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Poland
Coordinates : 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20 Republic of Poland _ Rzeczpospolita Polska_ (Polish ) _ Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: Mazurek Dąbrowskiego _ _ Poland Is Not Yet Lost_ Location of Poland (dark green) – in Europe
Europe
(green "> (green) – Capital and largest city Warsaw
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Polska (dance)
The POLSKA (Swedish plural polskor) is a family of music and dance forms shared by the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
: called polsk in Denmark
Denmark
, polska in Sweden
Sweden
and Finland
Finland
and by several different names in Norway in different regions and/or for different variants—including pols , rundom, springleik, and springar. The polska is almost always seen as a partner dance in 3 4-beat (help ·info ), although variants in 2 4 time and for two or more couples exist. CONTENTS * 1 Evolution * 2 Norway
Norway
* 3 Sweden
Sweden
* 4 See also * 5 References EVOLUTIONAs suggested by the name the roots of the polska are often traced back to the influence of the Polish court throughout the northern countries during the early 17th century. (Polska also happens to be homonymous with the Swedish word for the Polish language .) This view is sometimes challenged by those who see earlier evidence of the musical tradition in Nordic visor or songs, that may have become grafted onto the newer foreign influences when the court dances began to filter out into the middle class and rural communities. Here and there also, a dance or a few dance melodies in triple meter have been found that may or may not be remnants of dances that the polska could have swallowed up
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Poland (other)
POLAND is a country in Central Europe. POLAND may also refer to: PLACES United States * Poland, Indiana * Poland, Maine * Poland, Chautauqua County, New York * Poland, Herkimer County, New York * Poland, Ohio * Poland
Poland
Township, Mahoning County, Ohio * Poland, Wisconsin Canada * Poland
Poland
Lake, Lower Mainland, British Columbia Kiribati * Poland, Kiribati PEOPLE * Poland
Poland
(surname) , English language surnameOTHER USES * Poland
Poland
(album) , released in 1984 by the group Tangerine Dream * Poland
Poland
(novel) , by James A. Michener * Poland
Poland
syndrome , a rare birth defect * Poland
Poland
(sculpture) * Polandball , a webcomic This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title POLAND. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Poland_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Rzeczpospolita Polska (other)
RZECZPOSPOLITA POLSKA may refer to: * Poland
Poland
, official name in Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska * Rzeczpospolita Polska (magazine) , an official paper published 1941–1945SEE ALSO * Rzeczpospolita (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title RZECZPOSPOLITA POLSKA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rzeczpospolita_Polska_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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Polish Language
POLISH (_język polski_, _polszczyzna_) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages . Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. It is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet
Polish alphabet
, which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (_ą_, _ć_, _ę_, _ł_, _ń_, _ó_, _ś_, _ź_, _ż_). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak . Although the Austrian , German and Russian administrations exerted much pressure on the Polish nation (during the 19th and early 20th centuries) following the Partitions of Poland
Poland
, which resulted in attempts to suppress the Polish language, a rich literature has regardless developed over the centuries and the language currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group. It is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language, after Russian and just ahead of Ukrainian . In history, Polish is known to be an important language, both diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe
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Flag Of Poland
The FLAG OF POLAND consists of two horizontal stripes of equal width, the upper one white and the lower one red. The two colors are defined in the Polish constitution as the national colors . A variant of the flag with the national coat of arms in the middle of the white stripe is legally reserved for official use abroad and at sea. A similar flag with the addition of a swallow-tail is used as the naval ensign of Poland
Poland
. White and red were officially adopted as national colors in 1831. They are of heraldic origin and derive from the tinctures (colors) of the coats of arms of the two constituent nations of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , i.e. the White Eagle of Poland
Poland
and the Pursuer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , a white knight riding a white horse, both on a red shield. Prior to that, Polish soldiers wore cockades of various color combinations. The national flag was officially adopted in 1919. Since 2004, Polish Flag Day
Flag Day
is celebrated on May 2. The flag is flown continuously on the buildings of the highest national authorities, such as the parliament and the presidential palace . Other institutions and many Polish people fly the national flag on national holidays and other special occasions of national significance. Current Polish law does not restrict the use of the national flag without the coat of arms as long as the flag is not disrespected
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Coat Of Arms Of Poland
