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Postal Romanization
POSTAL ROMANIZATION was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained. With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing pronunciation. Although pronunciation-based arguments were made for each option, using postal romanization to determine any form of Chinese pronunciation was limited by the fact that the system dropped all dashes, diacritics, and apostrophes, to facilitate telegraphic transmission. At a conference held in 1906 in Shanghai , the post office selected a system of romanization developed by Herbert Giles called "Nanking syllabary." Although Beijing dialect had served as a national standard since the mid-19th century, the system adopted was based on Nanjing pronunciation. The system corresponded to various traditional romanizations that were adopted in the 18th century when Nanjing dialect was considered standard. French-appointed administrators ran the post office at this time, and they sought a less anglicized alternative to Wade-Giles
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words . There exist two standardised forms of the language, namely PUTONGHUA in Mainland China
China
and GUOYU in Taiwan. Aside from a number of differences in pronunciation and vocabulary, Putonghua is written using simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(plus Hanyu Pinyin romanization for teaching), while Guoyu is written using traditional Chinese characters (plus Bopomofo for teaching). There are many characters that are identical between the two systems
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Hanyu Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China , Malaysia , Singapore , and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone (in part to make areas more English-friendly) rather than for educational and computer-input purposes. The word _Hànyǔ_ (simplified Chinese : 汉语; traditional Chinese : 漢語) means the spoken language of the Han people . _Pīnyīn_ (拼音) literally means "spelled sounds"
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Wade–giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's _Chinese–English Dictionary _ of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization
Postal Romanization
(still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan
Taiwan
implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as Chiang Ching-kuo
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Chinese Place Names
PLACE NAMES IN CHINA primarily refers to Han Chinese names, but also to those used by China\'s minorities . CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 In Chinese grammar * 3 List of class names * 4 Directions * 5 References ORIGINSSpencer (1941) views that Han Chinese place names indicate both domestic cultural and geographical influences, but rarely and cultural influence from other parts of the world. This tendency appeared to be characteristic not only of Chinese place- names in Singapore: in his study of place-names in China, J. E. Spencer notes that 'although Chinese names indicate both domestic cultural and geographical influences, they almost never indicate cultural influence from other parts of the world.77... Tibetan, Mongolian, Uighur and tribal minorities of China
China
's names are phonetically transcribed into Chinese. IN CHINESE GRAMMARNames for places in China
China
, when referred to in Chinese contain a class identifier. In English this is often translated, while the rest of the name is not. The class identifier in Chinese is placed at the end, in English with the exceptions of mountains and lakes the identifier is placed at the end too. For names of lakes and mountains "X Lake" / "Lake X" and "X Mountain" / "Mount X" both is used. Some mountain ranges like Tian Shan
Tian Shan
are referred to English by the Chinese name
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Shanghai
SHANGHAI is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million as of 2014 . It is a global financial centre and transport hub, with the world\'s busiest container port . Located in the Yangtze River Delta , it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the East China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the north, south and west, and is bounded to the east by the East China Sea . As a major administrative, shipping and trading city, Shanghai grew in importance in the 19th century due to trade and recognition of its favourable port location and economic potential. The city was one of five treaty ports forced open to foreign trade following the British victory over China in the First Opium War . The subsequent 1842 Treaty of Nanking and 1844 Treaty of Whampoa allowed the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement and the French Concession . The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between China and other parts of the world (predominantly Western countries), and became the primary financial hub of the Asia-Pacific region in the 1930s
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Herbert Giles
HERBERT ALLEN GILES (8 December 1845 – 13 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge
Cambridge
University for 35 years. Giles was educated at Charterhouse School before becoming a British diplomat in China. He modified a Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
romanisation system established by Thomas Wade , resulting in the widely known Wade–GilesChinese romanisation system. Among his many works were translations of the _Analects of Confucius _, the _Lao Tzu (Tao Te Ching) _, the _Chuang Tzu _, and, in 1892, the widely published _ A Chinese-English Dictionary_. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 Diplomatic postings * 4 Awards * 5 Written works * 6 Translations * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYHerbert A. Giles was the fourth son of John Allen Giles (1808–1884), an Anglican
Anglican
clergyman. After studying at Charterhouse , Herbert became a British diplomat to Qing China , serving from 1867 to 1892. He also spent several years (1885–1888) at Fort Santo Domingo in Tamsui
Tamsui
, northern Taiwan . He was the father of Bertram, Valentine, Lancelot, Edith, Mable, and Lionel Giles
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Beijing Dialect
The BEIJING DIALECT (simplified Chinese : 北京话; traditional Chinese : 北京話; pinyin : Běijīnghuà), also known as PEKINGESE, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
, which is the official language in the People\'s Republic of China
China
and Republic of China
China
and one of the official languages in Singapore
Singapore
. Although the Beijing
Beijing
dialect and Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
are similar, various differences generally make clear to Chinese speakers whether an individual is a native of Beijing
Beijing
speaking the local Beijing variant or is an individual speaking Standard Chinese
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Nanjing
