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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest period of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale . It spans from the formation of Earth about 4.6 billion years ago (Ga ) to the beginning of the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period, about 541 million years ago (Ma ), when hard-shelled creatures first appeared in abundance
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Planetesimal
PLANETESIMALS /plænᵻˈtɛsᵻməlz/ are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks . Debris disks detected in HST archival images of young stars, HD 141943 and HD 191089, using improved imaging processes (24 April 2014). A widely accepted theory of planet formation, the so-called planetesimal hypotheses, the Chamberlin–Moulton planetesimal hypothesis and that of Viktor Safronov , states that planets form out of cosmic dust grains that collide and stick to form larger and larger bodies. When the bodies reach sizes of approximately one kilometer, then they can attract each other directly through their mutual gravity , enormously aiding further growth into moon-sized protoplanets . This is how planetesimals are often defined. Bodies that are smaller than planetesimals must rely on Brownian motion
Brownian motion
or turbulent motions in the gas to cause the collisions that can lead to sticking
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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth
Earth
, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System
Solar System
, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter
Jupiter
's satellite Io , the Moon
Moon
is second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moon
The Moon
is thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth
Earth
. There are several hypotheses for its origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moon
Moon
formed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earth
Earth
and a Mars
Mars
-sized body called Theia
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Giant Impact Hypothesis
The GIANT-IMPACT HYPOTHESIS, sometimes called the BIG SPLASH, or THE THEIA IMPACT suggests that the Moon
Moon
formed out of the debris left over from a collision between Earth and an astronomical body the size of Mars
Mars
, approximately 4.5 billion years ago, in the Hadean
Hadean
eon; about 20 to 100 million years after the solar system coalesced. The colliding body is sometimes called Theia
Theia
, from the name of the mythical Greek Titan who was the mother of Selene
Selene
, the goddess of the Moon. Analysis of lunar rocks, published in a 2016 report, suggests that the impact may have been a direct hit, causing a thorough mixing of both parent bodies. The giant-impact hypothesis is currently the favoured scientific hypothesis for the formation of the Moon. Supporting evidence includes: * Earth's spin and the Moon's orbit have similar orientations
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Mars
7006339620000000000♠3,396.2±0.1 km   0.533 Earths POLAR RADIUS 7006337620000000000♠3,376.2±0.1 km   0.531 Earths FLATTENING 6997589000000000000♠0.00589±0.00015 SURFACE AREA 7014144798500000000♠144,798,500 km2 0.284 Earths VOLUME 7020163180000000000♠1.6318×1011 km3 0.151 Earths MASS 7023641710000000000♠6.4171×1023 kg 0.107 Earths MEAN DENSITY 7000393350000000000♠3.9335±0.0004 g/cm³ SURFACE GRAVITY 7000371100000000000♠3.711 m/s² 0.376 g MOMENT OF INERTIA FACTOR 6999366200000000000♠0.3662±0.0017 ESCAPE VELOCITY 5.027 km/s SIDEREAL ROTATION PERIOD 7004886426848000000♠1.025957 d 24h 37m 22s EQUATORIAL ROTATION VELOCITY 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s) AXIAL TILT 25.19° to its orbital plane NORTH POLE RIGHT ASCENSION 21h 10m 44s 7000554458692594390♠317.68143°


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Biostratigraphy
BIOSTRATIGRAPHY is the branch of stratigraphy which focuses on correlating and assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossil assemblages contained within them. Usually the aim is correlation, demonstrating that a particular horizon in one geological section represents the same period of time as another horizon at some other section. The fossils are useful because sediments of the same age can look completely different because of local variations in the sedimentary environment . For example, one section might have been made up of clays and marls while another has more chalky limestones , but if the fossil species recorded are similar, the two sediments are likely to have been laid down at the same time. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
originated in the early 19th century, where geologists recognised that the correlation of fossil assemblages between rocks of similar type but different age decreased as the difference in age increased
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Cambria
CAMBRIA is a name for Wales
Wales
, being the Latinised form of the Welsh name for the country, Cymru. The term was not in use during the Roman period (when Wales
Wales
had not come into existence as a distinct entity). It emerged later, in the medieval period, after the Anglo-Saxon settlement of much of Britain led to a territorial distinction between the new Anglo-Saxon kingdoms (which would become England) and the remaining Celtic British kingdoms (which would become Wales). Latin being the primary language of scholarship in Western Christendom , writers needed a term to refer to the Celtic British territory and coined Cambria based on the Welsh name for it
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Ga (unit)
A YEAR is the orbital period of the Earth
Earth
moving in its orbit around the Sun
Sun
. Due to the Earth's axial tilt , the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons , marked by changes in weather , the hours of daylight , and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility . In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are generally recognized: spring , summer , autumn and winter . In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons; but in the seasonal tropics , the annual wet and dry seasons are recognized and tracked. A calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earth's orbital period as counted in a given calendar . The Gregorian, or modern, calendar , presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a leap year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars ; see below
