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Polishing
Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.)[1] In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values. When an unpolished surface is magnified thousands of times, it usually looks like mountains and valleys
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Tumble Finishing
Tumble finishing, also known as tumbling or rumbling,[1] is a technique for smoothing and polishing a rough surface on relatively small parts. In the field of metalworking, a similar process called barreling, or barrel finishing,[2] works upon the same principles. This process is very similar to the natural processes that produce "sea glass" or "beach glass".Contents1 Stone 2 Metal2.1 Specific types3 Glass 4 Other 5 See also 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 BibliographyStone[edit]Tumbled gemstones. (Note that four of the items in the picture are not tumbled)For tumbling of rocks as a lapidary technique, a plastic or rubber-lined barrel is loaded with a consignment of rocks, all of similar or the same hardness, some abrasive grit, and a liquid lubricant. Silicon carbide
Silicon carbide
grit is commonly used, and water is a universal lubricant. The barrel is then placed upon slowly rotating rails so that it rotates
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Index Of Refraction
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. It is defined as n = c v , displaystyle n= frac c v , where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times faster in vacuum than in the water. Refraction
Refraction
of a light rayThe refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. This is the first documented use of refractive indices and is described by Snell's law
Snell's law
of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2
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Fresnel Equations
The Fresnel equations
Fresnel equations
(or Fresnel conditions), deduced by Augustin-Jean Fresnel
Augustin-Jean Fresnel
(/freɪˈnɛl/), describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. The reflection of light that the equations predict is known as Fresnel reflection.Contents1 Overview1.1 S and p polarizations2 Power or intensity equations2.1 Special
Special
cases2.1.1 Normal incidence 2.1.2 Brewster's angle
Brewster's angle
and total internal reflection 2.1.3 Magnetic materials3 Amplitude or field equations3.1 Conventions used here 3.2 Formulas 3.3 Alternative forms4 Multiple surfaces 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksOverview[edit] When light moves from a medium of a given refractive index, n1, into a second medium with refractive index, n2, both reflection and refraction of the light may occur
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Stress Concentration
A stress concentration (often called stress raisers or stress risers) is a location in an object where stress is concentrated. An object is stronger when force is evenly distributed over its area, so a reduction in area, e.g., caused by a crack, results in a localized increase in stress. A material can fail, via a propagating crack, when a concentrated stress exceeds the material's theoretical cohesive strength. The real fracture strength of a material is always lower than the theoretical value because most materials contain small cracks or contaminants (especially foreign particles) that concentrate stress
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Burnishing (metal)
Burnishing is the plastic deformation of a surface due to sliding contact with another object. Visually, burnishing smears the texture of a rough surface and makes it shinier. Burnishing may occur on any sliding surface if the contact stress locally exceeds the yield strength of the material.Contents1 Mechanics 2 Effects on mechanical components 3 In manufacturing 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksMechanics[edit]A ball carves a channel through a flat plate.The action of a hardened ball against a softer, flat plate illustrates the process of burnishing. If the ball is pressed directly into the plate, stresses develop in both objects around the area where they contact. As this normal force increases, both the ball and the plate's surfaces deform. The deformation caused by the hardened ball increases with the magnitude of the force pressing against it
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Mass Finishing
Mass finishing is a group of manufacturing processes that allow large quantities of parts to be simultaneously finished. The goal of this type of finishing is to burnish, deburr, clean, radius, de-flash, descale, remove rust, polish, brighten, surface harden, prepare parts for further finishing, or break off die cast runners. The two main types of mass finishing are tumble finishing, also known as barrel finishing, and vibratory finishing.[1] Both involve the use of a cyclical action to create grinding contact between surfaces. Sometimes the workpieces are finished against each other; however, usually a finishing medium is used. Mass finishing can be performed dry or wet; wet processes have liquid lubricants, cleaners, or abrasives, while dry processes do not
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Specular Reflection
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface. In this process, each incident ray is reflected at the same angle to the surface normal as the incident ray, but on the opposing side of the surface normal in the plane formed by incident and reflected rays. The result is that an image reflected by the surface is reproduced in mirror-like (specular) fashion. The law of reflection states that for each incident ray the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection, and the incident, normal, and reflected directions are coplanar. This behavior was first described by Hero of Alexandria
Hero of Alexandria
(AD c
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Vibratory Finishing
