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Porridge

Porridge[1] (historically also spelled porage, porrige, or parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavorings such as sugar, honey, (dried) fruit or syrup to make a sweet cereal, or it can be mixed with spices, meat or vegetables to make a savoury dish. It is usually served hot in a bowl, depending on its consistency. Oat porridge, or oatmeal, is one of the most common types of porridge
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Scotland

The head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952). The monarchy of the United Kingdom continues to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to pre-union Scotland, including: the Royal Standard of Scotland, the Royal coat of arms used in Scotland together with its associated Royal Standard, royal titles including that of Duke of Rothesay, certain Great Officers of State, the chivalric Order of the Thistle and, since 1999, reinstating a ceremonial role for the Crown of Scotland after a 292-year hiatus.[191] Elizabeth II's regnal numbering caused controversy in 1953 because there had never been an Elizabeth I in Scotland
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Niacin

Corn (maize) became a staple food in the southeast United States and in parts of Europe. A disease that was characterized by dermatitis of sunlight-exposed skin was described in Spain in 1735 by Gaspar Casal. He attributed the cause tCorn (maize) became a staple food in the southeast United States and in parts of Europe. A disease that was characterized by dermatitis of sunlight-exposed skin was described in Spain in 1735 by Gaspar Casal. He attributed the cause to poor diet.[98] In northern Italy it was named "pellagra" from the Lombard language (agra = holly-like or serum-like; pell = skin).[99][100] In time, the disease was more closely linked specifically to corn.[101] In the US, Joseph Goldberger was assigned to study pellagra by the Surgeon General of the United States
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Dietary Fiber

Dietary fiber (British spelling fibre) or roughage is the portion of plant-derived food that cannot be completely broken down by human digestive enzymes.[1] It has two main components:[2]



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Fat

The hydrogenation process, invented and patented by Wilhelm Normann in 1902, made it possible to turn relatively cheap liquid fats such as whale or fish oil into more solid fats and to extend their shelf-life by preventing rancidification. (The source fat and the process were initially kept secret to avoid consumer distaste.[118]) This process was widely adopted by the food industry already in the early 1900s; first for the production of margarine, a replacement for butter and shortening,[119] and eventually for various other fats used in snack food, packaged baked goods, and deep fried products.[120][121] Full hydrogenation of a fat or oil produces a fully saturated fat
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