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Zircon
ZIRCON ( /ˈzɜːrkɒn/ or /ˈzɜːrkən/ ) is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates . Its chemical name is zirconium silicate and its corresponding chemical formula is Zr SiO4 . A common empirical formula showing some of the range of substitution in zircon is (Zr1–y, REE y)(SiO4)1–x(OH)4x–y. Zircon
Zircon
forms in silicate melts with large proportions of high field strength incompatible elements . For example, hafnium is almost always present in quantities ranging from 1 to 4%. The crystal structure of zircon is tetragonal crystal system . The natural color of zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, blue, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond and are also known as "Matura diamond". The name derives from the Persian zargun meaning gold-hued. This word is corrupted into "jargoon ", a term applied to light-colored zircons
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Western Australia
WESTERN AUSTRALIA (abbreviated as WA ) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia
Australia
. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia
Australia
to the south-east. Western Australia
Australia
is Australia's largest state with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres (976,790 sq mi), and the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia
Russia
's Sakha Republic
Sakha Republic
– however, a significant part of it is sparsely populated. The state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. Ninety-two per cent of the population lives in the south-west corner of the state
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Pillow Lava
PILLOW LAVAS are lavas that contain characteristic pillow-shaped structures that are attributed to the extrusion of the lava under water, or subaqueous extrusion. Pillow lavas in volcanic rock are characterized by thick sequences of discontinuous pillow-shaped masses, commonly up to one metre in diameter. They form the upper part of 'Layer 2' of normal oceanic crust . CONTENTS * 1 Composition * 2 Occurrence * 3 Formation * 4 Use as a \'Way-up\' criterion * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links COMPOSITIONPillow lavas are commonly of basaltic composition, although pillows formed of komatiite , picrite , boninite , basaltic andesite , andesite , dacite or even rhyolite are known. In general the more intermediate the composition, the larger the pillows, due to the increase in viscosity of the erupting lava
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Plate Tectonics
PLATE TECTONICS (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the Greek : τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth
Earth
's lithosphere , over the last hundreds of millions of years. The theoretical model builds on the concept of continental drift , an idea developed during the first few decades of the 20th century. The geoscientific community accepted plate-tectonic theory after seafloor spreading was validated in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The lithosphere, which is the rigid outermost shell of a planet (the crust and upper mantle), is broken up into tectonic plates . The Earth's lithosphere is composed of seven or eight major plates (depending on how they are defined) and many minor plates
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Greenland
GREENLAND (/ˈɡriːnlənd/ ; Greenlandic : Kalaallit
Kalaallit
Nunaat ; Danish : Grønland ) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
between the Arctic
Arctic
and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago . Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America
North America
, Greenland
Greenland
has been politically and culturally associated with Europe
Europe
(specifically Norway
Norway
and Denmark, the colonial powers , as well as the nearby island of Iceland
Iceland
) for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit , whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island
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Carbon
CARBON (from Latin
Latin
: carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. It is nonmetallic and tetravalent —making four electrons available to form covalent chemical bonds . Three isotopes occur naturally, 12C and 13C being stable, while 14C is a radioactive isotope , decaying with a half-life of about 5,730 years. Carbon
Carbon
is one of the few elements known since antiquity . Carbon
Carbon
is the 15th most abundant element in the Earth\'s crust , and the fourth most abundant element in the universe by mass after hydrogen , helium , and oxygen . Carbon's abundance, its unique diversity of organic compounds , and its unusual ability to form polymers at the temperatures commonly encountered on Earth
Earth
enables this element to serve as a common element of all known life . It is the second most abundant element in the human body by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen
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International Commission On Stratigraphy
The INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON STRATIGRAPHY (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "INTERNATIONAL STRATIGRAPHIC COMMISSION" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy , geological , and geochronological matters on a global scale. It is a subordinate body of the International Union of Geological Sciences —of which it is the largest body within the organisation—and of which it is essentially a permanent working subcommittee that meets far more regularly than the quadrennial meetings scheduled by the IUGS, when it meets as a congress or membership of the whole
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Geologist
A GEOLOGIST is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth
Earth
as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology , although backgrounds in physics , chemistry , biology , and other sciences are also useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Some geologists work in the mining business searching for metals, oils, and other Earth
Earth
resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters prevention and mitigation, studying natural hazards such as earthquakes , volcanic activity, tsunamis , weather storms. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are also important contributors to climate change discussions
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