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Postal Romanization
POSTAL ROMANIZATION was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s. The system was in common use until the 1980s. For major cities and other places that already had widely accepted European names, traditional spellings were retained. With regard to other place names, the post office revised policy several times. Spellings given could reflect the local pronunciation, Nanjing pronunciation, or Beijing
Beijing
pronunciation. Although pronunciation-based arguments were made for each option, using postal romanization to determine any form of Chinese pronunciation was limited by the fact that the system dropped all dashes, diacritics, and apostrophes, to facilitate telegraphic transmission
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Macau Government Cantonese Romanization
The MACAU GOVERNMENT CANTONESE ROMANIZATION refers to the mostly consistent system for romanizing Cantonese
Cantonese
as employed by the Government of Macau
Government of Macau
and other non-governmental organizations based in Macau
Macau
. The system has been employed by the Macau
Macau
Government since the Portuguese colonial period and continues to be used after the 1999 handover of the territory . Similarly to its counterpart romanization system in Hong Kong , the method is not completely standardized and thus is not taught in schools, but rather employed by government agencies to accurately display the correct pronunciation of Cantonese in public signage and official usage
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Traditional Chinese Characters
TRADITIONAL CHINESE CHARACTERS (traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese : 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin : Zhèngtǐzì/Fántĭzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan
Taiwan
, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Lessing-Othmer
LESSING-OTHMER is a romanisation of Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
that was once used by Germans written by F. Lessing and Dr. W. Othmer, who in 1912 printed their book "Lehrgang der nordchinesischen Umgangssprache" (Course in the North Chinese Colloquial Language) in Qingdao
Qingdao
(Chinese : 青島; pinyin : Qīngdǎo) whilst it was a German colony in 1912 through the "Deutsch-Chinesische Druckerei und Verlagsanstalt." In 1979, the State Council of the People's Republic of China for Romanisation ruled that translations of foreign-language publications should use Lessing romanisation in German-speaking countries, and Pinyin
Pinyin
in English-speaking countries. CONTENTS* 1 Table * 1.1 Initial * 1.2 Finals * 2 References TABLEThe tones romanized differently from Pinyin
Pinyin
are highlighted in blue
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Sidney Lau Romanisation
SIDNEY LAU ROMANISATION is a system of romanisation for Cantonese that was developed in the 1970s by Sidney Lau for teaching Cantonese to Hong Kong Government expatriates. It is based on the Hong Kong Government's Standard Romanisation which was the result of the work of James D. Ball and Ernst J. Eitel about a century earlier. CONTENTS * 1 Innovation * 2 Initials * 3 Finals * 4 Tones * 5 References * 6 External links INNOVATIONLau's singular creative step was to indicate tonality with superscript numbers so as to do away with diacritics entirely. His system was a plain attempt at simplification which proved popular with western learners of Cantonese
Cantonese
as a second language and was initially the system of romanisation adopted by the University of Hong Kong. However, the university now employs the Jyutping
Jyutping
system for its Cantonese
Cantonese
courses
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S. L. Wong (romanisation)
Wong Shik-Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a romanisation scheme accompanying a set of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on International Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton . CONTENTS* 1 Phonology * 1.1 Finals * 1.1.1 Vowels * 1.1.2 Falling diphthong finals * 1.1.3 Nasal phoneme finals * 1.1.4 Plosive phoneme finals * 1.1.5 Nasal consonantoids fully voiced finals * 1.2 Initials * 1.3 Tones * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links PHONOLOGYCantonese, like a number of other varieties of Chinese is monosyllabic. Each syllable is divided into initial (consonant), final (vowel and following consonant) and tone. FINALSChinese phonology traditionally stresses on finals because it is related to rhymes in the composition of poems, proses and articles. There are 53 finals in Cantonese
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S. L. Wong (phonetic Symbols)
Wong Shik Ling (also known as S. L. Wong) published a scheme of phonetic symbols for Cantonese
Cantonese
based on the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) in the book A Chinese Syllabary Pronounced according to the Dialect of Canton . The scheme has been widely used in Chinese dictionaries published in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. The scheme, known as S. L. WONG system (黃錫凌式), is a broad phonemic transcription system based on IPA and its analysis of Cantonese
Cantonese
phonemes is grounded in the theories of Y. R. Chao. Other than the phonemic transcription system, Wong also derived a romanisation scheme published in the same book. See S. L. Wong (romanisation)
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Hong Kong Government Cantonese Romanisation
The HONG KONG GOVERNMENT CANTONESE ROMANISATION (not an official name) is the more or less consistent way for romanising Cantonese proper nouns employed by the Hong Kong Government departments and many non-governmental organisations in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
