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The Kuomintang
Kuomintang
of China[6][7] (/ˈkwoʊˌmɪnˈtɑːŋ, -ˈtæŋ/,[8] KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China)[9] is a major political party in the Republic of China
Republic of China
(ROC or Taiwan). The predecessor of the KMT, the Revolutionary Alliance
Revolutionary Alliance
(Tongmenghui), was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Republic
Republic
of China. The KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
shortly after the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he later ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Later led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of China
China
in 1928, ended the chaos of Warlord Era. It was the ruling party in mainland China
China
until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
to the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
(CPC). Despite retreating to Taiwan
Taiwan
and losing most of its territory, the KMT remained an authoritarian government, which held onto China's UN seat (with considerable international support) until 1971. In Taiwan, the political reforms started in the 1990s and loosened KMT grip on power. Since 1987, the Republic of China
Republic of China
is no longer a single-party state, but the KMT remains one of the main political parties. The guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. Its party headquarters are located in Taipei. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. The previous President, Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, was the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan- Blue
Blue
Coalition, which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan
Taiwan
as political realities make a reunification of China unlikely. The KMT accepts a "One China
China
Principle"—it officially considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic
Republic
of China rather than the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus. In order to ease tensions with the PRC, since 2008 the KMT endorses the "Three Noes" policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou—no unification, no independence and no use of force.[10]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Founding and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
era 1.2 Under Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
in Mainland China 1.3 In Taiwan
Taiwan
since 1945 1.4 Current issues and challenges

1.4.1 Party assets 1.4.2 Cross-strait relations

2 Supporter base 3 Organization

3.1 Leadership

3.1.1 Chairman and Vice Chairmen 3.1.2 Secretary-General and Vice secretaries-general 3.1.3 Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
leader (Caucus leader)

3.2 Party organization and structure[36]

4 Ideology in mainland China
China
(1920s–1950s)

4.1 Chinese nationalism 4.2 New Guangxi Clique 4.3 Socialism
Socialism
and anti-capitalist agitation 4.4 Confucianism
Confucianism
and religion in ideology

4.4.1 Education

4.5 Soviet-style military

5 Parties affiliated with the Kuomintang

5.1 Malaysian Chinese Association 5.2 Tibet Improvement Party 5.3 Vietnamese Nationalist Party 5.4 Ryukyu
Ryukyu
Guomindang

6 Organizations sponsored by the Kuomintang 7 Policy on ethnic minorities 8 Stance on separatism 9 Election results

9.1 Presidential elections 9.2 Legislative elections 9.3 Local elections 9.4 National Assembly elections

10 See also 11 References

11.1 Citations 11.2 Sources

12 Further reading 13 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Kuomintang Founding and Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
era[edit]

The revolutionary army attacking Nanjing
Nanjing
in 1911

The KMT revere founder Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
as the "Father of the Nation".

The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism
Chinese nationalism
and democracy, who founded Revive China Society
Revive China Society
in Honolulu
Honolulu
in the Republic of Hawaii
Republic of Hawaii
on 24 November 1894.[11] In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
to form the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
and the establishment of a republican government. The group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China
Republic of China
on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on February 12. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall
Huguang Guild Hall
in Peking, where Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.[12] Sun, the then-President of the ROC, was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing
Huang Xing
as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy. The party opposed constitutional monarchists and sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. But Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren
Song Jiaoren
was assassinated in Shanghai
Shanghai
in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, and failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament.[13][14] Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November (whose members had largely fled into exile in Japan) and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915. While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party
Chinese Revolutionary Party
on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin
Hu Hanmin
and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. In order to join the Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Party, members must take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution. Thus, many old revolutionaries did not join Sun's new organisation, and he was largely sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China
China
in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang
Kuomintang
of China
China
(中國國民黨) and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920. In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after being denied recognition by the western powers. Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern
Comintern
– arrived in China
China
in 1923 to aid in the reorganization and consolidation of the KMT along the lines of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, establishing a Leninist
Leninist
party structure that lasted into the 1990s. The Communist Party of China (CPC) was under Comintern
Comintern
instructions to cooperate with the KMT, and its members were encouraged to join while maintaining their separate party identities, forming the First United Front
First United Front
between the two parties. Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
and early members of the CPC also joined the KMT in 1923.

Venue of the 1st National Congress of Kuomintang
1st National Congress of Kuomintang
in 1924.

Soviet advisers also helped the KMT to set up a political institute to train propagandists in mass mobilization techniques, and in 1923 Chiang Kai-shek, one of Sun's lieutenants from the Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
days, was sent to Moscow
Moscow
for several months' military and political study. At the first party congress in 1924 in Kwangchow, Kwangtung, (Guanzhou, Guangdong) which included non-KMT delegates such as members of the CPC, they adopted Sun's political theory, which included the Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
- nationalism, democracy and people's livelihood. Under Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
in Mainland China[edit]

Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
after Sun's death in 1925.

KMT flag displayed in Lhasa, Tibet in 1938.

When Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
died in 1925, the political leadership of the KMT fell to Wang Jingwei
Wang Jingwei
and Hu Hanmin, respectively the left wing and right wing leaders of the party. The real power, however, was in the hands of Chiang Kai-shek, who, as the superintendent of the Whampoa Military Academy, was in near complete control of the military. With their military superiority, KMT confirmed their rule on Canton, the provincial capital of Kwangtung. The Guangxi warlords pledged loyalty to the KMT. The KMT now became a rival government in opposition to the warlord Beiyang government
Beiyang government
based in Peking.[15] Chiang assumed leadership of the KMT on 6 July 1926. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, whom he admired greatly, and who forged all his political, economic and revolutionary ideas primarily from what he had learned in Hawaii
Hawaii
and indirectly through British Hong Kong
British Hong Kong
and Empire of Japan under Meiji Restoration, Chiang knew relatively little about the West. He also studied in Japan, but he was firmly rooted in his Chinese identity and was steeped in Chinese culture. As his life progressed, he became increasingly attached to Chinese culture
Chinese culture
and traditions. His few trips to the West confirmed his pro-Chinese outlook and he studied the Chinese classics and Chinese histories assiduously.[15] In 1924, Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
sent Chiang to spend three months in Moscow
Moscow
studying the political and military system of the Soviet Union. Chiang met Leon Trotsky and other Soviet leaders, but quickly came to the conclusion that the Soviet model of government was not suitable for China. This laid the beginning of his lifelong antagonism against communism. Chiang was also particularly committed to Sun's idea of "political tutelage". Sun believed that the only hope for a unified and better China
China
lies in a military conquest, followed by a period of political tutelage that would culminate in the transition to democracy. Using this ideology, Chiang built himself into the dictator of the Republic of China, both in the Chinese mainland
Chinese mainland
and when the national government was relocated to Taiwan.[15] Following the death of Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
emerged as the KMT leader and launched the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
to defeat the northern warlords and unite China
China
under the party. With its power confirmed in the southeast, the Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
appointed Chiang Kai-shek commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
(NRA), and the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
to suppress the warlords began. Chiang had to defeat three separate warlords and two independent armies. Chiang, with Soviet supplies, conquered the southern half of China
China
in nine months. A split, however, erupted between the Chinese Communist Party
Chinese Communist Party
and the KMT, which threatened the Northern Expedition. Wang Jing Wei, who led the KMT leftist allies took the city of Wuhan
Wuhan
in January 1927. With the support of the Soviet agent Mikhail Borodin, Wang declared the National Government as having moved to Wuhan. Having taken Nanking in March, Chiang halted his campaign and prepared a violent break with Wang and his communist allies. Chiang's expulsion of the CPC and their Soviet advisers, marked by the Shanghai
Shanghai
massacre on April 12, led to the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. Wang finally surrendered his power to Chiang. Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
ordered CPC to obey the KMT leadership.[citation needed] Once this split had been healed, Chiang resumed his Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
and managed to take Shanghai.[15]

The National Revolutionary Army
National Revolutionary Army
soldiers marched into the British concessions in Hankou
Hankou
during the Northern Expedition.

