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Pollinator
A pollinator is an animal that moves pollen from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma of a flower. This helps to bring about fertilization of the ovules in the flower by the male gametes from the pollen grains. Insect pollinators include bees, (honey bees, solitary species, bumblebees); pollen wasps (Masarinae); ants; flies including bee flies, hoverflies and mosquitoes; lepidopterans, both butterflies and moths; and flower beetles. Vertebrates, mainly bats and birds, but also some non-bat mammals (monkeys, lemurs, possums, rodents) and some lizards pollinate certain plants
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Euglossini
Aglae Euglossa Eulaema Eufriesea ExaereteDiversityc. 200 speciesThe tribe Euglossini, in the subfamily Apinae, commonly known as orchid bees or Euglossine bees, are the only group of corbiculate bees whose non-parasitic members do not all possess eusocial behavior.Contents1 Description1.1 Fragrance collection2 Footnotes2.1 References3 External linksDescription[edit]Male Euglossa
Euglossa
sp.Most of the tribe's species are solitary, though a few are communal, or exhibit simple forms of eusociality.[1] There are about 200 described species, distributed in five genera: Euglossa, Eulaema, Eufriesea, Exaerete
Exaerete
and the monotypic Aglae. All exclusively occur in South or Central America (though one species, Euglossa
Euglossa
dilemma, has become established in the United States)
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Odor
An odor, odour or fragrance is caused by one or more volatilized chemical compounds, generally at a very low concentration, that humans or other animals perceive by the sense of olfaction. Odors are also commonly called scents, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors. The terms fragrance and aroma are used primarily by the food and cosmetic industry to describe a pleasant odor, and are sometimes used to refer to perfumes, and to describe floral scent. In contrast, malodor, stench, reek, and stink are used specifically to describe unpleasant odor. The term smell (in its noun form) is used for both pleasant and unpleasant odors. In the United Kingdom, odour refers to scents in general
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Monkey
HominoideaMonkeys are non-hominoid simians, generally possessing tails and consisting of about 260 known living species. Many monkey species are tree-dwelling (arboreal), although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Most species are also active during the day (diurnal). Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent, particularly Old World monkeys. There are two major types of monkey: New World monkeys (platyrrhines) from South and Central America and Old World monkeys
Old World monkeys
(catarrhines of the superfamily Cercopithecoidea) from Africa and Asia
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Phalangeriformes
PhalangeroideaBurramyidae PhalangeridaePetauroideaPseudocheiridae Petauridae Tarsipedidae Acrobatidae Phalangeriformes
Phalangeriformes
is a suborder of any of about 70 small- to medium-sized arboreal marsupial species native to Australia, New Guinea, and Sulawesi
Sulawesi
(and introduced to New Zealand
New Zealand
and China). The suborder includes animals commonly known as possums, gliders, and cuscus. The common name "possum" for various Phalangeriformes
Phalangeriformes
species derives from the creatures' resemblance to the opossums of the Americas
Americas
(the term comes from Powhatan
Powhatan
language aposoum "white animal", from Proto-Algonquian *wa·p-aʔɬemwa "white dog")
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Rodent
Anomaluromorpha Castorimorpha Hystricomorpha
Hystricomorpha
(incl. Caviomorpha) Myomorpha SciuromorphaCombined range of all rodent species (not including introduced populations)Rodents (from Latin
Latin
rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents; they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica
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Lizard
Sauria
Sauria
Macartney, 1802Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species,[1] ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains. The group is paraphyletic as it excludes the snakes and Amphisbaenia
Amphisbaenia
which are also squamates. Lizards range in size from chameleons and geckos a few centimeters long to the 3 meter long Komodo dragon. Most lizards are quadrupedal, running with a strong side-to-side motion. Others are legless, and have long snake-like bodies. Some such as the forest-dwelling Draco lizards are able to glide
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Honeyeaters
See textThe honeyeaters are a large and diverse family, Meliphagidae, of small to medium-sized birds. The family includes the Australian chats, myzomelas, friarbirds, wattlebirds, miners and melidectes. They are most common in Australia
Australia
and New Guinea, but also found in New Zealand, the Pacific
Pacific
islands as far east as Samoa
Samoa
and Tonga, and the islands to the north and west of New Guinea
