL FORMATION THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2017)During this era, the supercontinent Kenorland formed at about 2,720 million years ago . :316 REFERENCES * ^ Bozhko, N. A. (2011). "On Two Types of Supercontinental Cyclicity". Moscow University Geology
Geology
Bulletin. 66: 313–322
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Paleoproterozoic
PALEOPROTEROZOIC ERA ( /pælioʊˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk-/ ; ) is the first of the three sub-divisions (eras ) of the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon spanning 2,500 to 1,600 million years ago (2.5–1.6 Ga ). It was during this era that the continents first stabilized. Paleontological evidence on the Earth's rotational rate gave 20 hour days ~1.8 billion years ago, implying 450 days in a year. CONTENTS * 1 Paleoatmosphere * 2 Lifeforms * 3 Geological events * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PALEOATMOSPHEREBefore the significant increase in atmospheric oxygen almost all life that existed was anaerobic, that is, the metabolism of life depended on a form of cellular respiration that did not require oxygen. Free oxygen in large amounts is toxic to most anaerobic bacteria . It is widely believed that the majority of the anaerobic life on Earth died around this time. The only life that remained was either resistant to the oxidizing and poisonous effects of oxygen, or spent its life-cycle sequestered in an oxygen-free environment. The sudden development of free oxygen and the ensuing die off of the vulnerable life forms is an event called the oxygen catastrophe . LIFEFORMSThe crown eukaryotes , from which all modern-day eukaryotic lineages have arisen, have been dated to the Paleoproterozoic era. By ~1 Ga they probably diverged from their latest common ancestors into the ciliate and flagellate lineages
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Mesoproterozoic
The MESOPROTEROZOIC ERA is a geologic era that occurred from 1,600 to 1,000 million years ago . The Mesoproterozoic was the first period of Earth's history of which a respectable geological record survives. Continents existed in the Paleoproterozoic , but we know little about them. It is noteworthy that the continental masses of the Mesoproterozoic are more or less the same ones that are with us today. CONTENTS * 1 Major events and characteristics * 2 Subdivisions * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links MAJOR EVENTS AND CHARACTERISTICSThe major events of this era are the breakup of the Columbia supercontinent , the formation of the Rodinia supercontinent , and the evolution of sexual reproduction . This era is marked by the further development of continental plates and plate tectonics . The first large-scale mountain building episode, the Grenville Orogeny , for which extensive evidence still survives, happened in this period. This era was the high point of the Stromatolites
Stromatolites
before they declined in the Neoproterozoic . The era saw the development of sexual reproduction, which greatly increased the complexity of life to come. It was the start of development of communal living among organisms, the multicellular organisms
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Neoproterozoic
The NEOPROTEROZOIC ERA is the unit of geologic time from 1,000 to 541 million years ago . It is the last era of the Precambrian Supereon and the Proterozoic Eon; it is subdivided into the Tonian , Cryogenian , and Ediacaran Periods. It is preceded by the Mesoproterozoic era and succeeded by the Paleozoic era. The most severe glaciation known in the geologic record occurred during the Cryogenian, when ice sheets reached the equator and formed a possible " Snowball Earth ". The earliest fossils of multicellular life are found in the Ediacaran , including the earliest animals . According to Rino and co-workers, the sum of the continental crust formed in the Pan-African orogen