During the Nanking Incident
Nanking Incident
in March 1927, the NRA stormed the consulates of the United States, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) and Empire of Japan, looted foreign properties and almost assassinated the Japanese consul. An American, two British, one French, an Italian and a Japanese were killed.[16] These looters also stormed and seized millions of dollars worth of British concessions in Hankou, refusing to hand them back to the UK.[17] Both Nationalists and Communist soldiers within the army participated in the rioting and looting of foreign residents in Nanking.[18] NRA took Peking in 1928. The city was the internationally recognized capital, though previously controlled by warlords. This event allowed the KMT to receive widespread diplomatic recognition in the same year. The capital was moved from Peking to Nanking, the original capital of the Ming Dynasty, and thus a symbolic purge of the final Qing elements. This period of KMT rule in China
China
between 1927 and 1937 was relatively stable and prosperous and is still known as the Nanjing decade. After the Northern Expedition
Northern Expedition
in 1928, the Nationalist government under the KMT declared that China
China
had been exploited for decades under unequal treaties signed between the foreign powers and the Qing Dynasty. The KMT government demanded that the foreign powers renegotiate the treaties on equal terms.[19] Before the Northern Expedition, the KMT began as a heterogeneous group advocating American-inspired federalism and provincial autonomy. However, the KMT under Chiang's leadership aimed at establishing a centralized one-party state with one ideology. This was even more evident following Sun's elevation into a cult figure after his death. The control by one single party began the period of "political tutelage," whereby the party was to lead the government while instructing the people on how to participate in a democratic system. The topic of reorganizing the army, brought up at a military conference in 1929, sparked the Central Plains War. The cliques, some of them former warlords, demanded to retain their army and political power within their own territories. Although Chiang finally won the war, the conflicts among the cliques would have a devastating effect on the survival of the KMT. Muslim Generals in Kansu waged war against the Guominjun in favor of the KMT during the conflict in Gansu
Gansu
in 1927-1930.[20]

KMT in Tihwa, Sinkiang
Sinkiang
in 1942.

Nationalist soldiers during the Second Sino-Japanese War.

Although the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
officially broke out in 1937, Japanese aggression started in 1931 when they staged the Mukden Incident and occupied Manchuria. At the same time, the CPC had been secretly recruiting new members within the KMT government and military. Chiang was alarmed by the expansion of the communist influence. He believed that in order to fight against foreign aggression, the KMT must solve its internal conflicts first, so he started his second attempt to exterminate CPC members in 1934. With the advice from German military advisors, the KMT forced the Communists to withdraw from their bases in southern and central China into the mountains in a massive military retreat known as the Long March. Less than 10% of the communist army survived the long retreat to Shaanxi province, but they re-established their military base quickly with aid from the Soviet Union. The KMT was also known to have used terror tactics against suspected communists, through the utilization of a secret police force, who were employed to maintain surveillance on suspected communists and political opponents. In The Birth of Communist China, C.P. Fitzgerald describes China
China
under the rule of the KMT thus: "the Chinese people groaned under a regime Fascist in every quality except efficiency."[21] Zhang Xueliang, who believed that the Japanese invasion was a greater threat, was persuaded by the CPC to take Chiang hostage during the Xi'an Incident
Xi'an Incident
in 1937 and forced Chiang to agree to an alliance with them in the total war against the Japanese. However, in many situations the alliance was in name only; after a brief period of cooperation, the armies began to fight the Japanese separately, rather than as coordinated allies. Conflicts between KMT and CPC were still common during the war, and documented claims abound of CPC attacks upon the KMT forces and vice versa. While the KMT army received heavy casualties fighting the Japanese, the CPC expanded its territory by guerrilla tactics within Japanese occupied regions, leading some[who?] claims that the CPC often refused to support the KMT troops, choosing to withdraw and let the KMT troops take the brunt of Japanese attacks.[citation needed]

The retrocession of Taiwan
Taiwan
in Taipei
Taipei
on 25 October 1945.

After Japan surrendered in 1945, Taiwan
Taiwan
was returned to the Republic of China
China
on 25 October 1945. The brief period of celebration was soon shadowed by the possibility of a civil war between the KMT and CPC. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
declared war on Japan just before they surrendered and occupied Manchuria, the north eastern part of China. The Soviet Union denied the KMT army to enter the region and assisted CPC to take over the Japanese factories and supplies. Full-scale civil war between CPC and the KMT erupted in 1946. The Communist armies, People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
(PLA), previously a minor faction, grew rapidly in influence and power due to several errors on the KMT's part. First, the KMT reduced troop levels precipitously after the Japanese surrender, leaving large numbers of able-bodied, trained fighting men who became unemployed and disgruntled with the KMT as prime recruits for PLA. Second, the KMT government proved thoroughly unable to manage the economy, allowing hyperinflation to result. Among the most despised and ineffective efforts it undertook to contain inflation was the conversion to the gold standard for the national treasury and the Gold Standard Scrip in August 1948, outlawing private ownership of gold, silver and foreign exchange, collecting all such precious metals and foreign exchange from the people and issuing the Gold Standard Scrip in exchange. As most farmland in the north were under CPC's control, the cities governed by the KMT lacked food supply and this added to the hyperinflation. The new scrip became worthless in only ten months and greatly reinforced the nationwide perception of the KMT as a corrupt or at best inept entity. Third, Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
ordered his forces to defend the urbanized cities. This decision gave CPC a chance to move freely through the countryside. At first, the KMT had the edge with the aid of weapons and ammunition from the United States
United States
(US). However, with the country suffering from hyperinflation, widespread corruption and other economic ills, the KMT continued to lose popular support. Some leading officials and military leaders of the KMT hoarded material, armament and military-aid funding provided by the US. This became an issue which proved to be a hindrance of its relationship with US government. US President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
wrote that "the Chiangs, the Kungs and the Soongs (were) all thieves", having taken $750 million in US aid.[22] At the same time, the suspension of American aid and tens of thousands of deserted or decommissioned soldiers being recruited to PLA cause tipped the balance of power quickly to CPC side, and the overwhelming popular support for the CPC in most of the country made it all but impossible for the KMT forces to carry out successful assaults against the Communists. By the end of 1949, the CPC controlled almost all of mainland China, as the KMT retreated to Taiwan
Taiwan
with a significant amount of China's national treasures and 2 million people, including military forces and refugees. Some party members stayed in the mainland and broke away from the main KMT to found the Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Committee of the Kuomintang, which still currently exists as one of the eight minor registered parties of the People's Republic
Republic
of China. In Taiwan
Taiwan
since 1945[edit] See also: North–South divide in Taiwan

The former KMT headquarters in Taipei
Taipei
City (1949-2006); the imposing structure, directly facing the Presidential Building, was seen as a symbol of the party's wealth and dominance.

Wu Den-yih, the incumbent Chairperson of Kuomintang.