Vibratory finishing is a type of mass finishing manufacturing process used to deburr, radius, descale, burnish, clean, and brighten a large number of relatively small workpieces.[1] In this batch-type operation, specially shaped pellets of media and the workpieces are placed into the tub of a vibratory tumbler. The tub of the vibratory tumbler and all of its contents are then vibrated. The vibratory action causes the media to rub against the workpieces which yield the desired result. Depending on the application this can be either a dry or wet process.[1] Unlike rotary tumbling this process can finish internal features, such as holes. It is also quicker and quieter. The process is performed in an open tub so the operator can easily observe if the required finish has been obtained.[1]Contents1 Vibratory tumblers 2 Media 3 See also 4 Notes 5 BibliographyVibratory tumblers[edit] Vibratory tumblers have an action that is similar to filing
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Sodablasting
Sodablasting is a mild form of abrasive blasting in which sodium bicarbonate particles are blasted against a surface using compressed air. It has a much milder abrasive effect than sandblasting. An early use was in the conservation-restoration of the Statue of Liberty in the 1980s.[1] Sodablasting is a non-destructive method for many applications in cleaning, paint and varnish stripping, automotive restoration, industrial equipment maintenance, rust removal, graffiti removal, molecular steel passivation against rust, oil removal by saponification and translocation, masonry cleaning and restoration, soot remediation, boat hull cleaning and for food processing facilities and equipment and tooth cleaning at the dental laboratory. Applications[edit] Sodablasting can be used for cleaning timber, wood, oak beams, oak floors, doors, stairs & bannisters, cars, boat hulls, masonry, and food processing equipment
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Diffuse Reflection
Diffuse reflection
Diffuse reflection
is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An ideal diffuse reflecting surface is said to exhibit Lambertian reflection, meaning that there is equal luminance when viewed from all directions lying in the half-space adjacent to the surface. A surface built from a non-absorbing powder such as plaster, or from fibers such as paper, or from a polycrystalline material such as white marble, reflects light diffusely with great efficiency
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Chemical-mechanical Polishing
Chemical mechanical polishing/planarization is a process of smoothing surfaces with the combination of chemical and mechanical forces. It can be thought of as a hybrid of chemical etching and free abrasive polishing.[1]Contents1 Description 2 Working principles2.1 Physical action 2.2 Chemical action3 Usage in semiconductor fabrication 4 Limitations 5 Application 6 See also 7 References7.1 Books8 External linksDescription[edit]functional principle of CMPThe process uses an abrasive and corrosive chemical slurry (commonly a colloid) in conjunction with a polishing pad and retaining ring, typically of a greater diameter than the wafer. The pad and wafer are pressed together by a dynamic polishing head and held in place by a plastic retaining ring. The dynamic polishing head is rotated with different axes of rotation (i.e., not concentric). This removes material and tends to even out any irregular topography, making the wafer flat or planar
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Abrasive
An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing[1] which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction. While finishing a material often means polishing it to gain a smooth, reflective surface, the process can also involve roughening as in satin, matte or beaded finishes. In short, the ceramics which are used to cut, grind and polish other softer materials are known as abrasives. Abrasives are extremely commonplace and are used very extensively in a wide variety of industrial, domestic, and technological applications. This gives rise to a large variation in the physical and chemical composition of abrasives as well as the shape of the abrasive. Some common uses for abrasives include grinding, polishing, buffing, honing, cutting, drilling, sharpening, lapping, and sanding (see abrasive machining)
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Vapor Polishing
Vapor polishing is a method of polishing plastics to reduce the surface roughness or improve clarity. Typically, a component is exposed to a chemical vapor causing the surface to flow thereby improving the surface finish. This method of polishing is frequently used to return clear materials to an optical quality finish after machining. Vapor polishing works well in the internal features of components. Feature size changes of the plastic component generally do not occur. Post stress relieving is usually required as vapor polishing sets up surface stresses that can cause crazing. Plastics that respond well to vapor polishing are polycarbonate, acrylic, polysulfone, PEI, and ABS. The technique is also being used to improve the surface of objects created with 3D printing techniques. As the printer deposits layer upon layer of material to build the object, the surface is often not entirely smooth
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Flame Polishing
Flame polishing is a method of polishing a material, usually thermoplastics or glass, by exposing it to a flame or heat.[1] By melting the surface of the material, surface tension smooths the surface out. Operator skill is critical with this method. When done properly, flame plastic polishing produces the clearest finish, especially when polishing acrylic. This method is most applicable to flat external surfaces. Flame polishing is frequently used in acrylic plastic fabrication because of its high speed when compared to abrasive methods
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