. It is not known whether there are strict guidelines for the method circulating in the government, or the method has just established itself and become a common practice over time. The system has been widely used by the Hong Kong Government from the very early days of British rule , and has since gone through some changes between the two World Wars. The convention is similar to the one devised by Ernst Johann Eitel
Ernst Johann Eitel
, which is likely German -based
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Sichuanese Dialect
SICHUANESE (simplified Chinese : 四川话; traditional Chinese : 四川話; Sichuanese Pinyin
Sichuanese Pinyin
: Si4cuan1hua4; pinyin : Sìchuānhuà; Wade–Giles : Szŭ4-ch'uan1-hua4), or SICHUANESE/SZECHWANESE MANDARIN, (simplified Chinese : 四川官话; traditional Chinese : 四川官話; pinyin : Sìchuān Guānhuà) commonly known as SICHUANESE, or SZECHWANESE is a branch of
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Yue Chinese
YUE or YUEH (English: /ˈjuːeɪ/ or /juːˈeɪ/ ; Cantonese pronunciation: ) is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong
Guangdong
and Guangxi
Guangxi
, collectively known as Liangguang
Liangguang
. The name CANTONESE is often used for the whole branch, but linguists prefer to reserve that name for the variety of Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Canton), Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau
, which is the prestige dialect . Taishanese , from the coastal area of Jiangmen located southwest of Guangzhou, was the language of most of the 19th-century emigrants from Guangdong
Guangdong
to Southeast Asia and North America. Most later migrants have been speakers of Cantonese
Cantonese

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Cantonese
CANTONESE, or STANDARD CANTONESE, is a variety of the Chinese language spoken within Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(historically known as Canton) and its vicinity in southeastern China. It is the traditional prestige variety of Yue , one of the major subdivisions of Chinese. In mainland China
China
, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong
Guangdong
, being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
, and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi . It is the dominant and official language of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Wenzhounese Romanisation
Romanisation of the Wenzhou dialect of Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
, part of the greater Ōu (simplified Chinese : 瓯; traditional Chinese : 甌) grouping of Wu dialects centred on the city, refers to the use of the Latin alphabet to represent the sounds of the dialect group. CONTENTS * 1 Early romanisation * 2 Contemporary * 2.1 Rhymes * 2.2 Initials * 3 Native perspectives * 4 See also * 5 References EARLY ROMANISATIONThe first instance of Wenzhounese romanisation begins with the language documentation efforts of Christian missionaries who translated the Bible into many varieties of Chinese in both Chinese characters and in phonetic romanisation systems based largely on the Wade-Giles system. The first romanised form of Wenzhounese can be seen in an 1892 Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
translation
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Wenzhounese
WENZHOUNESE (simplified Chinese : 温州话; traditional Chinese : 溫州話; pinyin : wēnzhōuhuà), also known as OUJIANG (simplified Chinese : 瓯江话; traditional Chinese : 甌江話; pinyin : ōujiānghuà), TONG AU (simplified Chinese : 东瓯片; traditional Chinese : 東甌片; pinyin : dōngōupiàn) or AUISH (simplified Chinese : 瓯语; traditional Chinese : 甌語; pinyin : ōuyŭ), is the language spoken in Wenzhou
Wenzhou
, the southern prefecture of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, China. Nicknamed the "Devil's Language" for its complexity and difficulty, it is the most divergent division of Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
, with little to no mutual intelligibility with other Wu dialects or any other variety of Chinese . It features noticeable elements in common with Min Chinese , which is spoken to the south in Fujian
Fujian

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Wu Chinese
WU ( Shanghainese : Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
pronunciation: , Suzhou dialect : Wu Chinese pronunciation: , Wuxi dialect : Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
pronunciation: ) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole city of Shanghai
Shanghai
, Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
province and bordering areas. Major Wu varieties include those of Shanghai
Shanghai
, Suzhou , Ningbo , Wuxi , Wenzhou/Oujiang , Hangzhou
Hangzhou
, Shaoxing , Jinhua and Yongkang
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Mandarin Chinese
MANDARIN (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen ); simplified Chinese : 官话; traditional Chinese : 官話; pinyin : Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China
China
. The group includes the Beijing dialect , the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the NORTHERN DIALECTS (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible . Nevertheless, Mandarin is often placed first in any list of languages by number of native speakers (with nearly a billion)
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Efeo Chinese Transcription
TRANSCRIPTION may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Linguistics * 2 Genetics * 3 Other uses * 4 See also LINGUISTICS* Transcription (linguistics) , the representations of speech or signing in written form * Orthographic transcription , a transcription method that employs the standard spelling system of each target language * Phonetic transcription , the representation of specific speech sounds or sign components *
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