New Guinea
known as Wallacea
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Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet
(UV) is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 100 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer
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Lipotriches
In biology, Lipotriches
Lipotriches
is a large genus of sweat bees in the family Halictidae, distributed widely throughout the Eastern Hemisphere though absent from Europe. There are nearly 200 species in 9 subgenera
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Mosquito
Mosquitoes[a] are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae. Females of most species are ectoparasites, whose tube-like mouthparts (called a proboscis) pierce the hosts' skin to consume blood. The word "mosquito" (formed by mosca and diminutive -ito)[2] is Spanish for "little fly".[3] Thousands of species feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even some kinds of fish. Some mosquitoes also attack invertebrates, mainly other arthropods. Though the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim, the saliva of the mosquito often causes an irritating rash that is a serious nuisance. Much more serious though, are the roles of many species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases
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Electrostatic
Electrostatics
Electrostatics
is a branch of physics that deals with study of the electric charges at rest. Since classical physics, it has been known that some materials such as amber attract lightweight particles after rubbing. The Greek word for amber, ήλεκτρον, or electron, was the source of the word 'electricity'. Electrostatic phenomena arise from the forces that electric charges exert on each other. Such forces are described by Coulomb's law
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Scopa (biology)
A scopa (plural scopae; Latin for "broom") is any of a number of different modifications on the body of a non-parasitic bee that form a pollen-carrying apparatus. In most bees, the scopa is simply a particularly dense mass of elongated, often branched, hairs (or setae) on the hind leg. When present on the hind legs, the modified hairs are, at a minimum, on the tibia, but some bees also have modified hairs on the femur and/or trochanter. A few bees have, in addition to the leg hairs, many modified hairs on the ventral surface of the abdomen which are also used in pollen transport; there is one family of bees, Megachilidae, in which the modified leg hairs are absent, and the scopa is limited to the abdominal hairs (see photo). In the familiar honey bees and bumblebees, the scopa is replaced by the pollen basket (corbicula)
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Megachilidae
Fideliinae MegachilinaeA leaf-cutter bee showing abdominal scopaLeaves showing cuts by a leafcutter bee Megachilidae
Megachilidae
is a cosmopolitan family of mostly solitary bees whose pollen-carrying structure (called a scopa) is restricted to the ventral surface of the abdomen (rather than mostly or exclusively on the hind legs as in other bee families). Megachilid genera are most commonly known as mason bees and leafcutter bees, reflecting the materials from which they build their nest cells (soil or leaves, respectively); a few collect plant or animal hairs and fibers, and are called carder bees, while others use plant resins in nest construction and are correspondingly called resin bees. All species feed on nectar and pollen, but a few are cleptoparasites (informally called "cuckoo bees"), feeding on pollen collected by other megachilid bees. Parasitic species do not possess scopae
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Seta
In biology, setae /ˈsiːtiː/ (singular seta /ˈsiːtə/; from the Latin word for "bristle") are any of a number of different bristle- or hair-like structures on living organisms. Animal setae[edit] Invertebrates[edit]Setae on the foreleg of a mayfly Annelid
Annelid
setae are stiff bristles present on the body. They help, for example, earthworms to attach to the surface and prevent backsliding during peristaltic motion. These hairs make it difficult to pull a worm straight from the ground
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Honey Bee
A honey bee (or honeybee) is any member of the genus Apis, primarily distinguished by the production and storage of honey and the construction of perennial, colonial nests from wax. In the early 21st century, only seven species of honey bee are recognized, with a total of 44 subspecies,[1] though historically six to eleven species are recognized. The best known honey bee is the Western honey bee
Western honey bee
which has been domesticated for honey production and crop pollination. Honey bees represent only a small fraction of the roughly 20,000 known species of bees.[2] Some other types of related bees produce and store honey, including the stingless honey bees, but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees
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