NANJING ( listen ), formerly romanized as NANKING and NANKIN, is a city situated in the heartland of the lower Yangtze River
Yangtze River
region in China
China
, which has long been a major centre of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism. It is the capital city of Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province of People\'s Republic of China
China
and the second largest city in the east China
China
region, with acreage about 6600 square kilometers and a total population of 8,230,000. The inner area of Nanjing
Nanjing
enclosed by the city wall is Nanjing
Nanjing
City (南京城), with acreage of 55 km2, while Nanjing
Nanjing
Metropolitan Region includes surrounding cities and areas, with acreage over 60 thousand km2 and population over 30 million. Nanjing
Nanjing
has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture , having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century CE to 1949
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Wade-Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan
Taiwan
implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life. Additionally, its usage can be seen in the common English names of certain individuals and locations such as Chiang Ching-kuo
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Sir Robert Hart, 1st Baronet
SIR ROBERT HART, 1ST BARONET GCMG (20 February 1835 – 20 September 1911), was a British diplomat and official in the Imperial Chinese government, who served as the second Inspector-General of China's Imperial Maritime Custom Service (IMCS) from 1863 to 1911. According to Jung Chang , "Under Hart, Chinese Customs was transformed from an antiquated set-up, anarchical and prone to corruption, into a well-regulated modern organisation, which contributed enormously to China's economy." CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Consular Service in China * 3 Chinese customs * 4 Inspector-General * 5 Family life * 6 Archives * 7 Awards and recognition * 7.1 Honours list * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONHart was born in a little house in Dungannon Street, Portadown , County Armagh , Ulster
Ulster
, Ireland. He was the eldest of 12 children of Henry Hart (1806–1875), who worked in the distilleries, and a daughter of John Edgar of Ballybreagh. Hart's father was a "man of forceful and picturesque character, of a somewhat unique strain, and a Wesleyan to the core." At the age of 12, Hart's family moved to Milltown (near Maghery ), on the banks of the Lough Neagh , staying there for a year before moving on to Hillsborough , where he first attended school
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Thomas Francis Wade
SIR THOMAS FRANCIS WADE (/weɪd/ ; simplified Chinese : 威妥玛; traditional Chinese : 威妥瑪; pinyin : _Wēi Tuǒmǎ_; Wade–Giles : _Wei1 T'o3 Ma3_) GCMG KCB (25 August 1818 – 31 July 1895), was a British diplomat and sinologist who produced an early Chinese textbook in English, in 1867, that was later amended, extended and converted into the Wade-Giles romanization system for Mandarin Chinese by Herbert Giles in 1892. He was the first professor of Chinese at Cambridge
Cambridge
University. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Career in China * 3 Return to England * 4 Works * 4.1 List of works * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links EARLY LIFEBorn in London
London
, he was the elder son of Colonel Thomas Wade, CB, :466n of the Black Watch
Black Watch
and Anne Smythe (daughter of William Smythe) of Barbavilla , County Westmeath , Ireland
Ireland
. He was educated at the Cape, in Mauritius, at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge
Cambridge
. In 1838, his father purchased for him a commission in the 81st Foot . Exchanging (1839) into the 42nd Highlanders , he served with his regiment in the Ionian Islands , devoting his leisure to the congenial study of Italian and modern Greek
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Romanization Of Chinese
The ROMANIZATION OF CHINESE is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese . Chinese uses a logographic script , and its characters do not represent phonemes directly. There have been many systems using Roman characters to represent Chinese throughout history. Linguist Daniel Kane recalls, "It used to be said that sinologists had to be like musicians, who might compose in one key and readily transcribe into other keys." However, Hanyu Pinyin has become the international standard since 1982. Other well-known systems include Wade-Giles and Yale Romanization . There are many uses for Chinese Romanization. Most broadly, it used to provide a useful way for foreigners who are not skilled at recognizing Chinese script a means to read and recognize Chinese names. Apart from this general role, it serves as a useful tool for foreign learners of Chinese by indicating the pronunciation of unfamiliar characters. It can also be helpful for clarifying pronunciation—Chinese pronunciation is an issue for some speakers of other mutually unintelligible Chinese varieties who do not speak Mandarin fluently. Standard keyboards such as QWERTY
QWERTY
are designed for the Latin alphabet, often making the input of Chinese characters into computers difficult
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Mandarin Chinese
MANDARIN (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ (_ listen ); simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà_; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China
China
. The group includes the Beijing dialect , the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the NORTHERN DIALECTS (北方话; _běifānghuà_). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible . Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion). Mandarin is by far the largest of the seven or ten Chinese dialect groups, with 70 percent of Chinese speakers and a huge area stretching from Yunnan
Yunnan
in the southwest to Xinjiang
Xinjiang
in the northwest and Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
in the northeast. This is attributed to the greater ease of travel and communication in the North China
China
Plain compared to the more mountainous south, combined with the relatively recent spread of Mandarin to frontier areas. Most Mandarin varieties have four tones . The final stops of Middle Chinese have disappeared in most of these varieties, but some have merged them as a final glottal stop
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Pinyin
PINYIN, or HàNYǔ PīNYīN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
, Malaysia
Malaysia
, Singapore
Singapore
, and Taiwan . It is often used to teach Standard Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters
Chinese characters
. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang
Zhou Youguang
, based on earlier forms of romanization of Chinese . It was published by the Chinese government
Chinese government
in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, followed by the United Nations
United Nations
in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard i