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Polysaccharide
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Examples include storage polysaccharides such as starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Depending on the structure, these macromolecules can have distinct properties from their monosaccharide building blocks
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Rice
Rice
Rice
is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa
Oryza sativa
(Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima
Oryza glaberrima
(African rice). As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia
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Amorphous
In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal. In some older books, the term has been used synonymously with glass. Nowadays, "glassy solid" or "amorphous solid" is considered to be the overarching concept, and glass the more special case: A glass is an amorphous solid that exhibits a glass transition.[1] Polymers are often amorphous. Other types of amorphous solids include gels, thin films, and nanostructured materials such as glass.Amorphous metals have low toughness, but high strengthAmorphous materials have an internal structure made of interconnected structural blocks
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Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum
Solanum
tuberosum. Potato
Potato
may be applied to both the plant and the edible tuber.[2] Potatoes have become a staple food in many parts of the world and an integral part of much of the world's food supply. Potatoes are the world's fourth-largest food crop, following maize (corn), wheat, and rice.[3] The green leaves and green skins of tubers exposed to the light are toxic. In the Andes, where the species is indigenous, some other closely related species are cultivated. Potatoes were introduced to Europe in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish
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Short-chain Fatty Acid
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs),[1] are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.[2] Free SCFAs can cross the blood-brain barrier via monocarboxylate transporters.[3][4]Contents1 List of SCFAs 2 Applications2.1 Dietary relevance 2.2 Medical relevance3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingList of SCFAs[edit] Lipid
Lipid
number Name Salt/Ester Name Formula Mass (g/mol) DiagramCommon Systematic Common Systematic Molecular StructuralC1:0 Formic acid Methanoic acid Formate Methanoate CH2O2 HCOOH 46.03
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Cholesterol
Cholesterol
Cholesterol
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule. It is a sterol (or modified steroid),[4] a type of lipid molecule, and is biosynthesized by all animal cells, because it is an essential structural component of all animal cell membranes and is essential to maintain both membrane structural integrity and fluidity. Cholesterol
Cholesterol
allows animal cells to function without a cell wall (which in other species protects membrane integrity and cell viability); this allows animal cells to change shape rapidly. In addition to its importance for animal cell structure, cholesterol also serves as a precursor for the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acid[5] and vitamin D. Cholesterol
Cholesterol
is the principal sterol synthesized by all animals
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Bile Acids
Bile
Bile
acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates. Different molecular forms of bile acids can be synthesized in the liver by different species.[1] Bile
Bile
acids are conjugated with taurine or glycine in the liver, and the sodium and potassium salts of these conjugated bile acids are called bile salts.[2][3][4] Primary bile acids are those synthesized by the liver. Secondary bile acids result from bacterial actions in the colon
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Gastrointestinal Tract
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces. The mouth, esophagus, stomach, and intestines are part of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the stomach and intestines. A tract is a collection of related anatomic structures or a series of connected body organs. All bilaterians have a gastrointestinal tract, also called a gut or an alimentary canal. This is a tube that transfers food to the organs of digestion.[1] In large bilaterians, the gastrointestinal tract generally also has an exit, the anus, by which the animal disposes of feces (solid wastes)
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Termite
Cratomastotermitidae Mastotermitidae Termopsidae Archotermopsidae Hodotermitidae Stolotermitidae Kalotermitidae Archeorhinotermitidae Stylotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae TermitidaeTermites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea. Termites were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches, but recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic. However, the first termites possibly emerged during the Permian
Permian
or even the Carboniferous. About 3,106 species are currently described, with a few hundred more left to be described
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Surgical Thread
Surgical suture
Surgical suture
is a medical device used to hold body tissues together after an injury or surgery. Application generally involves using a needle with an attached length of thread. A number of different shapes, sizes, and thread materials have been developed over its millennia of history. Surgeons, physicians, dentists, podiatrists, eye doctors, registered nurses and other trained nursing personnel, medics, and clinical pharmacists typically engage in suturing. Surgical knots are used to secure the sutures.Contents1 Needles 2 Thread2.1 Materials 2.2 Absorbability 2.3 Sizes3 Techniques3.1 Placement 3.2 Stitching Interval and spacing 3.3 Layers 3.4 Removal 3.5 Expansions4 Tissue adhesives 5 History 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksNeedles[edit] Eyed or reusable needles are needles with holes called eyes which are supplied separate from their suture thread. The suture must be threaded on site, as is done when sewing at home
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Arthropod
Condylipoda Latreille, 1802An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,[1][3] which includes insects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans. The term Arthropoda as originally proposed refers to a proposed grouping of Euarthropods and the phylum Onychophora. Arthropods are characterized by their jointed limbs and cuticle made of chitin, often mineralised with calcium carbonate. The arthropod body plan consists of segments, each with a pair of appendages. The rigid cuticle inhibits growth, so arthropods replace it periodically by moulting. Their versatility has enabled them to become the most species-rich members of all ecological guilds in most environments
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Nitrogen
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal
in 1790, when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates
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Organic Molecule
An organic compound is virtually any chemical compound that contains carbon, although a consensus definition remains elusive and likely arbitrary.[1] However, the traditional definition used by most chemists is limited to compounds containing a carbon-hydrogen bond. Organic compounds are rare terrestrially, but of central importance because all known life is based on organic compounds
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Function (biology)
A biological function is the reason some object or process occurred in a system that evolved through natural selection. That reason is typically that it achieves some result, such as that chlorophyll helps to capture the energy of sunlight in photosynthesis. Hence, the organism that contains it is more likely to survive and reproduce, in other words the function increases the organism's fitness. A characteristic that assists in evolution is called an adaptation; other characteristics may be non-functional spandrels, though these in turn may later be co-opted by evolution to serve new functions. In the philosophy of biology, talk of function inevitably suggests some kind of teleological purpose, even though natural selection operates without any goal for the future
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Insoluble
Solubility
Solubility
is the property of a solid, liquid, or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid, or gaseous solvent. The solubility of a substance fundamentally depends on the physical and chemical properties of the solute and solvent as well as on temperature, pressure and the pH of the solution. The extent of the solubility of a substance in a specific solvent is measured as the saturation concentration, where adding more solute does not increase the concentration of the solution and begins to precipitate the excess amount of solute. Most often, the solvent is a liquid, which can be a pure substance or a mixture
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Viscose
Viscose
Viscose
is a semi-synthetic fiber. "Viscose" can mean:A viscous solution of cellulose, which can be made into rayon or cellophane A synonym for rayon A specific term for viscose rayon—rayon made using the viscose (cellulose xanthate) processThe viscose process dissolves pulp with aqueous sodium hydroxide in the presence of carbon disulfide. This viscous solution bears the name viscose. The cellulose solution is used to spin the viscose rayon fiber, which may also be called viscose. Viscose
Viscose
rayon fiber is a soft fiber commonly used in dresses, linings, shirts, shorts, coats, jackets, and other outerwear
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