In 1895, Formosa (now called Taiwan), including the Penghu
Penghu
islands, became a Japanese colony via the Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
following the First Sino-Japanese War. After Japan's defeat at the end of World War II
World War II
in 1945, General Order No. 1 instructed Japan to surrender its troops in Taiwan
Taiwan
to Chiang Kai-shek. On 25 October 1945, KMT general Chen Yi acted on behalf of the Allied Powers to accept Japan's surrender and proclaimed that day as Taiwan
Taiwan
Retrocession Day. Tensions between the local Taiwanese and mainlanders from Mainland China
China
increased in the intervening years, culminating in a flashpoint on 27 February 1947 in Taipei
Taipei
when a dispute between a female cigarette vendor and an anti-smuggling officer in front of Tianma Tea House triggered civil disorder and protests that would last for days. The uprising turned bloody and was shortly put down by the ROC Army in the February 28 Incident. As a result of the February 28 Incident
February 28 Incident
in 1947, Taiwanese people endured what is called the "White Terror", a KMT-led political repression that resulted in the death or disappearance of over 30,000 Taiwanese intellectuals, activists, and people suspected of opposition to the KMT.[23] Following the establishment of the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
(PRC) on 1 October 1949, the commanders of the People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
(PLA) believed that Kinmen
Kinmen
and Matsu had to be taken before a final assault on Taiwan. The KMT fought the Battle of Guningtou
Battle of Guningtou
on 25–27 October 1949 and stopped the PLA invasion. The KMT headquarter was set up on 10 December 1949 at No. 11 Zhongshan South Road.[24] In 1950, Chiang took office in Taipei
Taipei
under the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion. The provision declared martial law in Taiwan
Taiwan
and halted some democratic processes, including presidential and parliamentary elections, until the mainland could be recovered from the CPC. The KMT estimated it would take 3 years to defeat the Communists. The slogan was "prepare in the first year, start fighting in the second, and conquer in the third year." Chiang also initiated the Project National Glory
Project National Glory
to retake back the mainland in 1965, but was eventually dropped in July 1972 after many unsuccessful attempts. However, various factors, including international pressure, are believed to have prevented the KMT from militarily engaging the CPC full-scale. The KMT backed Muslim insurgents formerly belonging to the NRA during the KMT Islamic insurgency in 1950–1958 in Mainland China. A cold war with a couple of minor military conflicts was resulted in the early years. The various government bodies previously in Nanjing, that were re-established in Taipei
Taipei
as the KMT-controlled government, actively claimed sovereignty over all China. The Republic of China
China
in Taiwan
Taiwan
retained China's seat in the United Nations until 1971. Until the 1970s, the KMT successfully pushed ahead with land reforms, developed the economy, implemented a democratic system in a lower level of the government, improved relations between Taiwan
Taiwan
and the mainland and created the Taiwan
Taiwan
economic miracle. However, the KMT controlled the government under a one-party authoritarian state until reforms in the late 1970s through the 1990s. The ROC in Taiwan
Taiwan
was once referred to synonymously with the KMT and known simply as "Nationalist China" after its ruling party. In the 1970s, the KMT began to allow for "supplemental elections" in Taiwan
Taiwan
to fill the seats of the aging representatives in the National Assembly. Although opposition parties were not permitted, Tangwai
Tangwai
(or, "outside the party") representatives were tolerated. In the 1980s, the KMT focused on transforming the government from a single-party system to a multi-party democratic one and embracing "Taiwanization". With the founding of the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
(DPP) on 28 September 1986, the KMT started competing against the DPP in Parliamentary elections. In 1991, martial law ceased when President Lee Teng-hui
Lee Teng-hui
terminated the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion. All parties started to be allowed to compete at all levels of elections, including the presidential election. Lee Teng-hui, the ROC's first democratically elected President and the leader of the KMT during the 1990s, announced his advocacy of "special state-to-state relations" with the PRC. The PRC associated this idea with Taiwan independence. The KMT faced a split in 1993 that led to the formation of the New Party in August 1993, alleged to be a result of Lee's "corruptive ruling style". The New Party has, since the purging of Lee, largely reintegrated into the KMT. A much more serious split in the party occurred as a result of the 2000 Presidential election. Upset at the choice of Lien Chan
Lien Chan
as the party's presidential nominee, former party Secretary-General James Soong
James Soong
launched an independent bid, which resulted in the expulsion of Soong and his supporters and the formation of the People First Party (PFP) on 31 March 2000. The KMT candidate placed third behind Soong in the elections. After the election, Lee's strong relationship with the opponent became apparent. In order to prevent defections to the PFP, Lien moved the party away from Lee's pro-independence policies and became more favorable toward Chinese reunification. This shift led to Lee's expulsion from the party and the formation of the Taiwan
Taiwan
Solidarity Union (TSU) by Lee supporters on 24 July 2001.

Pan-blue supporters at a rally during the 2004 presidential election.

Prior to this, the party's voters had defected to both the PFP and TSU, and the KMT did poorly in the December 2001 legislative elections and lost its position as the largest party in the Legislative Yuan. However, the party did well in the 2002 local government mayoral and council election with Ma Ying-jeou, its candidate for Taipei
Taipei
mayor, winning reelection by a landslide and its candidate for Kaohsiung mayor narrowly losing but doing surprisingly well. Since 2002, the KMT and PFP have coordinated electoral strategies. In 2004, the KMT and PFP ran a joint presidential ticket, with Lien running for president and Soong running for vice-president. The loss of the presidential election of 2004 to DPP President Chen Shui-bian by merely over 30,000 votes was a bitter disappointment to party members, leading to large scale rallies for several weeks protesting alleged electoral fraud and the "odd circumstances" of the shooting of President Chen. However, the fortunes of the party were greatly improved when the KMT did well in the legislative elections held in December 2004 by maintaining its support in southern Taiwan achieving a majority for the Pan- Blue
Blue
Coalition. Soon after the election, there appeared to be a falling out with the KMT's junior partner, the People First Party and talk of a merger seemed to have ended. This split appeared to widen in early 2005, as the leader of the PFP, James Soong
James Soong
appeared to be reconciling with President Chen Shui-Bian
Chen Shui-Bian
and the Democratic Progressive Party. Many PFP members including legislators and municipal leaders have defected to the KMT, and the PFP is seen as a fading party. In 2005, Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
became KMT chairman defeating speaker Wang Jin-pyng in the first public election for KMT chairmanship. The KMT won a decisive victory in the 3-in-1 local elections of December 2005, replacing the DPP as the largest party at the local level. This was seen as a major victory for the party ahead of legislative elections in 2007. There were elections for the two municipalities of the ROC, Taipei
Taipei
and Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
on December 2006. The KMT won a clear victory in Taipei, but lost to the DPP in the southern city of Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
by the slim margin of 1,100 votes. On 13 February 2007, Ma was indicted by the Taiwan
Taiwan
High Prosecutors Office on charges of allegedly embezzling approximately NT$11 million (US$339,000), regarding the issue of "special expenses" while he was mayor of Taipei. Shortly after the indictment, he submitted his resignation as KMT chairman at the same press conference at which he formally announced his candidacy for ROC President. Ma argued that it was customary for officials to use the special expense fund for personal expenses undertaken in the course of their official duties. In December 2007, Ma was acquitted of all charges and immediately filed suit against the prosecutors. In 2008, the KMT won a landslide victory in the Republic of China
Republic of China
Presidential Election on 22 March 2008. The KMT fielded former Taipei
Taipei
mayor and former KMT chairman Ma Ying-jeou to run against the DPP's Frank Hsieh. Ma won by a butt of 17% against Hsieh. Ma took office on 20 May 2008, with Vice-Presidential candidate Vincent Siew, and ended 8 years of the DPP presidency. The KMT also won a landslide victory in the 2008 legislative elections, winning 81 of 113 seats, or 71.7% of seats in the Legislative Yuan. These two elections gave the KMT firm control of both the executive and legislative yuans. On 25 June 2009, President Ma launched his bid to regain KMT's leadership and registered as the sole candidate for the election of the KMT chairmanship. On July 26, Ma won 93.87% of the vote, becoming the new chairman of the KMT,[25] taking office on 17 October 2009. This officially allows Ma to be able to meet with Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
and other PRC delegates, as he is able to represent the KMT as leader of a Chinese political party, rather than as head-of-state of a political entity unrecognized by the PRC.[26] On 29 November 2014, the KMT suffered a heavy loss in the local election to the DPP, winning only 6 municipalities and counties, down from 14 in the previous election in 2009 and 2010. Ma Ying-jeou subsequently resigned from the party chairmanship on 3 December and replaced by acting Chairman Wu Den-yih. Chairmanship election was held on 17 January 2015 and Eric Chu
Eric Chu
was elected to become the new chairman. He was inaugurated on 19 February.[27] Current issues and challenges[edit] Party assets[edit] As the ruling party on Taiwan, the KMT amassed a vast business empire of banks, investment companies, petrochemical firms, and television and radio stations, thought to have made it the world's richest political party, with assets once estimated to be around US$2–10 billion.[28] Although this war chest appeared to help the KMT until the mid-1990s, it later led to accusations of corruption (often referred to as "black gold"). After 2000, the KMT's financial holdings appeared to be more of a liability than a benefit, and the KMT started to divest itself of its assets. However, the transactions were not disclosed and the whereabouts of the money earned from selling assets (if it has gone anywhere) is unknown. There were accusations in the 2004 presidential election that the KMT retained assets that were illegally acquired. During the 2000-2008 DPP presidency, a law was proposed by the DPP in the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
to recover illegally acquired party assets and return them to the government. However, due to the DPP's lack of control of the legislative chamber at the time, it never materialised. The KMT also acknowledged that part of its assets were acquired through extra-legal means and thus promised to "retro-endow" them to the government. However, the quantity of the assets which should be classified as illegal are still under heated debate. DPP, in its capacity as ruling party from 2000–2008, claimed that there is much more that the KMT has yet to acknowledge. Also, the KMT actively sold assets under its title in order to quench its recent financial difficulties, which the DPP argues is illegal. Former KMT Chairman Ma Ying-Jeou's position is that the KMT will sell some of its properties at below market rates rather than return them to the government and that the details of these transactions will not be publicly disclosed.

Kuomintang
Kuomintang
public service centre, Shilin, Taipei

In 2006, the KMT sold its headquarters at 11 Zhongshan South Road in Taipei
Taipei
to Evergreen Group
Evergreen Group
for NT$2.3 billion (US$96 million). The KMT moved into a smaller building on Bade Road in the eastern part of the city.[29] In July 2014, the KMT reported total assets of NT$26.8 billion (US$892.4 million) and interest earnings of NT$981.52 million for the year of 2013, making it one of the richest political parties in the world.[30] In August 2016, the Ill-gotten Party Assets Settlement Committee
Ill-gotten Party Assets Settlement Committee
is set up by the ruling DPP government to investigate KMT party assets acquired during the martial law period and recover those that were determined to be illegally acquired.[31] Cross-strait relations[edit] In December 2003, then-KMT chairman (present chairman emeritus) and presidential candidate Lien Chan
Lien Chan
initiated what appeared to some to be a major shift in the party's position on the linked questions of Chinese reunification
Chinese reunification
and Taiwan
Taiwan
independence. Speaking to foreign journalists, Lien said that while the KMT was opposed to "immediate independence", it did not wish to be classed as "pro-reunificationist" either. At the same time, Wang Jin-pyng, speaker of the Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
and the Pan- Blue
Blue
Coalition's campaign manager in the 2004 presidential election, said that the party no longer opposed Taiwan's "eventual independence". This statement was later clarified as meaning that the KMT opposes any immediate decision on unification and independence and would like to have this issue resolved by future generations. The KMT's position on the cross-strait relations was redefined as hoping to remain in the current neither-independent-nor-united situation. However, there had been a warming of relations between the Pan-Blue Coalition and the PRC, with prominent members of both the KMT and PFP in active discussions with officials on the mainland. In February 2004, it appeared that KMT had opened a campaign office for the Lien-Soong ticket in Shanghai
Shanghai
targeting Taiwanese businessmen. However, after an adverse reaction in Taiwan, the KMT quickly declared that the office was opened without official knowledge or authorization. In addition, the PRC issued a statement forbidding open campaigning in the mainland and formally stated that it had no preference as to which candidate won and cared only about the positions of the winning candidate. In 2005, then-party chairman Lien Chan
Lien Chan
announced that he was to leave his office. The two leading contenders for the position included Ma Ying-jeou and Wang Jin-pyng. On 5 April 2005, Taipei
Taipei
Mayor Ma Ying-jeou said he wished to lead the opposition KMT with Wang Jin-pyng. On 16 July 2005, Ma was elected as KMT Chairman in the first contested leadership in KMT's 93-year history. Some 54% of the party's 1.04 million members cast their ballots. Ma garnered 72.4% of vote share, or 375,056 votes, against Wang's 27.6%, or 143,268 votes. After failing to convince Wang to stay on as a vice chairman, Ma named holdovers Wu Po-hsiung, Chiang Pin-kung
Chiang Pin-kung
and Lin Cheng-chi (林澄枝), as well as long-time party administrator and strategist John Kuan as vice-chairmen. All appointments were approved by a hand count of party delegates.

Lien Chan
Lien Chan
[middle] and Wu Po-hsiung
Wu Po-hsiung
[second left] and the KMT touring the Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Mausoleum in Nanjing, the People's Republic
Republic
of China. The Pan- Blue
Blue
coalition visited the mainland in 2005.

On 28 March 2005, thirty members of the KMT, led by Vice Chairman Chiang Pin-kung, arrived in mainland China. This marked the first official visit by the KMT to the mainland since it was defeated by communist forces in 1949 (although KMT members including Chiang had made individual visits in the past). The delegates began their itinerary by paying homage to the revolutionary martyrs of the Tenth Uprising at Huanghuagang. They subsequently flew to the former ROC capital of Nanjing
Nanjing
to commemorate Sun Yat-sen. During the trip, the KMT signed a 10-points agreement with the CPC. The opponents regarded this visit as the prelude of the third KMT-CPC cooperation, after the First and Second United Front. Weeks afterwards, in May 2005, Chairman Lien Chan
Lien Chan
visited the mainland and met with Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China. This marked the first meeting between leaders of the KMT and CPC after the end of Chinese Civil War in 1949. No agreements were signed because incumbent Chen Shui-bian's government threatened to prosecute the KMT delegation for treason and violation of ROC laws prohibiting citizens from collaborating with CPC. Supporter base[edit] Support for the KMT in Taiwan
Taiwan
encompasses a wide range of groups. KMT support tends to be higher in northern Taiwan
Taiwan
and in urban areas, where it draws its backing from big businesses due to its policy of maintaining commercial links with mainland China. The KMT also has strong support in the labor sector because of the many labor benefits and insurance implemented while the KMT was in power. The KMT traditionally has strong cooperation with military officers, teachers, and government workers. Among the ethnic groups in Taiwan, the KMT has solid support among mainlanders and their descendants, for ideological reasons, and among Taiwanese aboriginals. The deep-rooted hostility between Aboriginals and (Taiwanese) Hoklo, and the Aboriginal communities effective KMT networks, contribute to Aboriginal skepticism towards the Democratic Progressive Party
Democratic Progressive Party
(DPP) and the Aboriginals' tendency to vote for the KMT.[32] Aboriginals have criticized politicians for abusing the "indigenization" movement for political gains, such as aboriginal opposition to the DPP's "rectification" by recognizing the Taroko for political reasons, with the majority of mountain townships voting for Ma Ying-jeou.[33] In 2005 the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
displayed a massive photo of the anti-Japanese Aboriginal leader Mona Rudao
Mona Rudao
at its headquarters in honor of the 60th anniversary of Taiwan's retrocession from Japan to the Republic
Republic
of China.[34] Traditional opponents of the KMT included strong supporters of Taiwan independence and rural residents, particularly in southern Taiwan. For social issues, the KMT does not take an official position on same-sex marriage, though opposition to same-sex marriage comes mostly from Christian groups, who wield significant political influence especially within the KMT.[35] Organization[edit]

KMT headquarters in Taipei
Taipei
City. In June 2006, the KMT Central Committee moved to Bade building, a much more modest building, and has sold the original headquarters to private investors of the EVA Airways Corporation.

KMT Kinmen
Kinmen
headquarters office in Jincheng Township, Kinmen
Kinmen
County.

KMT Building in Vancouver's Chinatown, BC, Canada.

KMT branch office in Pingzhen District, Taoyuan City.

The KMT maintains offices in some of the Chinatowns of the world. Its United States
United States
party headquarters are located in San Francisco Chinatown, on Stockton Street directly across the Chinese Six Companies.

KMT Eastern U.S. headquarters is in New York Chinatown.

KMT office of Australasia
Australasia
in Sydney, Australia.

Leadership[edit] The Kuomintang's constitution designated Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
as party president. After his death, the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
opted to keep that language in its constitution to honor his memory forever. The party has since been headed by a director-general (1927–1975) and a chairman (since 1975), positions which officially discharge the functions of the president. Chairman and Vice Chairmen[edit] Main article: List of leaders of the Kuomintang

Chairman

Current Chairman: Wu Den-yih
Wu Den-yih
(since 20 August 2017)

Vice chairpersons

Current Vice Chairpersons: Hau Lung-pin, Tseng Yung-chuan
Tseng Yung-chuan
(since 20 August 2017)

Secretary-General and Vice secretaries-general[edit] Main article: List of Secretaries-General of the Kuomintang

Secretary-General

Current Secretary-General: Tseng Yung-chuan
Tseng Yung-chuan
[曾永權] (since 20 August 2017)

Vice Secretaries-General

Current Vice Secretaries-General: Tu Chien-te [杜建德], Lin Te-fu [林德福]

Legislative Yuan
Legislative Yuan
leader (Caucus leader)[edit]

Hong Yuh-chin [洪玉欽] (1 February 1999 – 1 February 2004) Tseng Yung-chuan
Tseng Yung-chuan
(1 February 2004 – 1 December 2008) Lin Yi-shih (1 December 2008 – 1 February 2012) Lin Hung-chih
Lin Hung-chih
(1 February 2012 – 31 July 2014) Alex Fai [費鴻泰] (31 July 2014 – 7 February 2015) Lai Shyh-bao
Lai Shyh-bao
(7 February 2015 – 7 July 2016) Liao Kuo-tung
Liao Kuo-tung
(7 July 2016 – 29 June 2017) Lin Te-fu (since 29 June 2017)

Party organization and structure[36][edit]

National Congress

Party Chairman

Vice-Chairmen

Central Committee

Central Steering Committee for Women

Central Standing Committee Secretary-General

Deputy Secretaries-General

Executive Director

Policy Committee

Policy Coordination Department Policy Research Department Mainland Affairs Department

National Development Institute

Administrative Division Research Division Education and Counselling Division

Party Disciplinary Committee

Evaluation and Control Office Audit Office

Culture and Communications Committee

Cultural Department Communications Department KMT Party History Institute

Administration Committee

Personnel Office General Office Finance Office Accounting Office Information Center

Organizational Development Committee

Organization and Operations Department Elections Mobilization Department Community Volunteers Department Overseas Department Youth Department Women's Department

Ideology in mainland China
China
(1920s–1950s)[edit] Chinese nationalism[edit] KMT was a nationalist revolutionary party, which had been supported by the Soviet Union. It was organized on the Leninist
Leninist
principle of organisation, democratic centralism.[37] KMT had several influences upon its ideology by revolutionary thinking. KMT and Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
used the words feudal and counterrevolutionary as synonyms for evil and backwardness, and proudly proclaimed themselves to be revolutionary.[38][39] Chiang called the warlords feudalists, and called for feudalism and counterrevolutionaries to be stamped out by KMT.[40][41][42][43] Chiang showed extreme rage when he was called a warlord, because of its negative, feudal connotations.[44] Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
was forced to defend himself against the accusations, and stated to the news media that his army was a part of "National army, people's power".[45] Chiang Kai-shek, the head of KMT, warned the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and other foreign countries about interfering in Chinese affairs. He was personally angry at the way China
China
was treated by foreigners, mainly by the Soviet Union, Britain, and the United States.[41][46] He and his New Life Movement
New Life Movement
called for the crushing of Soviet, Western, American and other foreign influences in China. Chen Lifu, a CC Clique member in the KMT, said " Communism
Communism
originated from Soviet imperialism, which has encroached on our country." It was also noted that "the white bear of the North Pole is known for its viciousness and cruelty."[43] The Blue
Blue
Shirts Society, a fascist paramilitary organization within KMT modeled after Mussolini's blackshirts, was anti-foreign and anticommunist, and stated that its agenda was to expel foreign (Japanese and Western) imperialists from China, crush Communism, and eliminate feudalism.[47] In addition to being anticommunist, some KMT members, like Chiang Kai-shek's right-hand man Dai Li
Dai Li
were anti-American, and wanted to expel American influence.[48] KMT leaders across China
China
adopted nationalist rhetoric. The Chinese Muslim general Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
of Qinghai
Qinghai
presented himself as a Chinese nationalist to the people of China, fighting against British imperialism, to deflect criticism by opponents that his government was feudal and oppressed minorities like Tibetans and Buddhist Mongols. He used his Chinese nationalist credentials to his advantage to keep himself in power.[49][50] KMT pursued a sinicization policy, it was stated that "the time had come to set about the business of making all natives either turn Chinese or get out" by foreign observers of KMT policy. It was noted that "Chinese colonization" of " Mongolia
Mongolia
and Manchuria" led "to a conviction that the day of the barbarian was finally over."[51][52][53] New Guangxi Clique[edit] KMT branch in Guangxi province, led by the New Guangxi Clique of Bai Chongxi and Li Zongren, implemented anti-imperialist, anti-religious, and anti-foreign policies. During the Northern Expedition, in 1926 in Guangxi, Muslim General Bai Chongxi
Bai Chongxi
led his troops in destroying most of the Buddhist temples and smashing idols, turning the temples into schools and KMT headquarters. Bai led an anti-foreign wave in Guangxi, attacking American, European, and other foreigners and missionaries, and generally making the province unsafe for non-natives. Westerners fled from the province, and some Chinese Christians were also attacked as imperialist agents.[54] The leaders clashed with Chiang Kai-shek, which led to the Central Plains War where Chiang defeated the clique. Socialism
Socialism
and anti-capitalist agitation[edit] Main articles: Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang
Socialist ideology of the Kuomintang
and Canton Merchant Volunteers Corps Uprising KMT had a left wing and a right wing, the left being more radical in its pro-Soviet policies, but both wings equally persecuted merchants, accusing them of being counterrevolutionaries and reactionaries. The right wing under Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
prevailed, and continued radical policies against private merchants and industrialists, even as they denounced communism.[citation needed] One of the Three Principles of the People
Three Principles of the People
of KMT, Mínshēng, was defined as socialism by Dr. Sun Yat-sen. He defined this principle of saying in his last days "it's socialism and it's communism.". The concept may be understood as social welfare as well. Sun understood it as an industrial economy and equality of land holdings for the Chinese peasant farmers. Here he was influenced by the American thinker Henry George (see Georgism) and German thinker Karl Marx; the land value tax in Taiwan
Taiwan
is a legacy thereof. He divided livelihood into four areas: food, clothing, housing, and transportation; and planned out how an ideal (Chinese) government can take care of these for its people.[citation needed] KMT was referred to having a socialist ideology. "Equalization of land rights" was a clause included by Dr. Sun in the original Tongmenhui. KMT's revolutionary ideology in the 1920s incorporated unique Chinese Socialism
Socialism
as part of its ideology.[55] The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
trained KMT revolutionaries in the Moscow
Moscow
Sun Yat-sen University. In the West and in the Soviet Union, Chiang was known as the "Red General".[56] Movie theaters in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
showed newsreels and clips of Chiang, at Moscow
Moscow
Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
University Portraits of Chiang were hung on the walls, and in the Soviet May Day Parades that year, Chiang's portrait was to be carried along with the portraits of Karl Marx, Lenin, Stalin, and other socialist leaders.[57] KMT attempted to levy taxes upon merchants in Canton, and the merchants resisted by raising an army, the Merchant's volunteer corps. Dr. Sun initiated this anti-merchant policy, and Chiang Kai-shek enforced it, Chiang led his army of Whampoa Military Academy
Whampoa Military Academy
graduates to defeat the merchant's army. Chiang was assisted by Soviet advisors, who supplied him with weapons, while the merchants were supplied with weapons from the Western countries.[58][59] KMT were accused of leading a "Red Revolution" in Canton. The merchants were conservative and reactionary, and their Volunteer Corp leader Chen Lianbao was a prominent comprador trader.[58] The merchants were supported by the foreign, western Imperialists such as the British, who led an international flotilla to support them against Dr. Sun.[59] Chiang seized the western supplied weapons from the merchants, and battled against them. A KMT General executed several merchants, and KMT formed a Soviet inspired Revolutionary Committee.[60] The British Communist party congratulated Dr. Sun for his war against foreign imperialists and capitalists.[61] In 1948, KMT again attacked the merchants of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek sent his son Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
to restore economic order. Ching-kuo copied Soviet methods, which he learned during his stay there, to start a social revolution by attacking middle-class merchants. He also enforced low prices on all goods to raise support from the proletariat.[62] As riots broke out and savings were ruined, bankrupting shopowners, Ching-kuo began to attack the wealthy, seizing assets and placing them under arrest. The son of the gangster Du Yuesheng
Du Yuesheng
was arrested by him. Ching-kuo ordered KMT agents to raid the Yangtze Development Corporation's warehouses, which was privately owned by H.H. Kung
H.H. Kung
and his family. H.H. Kung's wife was Soong Ai-ling, the sister of Soong Mei-ling who was Ching-kuo's stepmother. H.H. Kung's son David was arrested, the Kung's responded by blackmailing the Chiang's, threatening to release information about them, eventually he was freed after negotiations, and Ching-kuo resigned, ending the terror on the Shanghainese merchants.[63] KMT also promotes government-owned corporations. KMT founder Sun Yat-sen, was heavily influenced by the economic ideas of Henry George, who believed that the rents extracted from natural monopolies or the usage of land belonged to the public. Dr. Sun argued for Georgism
Georgism
and emphasized the importance of a mixed economy, which he termed "The Principle of Minsheng" in his Three Principles of the People. "The railroads, public utilities, canals, and forests should be nationalized, and all income from the land and mines should be in the hands of the State. With this money in hand, the State can therefore finance the social welfare programs."[64] KMT Muslim Governor of Ningxia, Ma Hongkui
Ma Hongkui
promoted state-owned monopolies. His government had a company, Fu Ning Company, which had a monopoly over commerce and industry in Ningxia.[65] Corporations such as CSBC Corporation, Taiwan, CPC Corporation, Taiwan and Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation
Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation
are owned by the state in the Republic
Republic
of China. Marxists also existed in KMT. They viewed the Chinese revolution in different terms than the CPC, claiming that China
China
already went past its feudal stage and in a stagnation period rather than in another mode of production. These Marxists in KMT opposed the CPC ideology.[66] Confucianism
Confucianism
and religion in ideology[edit]

KMT members pay tribute to the Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
Mausoleum in Beijing
Beijing
in 1928 after the success of the Northern Expedition. From right to left, are Generals Cheng Jin, Zhang Zuobao, Chen Diaoyuan, Chiang Kai-shek, Woo Tsin-hang, Yan Xishan, General Ma Fuxiang, Ma Sida, and General Bai Chongxi.

KMT used traditional Chinese religious ceremonies, the souls of Party martyrs who died fighting for KMT and the revolution and the party founder Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
were sent to heaven according to KMT. Chiang Kai-shek believed that these martyrs witnessed events on earth from heaven.[67][68][69][70] The KMT backed the New Life Movement, which promoted Confucianism, and it was also against westernization. KMT leaders also opposed the May Fourth Movement. Chiang Kai-shek, as a nationalist, and Confucianist, was against the iconoclasm of the May Fourth Movement. He viewed some western ideas as foreign, as a Chinese nationalist, and that the introduction of western ideas and literature that the May Fourth Movement wanted was not welcome. He and Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Sun Yat-sen
criticized these May Fourth intellectuals for corrupting morals of youth.[71] KMT also incorporated Confucianism
Confucianism
in its jurisprudence. It pardoned Shi Jianqiao
Shi Jianqiao
for murdering Sun Chuanfang, because she did it in revenge since Sun executed her father Shi Congbin, which was an example of Filial piety
Filial piety
to one's parents in Confucianism.[72] KMT encouraged filial revenge killings and extended pardons to those who performed them.[73] Education[edit] KMT purged China's education system of western ideas, introducing Confucianism
Confucianism
into the curriculum. Education came under the total control of state, which meant, in effect, the KMT, via the Ministry of Education. Military and political classes on KMT's Three Principles of the People were added. Textbooks, exams, degrees and educational instructors were all controlled by the state, as were all universities.[74] Soviet-style military[edit] Chiang Ching-kuo, appointed as KMT director of Secret Police in 1950, was educated in the Soviet Union, and initiated Soviet style military organization in the Republic of China
Republic of China
Military, reorganizing and Sovietizing the political officer corps, surveillance, and KMT activities were propagated throughout the military. Opposed to this was Sun Li-jen, who was educated at the American Virginia Military Institute.[75] Chiang Ching-kuo
Chiang Ching-kuo
then arrested Sun Li-jen, charging him of conspiring with the American CIA
CIA
of plotting to overthrow Chiang Kai-shek and KMT, Sun was placed under house arrest in 1955.[76][77] Parties affiliated with the Kuomintang[edit] Malaysian Chinese Association[edit]

Malaysian Chinese Association

The Malaysian Chinese Association
Malaysian Chinese Association
(MCA) was initially pro-ROC and mainly consisted of KMT members who joined as an alternative and were also in opposition to the Malayan Communist Party, supporting the KMT in China
China
by funding them with the intention of reclaiming the Chinese mainland from the communists.[78] Tibet Improvement Party[edit] Main article: Tibet Improvement Party The Tibet Improvement Party
Tibet Improvement Party
was founded by Pandatsang Rapga, a pro-ROC and pro-KMT Khampa revolutionary, who worked against the 14th Dalai Lama's Tibetan Government in Lhasa. Rapga borrowed Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People doctrine and translated his political theories into the Tibetan language, hailing it as the best hope for Asian peoples against imperialism. Rapga stated that "the Sanmin Zhuyi was intended for all peoples under the domination of foreigners, for all those who had been deprived of the rights of man. But it was conceived especially for the Asians. It is for this reason that I translated it. At that time, a lot of new ideas were spreading in Tibet", during an interview in 1975 by Dr. Heather Stoddard.[79] He wanted to destroy the feudal government in Lhasa, in addition to modernizing and secularizing Tibetan society. The ultimate goal of the party was the overthrow of the Dalai Lama's regime, and the creation of a Tibetan Republic
Republic
which would be an autonomous Republic
Republic
within the ROC.[80] Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
and the KMT funded the party and their efforts to build an army to battle the Dalai Lama's government.[81] KMT was extensively involved in the Kham
Kham
region, recruiting the Khampa people to both oppose the Dalai Lama's Tibetan government, fight the Communist Red Army, and crush the influence of local Chinese warlords who did not obey the central government. Vietnamese Nationalist Party[edit] Main article: Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang

Vietnamese Kuomintang

KMT assisted the Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang
Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang
party, which translates literally into Chinese as Yuenan Kuomintang
Kuomintang
(越南國民黨), meaning "Vietnamese Nationalist Party".[82][83] When it was established, it was based on the Chinese KMT and was pro Chinese.[84][85] The Chinese KMT helped the party, known as the VNQDD, set up headquarters in Canton and Yunnan, to aid their anti imperialist struggle against the French occupiers of Indo China
Indo China
and against the Vietnamese Communist Party. It was the first revolutionary nationalist party to be established in Vietnam, before the communist party. The KMT assisted VNQDD with funds and military training. The VNQDD was founded with KMT aid in 1925, they were against Ho Chi Minh's Viet Nam Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Youth League.[86] When the VNQDD fled to China
China
after the failed uprising against the French, they settled in Yunnan and Canton, in two different branches.[87][88] The VNQDD existed as a party in exile in China
China
for 15 years, receiving help, militarily and financially, and organizationally from the Chinese KMT.[89] The two VNQDD parties merged into a single organization, the Canton branch removed the word "revolutionary" from the party name. Lu Han, a KMT official in Nanjing, who was originally from Yunnan, was contacted by the VNQDD, and the KMT Central Executive Committee and Military made direct contact with VNQDD for the first time, the party was reestablished in Nanjing
Nanjing
with KMT help.[86] The Chinese KMT used the VNQDD for its own interests in south China and Indo China. General Zhang Fakui
Zhang Fakui
(Chang Fa-kuei), who based himself in Guangxi, established the Viet Nam Cach Menh Dong Minh Hoi meaning "Viet Nam Revolutionary
Revolutionary
League" in 1942, which was assisted by the VNQDD to serve the KMT's aims. The Chinese Yunnan provincial army, under the KMT, occupied northern Vietnam after the Japanese surrender in 1945, the VNQDD tagging alone, opposing Ho Chi Minh's communist party.[90] The Viet Nam Revolutionary
Revolutionary
League was a union of various Vietnamese nationalist groups, run by the pro Chinese VNQDD. Its stated goal was for unity with China
China
under the Three Principles of the People, created by KMT founder Dr. Sun and opposition to Japanese and French Imperialists.[91][92] The Revolutionary
Revolutionary
League was controlled by Nguyen Hai Than, who was born in China
China
and could not speak Vietnamese. General Zhang shrewdly blocked the Communists of Vietnam, and Ho Chi Minh
Ho Chi Minh
from entering the league, as his main goal was Chinese influence in Indo China.[93] The KMT utilized these Vietnamese nationalists during World War II
World War II
against Japanese forces.[94] A KMT left winger, General Chang Fa-kuei worked with Nguyen Hai Than, a VNQDD member, against French Imperialists and Communists in Indo China.[95] General Chang Fa-kuei planned to lead a Chinese army invasion of Tonkin
Tonkin
in Indochina to free Vietnam from French control, and to get Chiang Kai-shek's support.[96] The VNQDD opposed the government of Ngo Dinh Diem
Ngo Dinh Diem
during the Vietnam War.[97] Ryukyu
Ryukyu
Guomindang[edit] On 30 November 1958 the establishment of the Ryukyu
Ryukyu
Guomindang took place. Tsugumasa Kiyuna headed its predecessor party, the Ryukyuan separatist Ryukyu
Ryukyu
Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Party which was backed by the Kuomintang
Kuomintang
in Taiwan.[98] Organizations sponsored by the Kuomintang[edit]

Taipei
Taipei
Grand Mosque

Ma Fuxiang
Ma Fuxiang
founded Islamic organizations sponsored by KMT, including the China
China
Islamic Association (中國回教公會).[99] KMT Muslim General Bai Chongxi
Bai Chongxi
was Chairman of the Chinese Islamic National Salvation Federation.[100] The Muslim Chengda school and Yuehua publication were supported by the Nationalist Government, and they supported KMT.[101] The Chinese Muslim Association
Chinese Muslim Association
was also sponsored by KMT, and it evacuated from the mainland to Taiwan
Taiwan
with the party. The Chinese Muslim Association owns the Taipei
Taipei
Grand Mosque which was built with funds from KMT.[102] The Yihewani (Ikhwan al Muslimun a.k.a. Muslim brotherhood) was the predominant Muslim sect backed by KMT. Other Muslim sects, like the Xidaotang
Xidaotang
were also supported by the KMT. The Chinese Muslim brotherhood became a Chinese nationalist organization and supported KMT rule. Brotherhood Imams like Hu Songshan
Hu Songshan
ordered Muslims to pray for the Nationalist Government, salute KMT flags during prayer, and listen to nationalist sermons. Policy on ethnic minorities[edit] KMT considers all minorities to be members of the Chinese Nation. Former KMT leader Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
considered all the minority peoples of China, including the Hui, as descendants of Yellow Emperor, the Yellow Emperor
Yellow Emperor
and semi mythical founder of the Chinese nation. Chiang considered all the minorities to belong to the Chinese Nation Zhonghua Minzu and he introduced this into KMT ideology, which was propagated into the educational system of the Republic
Republic
of China, and the Constitution of the ROC considered Chiang's ideology to be true.[103][104][105] In Taiwan, the President performs a ritual honoring the Yellow Emperor, while facing west, in the direction of the Chinese mainland.[106] KMT kept the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission
Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission
for dealing with Mongolian And Tibetan affairs. A Muslim, Ma Fuxiang, was appointed as its Chairman.[107] KMT was known for sponsoring Muslim students to study abroad at Muslim universities like Al Azhar
Al Azhar
and it established schools especially for Muslims, Muslim KMT warlords like Ma Fuxiang
Ma Fuxiang
promoted education for Muslims.[108] KMT Muslim Warlord
Warlord
Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
built a girls' school for Muslim girls in Linxia City
Linxia City
which taught modern secular education.[109] Tibetans and Mongols refused to allow other ethnic groups like Kazakhs to participate in the Kokonur ceremony in Qinghai, but the KMT Muslim General Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
allowed them to participate.[110] Chinese Muslims were among the most hardline KMT members. Ma Chengxiang was a Muslim and a KMT member, and refused to surrender to the Communists.[111][112] KMT incited anti Yan Xishan
Yan Xishan
and Feng Yuxiang
Feng Yuxiang
sentiments among Chinese Muslims and Mongols, encouraging for them to topple their rule during the Central Plains War.[113] Masud Sabri, a Uyghur was appointed as Governor of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
by KMT, as was the Tatar
Tatar
Burhan Shahidi
Burhan Shahidi
and the Uyghur Yulbars Khan.[114] The Muslim General Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
also put KMT symbols on his mansion, the Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
Mansion along with a portrait of party founder Dr. Sun Yatsen arranged with KMT flag and the Republic of China
Republic of China
flag. General Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
and other high ranking Muslim Generals attended the Kokonuur Lake
Kokonuur Lake
Ceremony where the God of the Lake was worshipped, and during the ritual, the Chinese national anthem was sung, all participants bowed to a Portrait of KMT founder Dr. Sun Yat-sen, and the God of the Lake was also bowed to, and offerings were given to him by the participants, which included the Muslims.[115] This cult of personality around KMT leader and KMT was standard in all meetings. Sun Yat-sen's portrait was bowed to three times by KMT party members.[116] Dr. Sun's portrait was arranged with two flags crossed under, the KMT flag and the flag of the Republic
Republic
of China. KMT also hosted conferences of important Muslims like Bai Chongxi, Ma Fuxiang, and Ma Liang. Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
stressed "racial harmony" as a goal when he was Governor of Qinghai.[117] In 1939 Isa Yusuf Alptekin
Isa Yusuf Alptekin
and Ma Fuliang were sent on a mission by KMT to the Middle Eastern countries such as Egypt, Turkey
Turkey
and Syria
Syria
to gain support for the Chinese War against Japan, they also visited Afghanistan in 1940 and contacted Muhammad Amin Bughra, they asked him to come to Chongqing, the capital of the Nationalist Government. Bughra was arrested by the British in 1942 for spying, and KMT arranged for Bughra's release. He and Isa Yusuf worked as editors of KMT Muslim publications.[118] Ma Tianying (馬天英) (1900–1982) led the 1939 mission which had 5 other people including Isa and Fuliang.[119] Stance on separatism[edit] KMT is anti-separatist; during its rule on mainland China, it crushed Uyghur and Tibetan separatist uprisings. KMT claims sovereignty over Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tuva
Tuva
as well as the territories of the modern People's Republic
Republic
and Republic
Republic
of China.[citation needed] KMT Muslim General Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
waged war on the invading Tibetans during the Sino-Tibetan War
Sino-Tibetan War
with his Muslim army, and he repeatedly crushed Tibetan revolts during bloody battles in Qinghai
Qinghai
provinces. Ma Bufang was fully supported by President Chiang Kai-shek, who ordered him to prepare his Muslim army to invade Tibet several times and threatened aerial bombardment on the Tibetans. With support from KMT, Ma Bufang repeatedly attacked the Tibetan area of Golog
Golog
seven times during the KMT Pacification of Qinghai, eliminating thousands of Tibetans.[120] General Ma Fuxiang, the chairman of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission stated that Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet were an integral part of the Republic
Republic
of China.

Our party (KMT) takes the development of the weak and small and resistance to the strong and violent as our sole and most urgent task. This is even more true for those groups which are not of our kind [Ch. fei wo zulei zhe]. Now the people of Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet are closely related to us, and we have great affection for one another: our common existence and common honor already have a history of over a thousand years.... Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet's life and death are China's life and death. China
China
absolutely cannot cause Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet to break away from China's territory, and Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet cannot reject China
China
to become independent. At this time, there is not a single nation on earth except China
China
that will sincerely develop Mongolia
Mongolia
and Tibet.[121]

Under orders from Nationalist Government
Nationalist Government
of Chiang Kai-shek, the Hui General Ma Bufang, Governor of Qinghai
Qinghai
(1937–1949), repaired Yushu airport to prevent Tibetan separatists from seeking independence.[citation needed] Ma Bufang
Ma Bufang
also crushed Mongol separatist movements, abducting the Genghis Khan Shrine and attacking Tibetan Buddhist Temples like Labrang, and keeping a tight control over them through the Kokonur God ceremony.[115][122] During the Kumul Rebellion, KMT 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) crushed a separatist Uyghur First East Turkestan Republic, delivering it a fatal blow at the Battle of Kashgar (1934). The Muslim General Ma Hushan pledged allegiance to KMT and crushed another Uyghur revolt at Charkhlik Revolt.[citation needed] During the Ili Rebellion, KMT fought against Uyghur separatists and the Soviet Union, and against Mongolia.[citation needed] Election results[edit] Presidential elections[edit]

Election Candidate Running mate Total votes Share of votes Outcome

1996 Lee Teng-hui Lien Chan 5,813,699 54.0% Elected Y

2000 Lien Chan Vincent Siew 2,925,513 23.1% Defeated N

2004 Lien Chan James Soong
James Soong
(PFP) 6,423,906 49.8% Defeated N

2008 Ma Ying-jeou Vincent Siew 7,658,724 58.4% Elected Y

2012 Ma Ying-jeou Wu Den-yih 6,891,139 51.6% Elected Y

2016 Eric Chu Wang Ju-hsuan
Wang Ju-hsuan
( Ind.) 3,813,365 31.0% Defeated N

Legislative elections[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Government/Opposition Seat changes Election leader

1992

95 / 161

5,030,725 53.0% Majority government 7 seats Lee Teng-hui

1995

85 / 164

4,349,089 46.1% Majority government 12 seats Lee Teng-hui

1998

123 / 225

4,659,679 46.4% Majority government 7 seats (adjusted) Lee Teng-hui

2001

68 / 225

2,949,371 31.3% Opposition 46 seats Lien Chan

2004

79 / 225

3,190,081 34.9% Opposition 11 seats Lien Chan

2008

81 / 113

5,291,512 53.5% Majority government 41 seats (adjusted) Wu Po-hsiung

2012

64 / 113

5,863,379 44.5% Majority government 17 seats Ma Ying-jeou

2016

35 / 113

3,280,949 26.9% Opposition 29 seats Eric Chu

Local elections[edit]

Election Mayors & Magistrates Councils Third-level Municipal heads Third-level Municipal councils Fourth-level Village heads Election Leader

1994 province-level only

2 / 3

91 / 175

N/A N/A N/A Lee Teng-hui

1997-1998

8 / 23

522 / 886

236 / 319

N/A N/A Lee Teng-hui

1998 municipalities only

1 / 2

48 / 96

N/A N/A N/A Lee Teng-hui

2001-2002

9 / 23

382 / 897

195 / 319

N/A N/A Lien Chan

2002 municipalities only

1 / 2

32 / 96

N/A N/A N/A Lien Chan

2005

14 / 23

408 / 901

173 / 319

N/A N/A Ma Ying-jeou

2006 municipalities only

1 / 2

41 / 96

N/A N/A N/A Ma Ying-jeou

2009

12 / 17

289 / 587

121 / 211

N/A N/A Ma Ying-jeou

2010 municipalities only

3 / 5

130 / 314

N/A N/A

1,195 / 3,757

Ma Ying-jeou

2014 unified

6 / 22

291 / 906

54 / 204

194 / 2,137

390 / 7,836

Ma Ying-jeou

National Assembly elections[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader

1991

254 / 325

6,053,366 69.1% 186 seats Lee Teng-hui

1996

183 / 334

5,180,829 49.7% 71 seats Lee Teng-hui

2005

117 / 300

1,508,384 38.92% 66 seats Lien Chan

See also[edit]

Conservatism
Conservatism
portal Taiwan
Taiwan
portal China
China
portal Politics portal

Whampoa Military Academy Conservatism
Conservatism
in Taiwan National Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Army Nationalist government History of the Republic
Republic
of China Politics of the Republic
Republic
of China Military of the Republic
Republic
of China Elections in Taiwan Administrative divisions of the Republic
Republic
of China Political status of Taiwan History of the Kuomintang
History of the Kuomintang
cultural policy Index of Taiwan-related articles Outline of Taiwan Revolutionary
Revolutionary
Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang New Kuomintang
Kuomintang
Alliance Campaign at the China–Burma border Kuomintang Islamic insurgency in China
China
(1950–58) Joseph Stilwell February 28 Incident White Terror (Taiwan)

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of China. Harvard University Press. p. 462. ISBN 978-0-674-02616-2. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ David D. Wang (1999). Under the Soviet Shadow: The Yining Incident: Ethnic Conflicts and International Rivalry in Xinjiang, 1944–1949. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. p. 577. ISBN 978-962-201-831-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-415-58264-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang, 1911–1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 376. ISBN 978-0-521-25514-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ a b Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's Edge: History and the Politics of National Unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 51. ISBN 978-0-7425-1144-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Jonathan Fenby (2005). Chiang Kai Shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf Publishers. p. 325. ISBN 978-0-7867-1484-1. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Nihon Gaiji Kyōkai (1942). Chiang Contemporary Japan: A Review of Japanese affairs, Volume 11. The Foreign Affairs Association of Japan. p. 1626. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Hsiao-ting Lin (2010). Modern China's Ethnic Frontiers: A Journey to the West. Taylor & Francis. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-415-58264-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Aliya Ma Lynn (2007). Muslims in China. University Press. p. 45. ISBN 978-0-88093-861-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Uradyn Erden Bulag (2002). Dilemmas The Mongols at China's Edge: History and the Politics of National Unity. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-7425-1144-6. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Jonathan Neaman Lipman (2004). Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China. Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-295-97644-0. Retrieved 2010-06-28.  ^ Paul Kocot Nietupski (1999). Labrang: a Tibetan Buddhist Monastery at the Crossroads of Four Civilizations. Snow Lion Publications. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-55939-090-3. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 

Sources[edit]

Bergere, Marie-Claire; Lloyd, Janet (2000). Sun Yat-sen. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4011-1.  Strand, David (2002). "Chapter 2: Citizens in the Audience and at the Podium". In Goldman, Merle; Perry, Elizabeth. Changing Meanings of Citizenship in Modern China. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-00766-6.  Roy, Denny (2003). Taiwan: A Political History. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8805-4. 

Further reading[edit]

John F. Copper. The KMT Returns to Power: Elections in Taiwan, 2008 to 2012 (Lexington Books; 2013) 251 pages; A study of how Taiwan's Nationalist Party regained power after losing in 2000 Chris Taylor, "Taiwan's Seismic shift", Asian Wall Street Journal, 4 February 2004 (not available online)

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