The COAT OF ARMS OF POLAND is a white, crowned eagle with a golden beak and talons, on a red background. CONTENTS * 1 Legal basis * 2 Design * 3 History * 3.1 Evolution * 4 Trivia * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links LEGAL BASISThe coat of arms of the Republic of Poland
Poland
is described in two legal documents: the Constitution of the Republic of Poland
Poland
of 1997 and the Coat of Arms, Colors and Anthem of the Republic of Poland, and State Seals Act (Ustawa o godle, barwach i hymnie Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej oraz o pieczęciach państwowych) of 1980 with subsequent amendments (henceforth referred to as "the Coat of Arms Act"). Legislation concerning the national symbols is far from perfect. The Coat of Arms Act has been amended several times and refers extensively to executive ordinances, some of which have never been issued. Moreover, the Act contains errors, omissions and inconsistencies which make the law confusing, open to various interpretations and often not followed in practice. DESIGN John III Sobieski
John III Sobieski
's coat of arms crowning the Royal Chapel in Gdańsk , 1681 According to Chapter I, Article 28, paragraph 1 of the Constitution, the coat of arms of Poland
Poland
is an image of a crowned white eagle in a red field
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Dąbrowski's Mazurka
"MAZUREK DąBROWSKIEGO" (Polish pronunciation: , "DąBROWSKI \'S MAZURKA ") is the national anthem of Poland. It is also known by its original title, "Pieśń Legionów Polskich we Włoszech" ( , "Song of the Polish Legions in Italy"). English translations of its Polish incipit ("Jeszcze Polska nie zginęła" ) include: " Poland
Poland
has not yet perished", " Poland
Poland
has not perished yet", " Poland
Poland
is not lost", " Poland
Poland
is not lost yet", and " Poland
Poland
is not yet lost". The lyrics were written by Józef Wybicki in Reggio Emilia
Reggio Emilia
, Cisalpine Republic
Cisalpine Republic
in Northern Italy , between 16 and 19 of July, 1797, two years after the Third Partition of Poland erased the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from the map. It was originally meant to boost the morale of Polish soldiers serving under General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski 's Polish Legions that served with Napoleon
Napoleon
's French Revolutionary Army in the Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars . "Dabrowski's Mazurka", expressing the idea that the nation of Poland, despite lack of independence , had not disappeared as long as the Polish people were still alive and fighting in its name, soon became one of the most popular patriotic songs in Poland
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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European Union
The EUROPEAN UNION (EU) is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe . It has an area of 4,475,757 km2 (1,728,099 sq mi), and an estimated population of over 510 million. The EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs, and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture , fisheries , and regional development . Within the Schengen Area , passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency . The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Economic Community (EEC), established, respectively, by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome . The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities , were the Inner Six ; Belgium , France , Italy , Luxembourg , the Netherlands and West Germany
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Warsaw
WARSAW (Polish : _Warszawa_ ( listen ); see also other names ) is the capital and largest city of Poland . It stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the Carpathian Mountains . Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents, which makes Warsaw
Warsaw
the 9th most-populous capital city in the European Union . The city limits cover 516.9 square kilometres (199.6 sq mi), while the metropolitan area covers 6,100.43 square kilometres (2,355.39 sq mi). Once described as _PARIS OF THE EAST_, Warsaw
Warsaw
was believed to be one of the most beautiful cities in the world until World War II . The German invasion in 1939, the massacre of the Jewish population and deportations to concentration camps led to the uprising in the Warsaw ghetto in 1943 and to the major and devastating Warsaw
Warsaw
Uprising between August and October 1944. Warsaw
Warsaw
gained the new title of a _PHOENIX CITY_ because of its extensive history and complete reconstruction after the severe damage it suffered in World War II , which left over 85% of its buildings in ruins
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Languages Of Poland
Kashubian (108,000); German (96,000); Belarusian (26,000); Rusyn (6,000); Lithuanian (5,000); Slovak (1,000); Czech (1,000); DISPERSED: Ukrainian (25,000); Romani (14,000); Armenian (2,000), Hungarian (1,000) MAIN IMMIGRANT LANGUAGES Russian (20,000), Vietnamese (3,000), Arabic (2,000), Greek (2,000), Chinese (1,000), Bulgarian (1,000), Turkish (1,000), Hindi (1,000) and others MAIN FOREIGN LANGUAGES English (33%) Russian (26%) German (19%) SIGN LANGUAGES Polish Sign Language SOURCE ebs_243_en.pdf (europa.eu) Part of a series on the CULTURE OF POLAND History * Middle Ages * Renaissance * Baroque * Enlightenment * Romanticism * Positivism * Young Poland * Interbellum * World War II * People\'s Republic of Poland
Poland
* Mo
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Kashubian Language
KASHUBIAN or CASSUBIAN (Kashubian: _kaszëbsczi jãzëk_, _pòmòrsczi jãzëk_, _kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa_; Polish : _język kaszubski, język pomorski, język kaszubsko-słowiński_) is a language variety of the Lechitic group , of the Slavic languages . Although it is often considered a language in its own right, it is sometimes considered a dialect of Pomeranian. In Poland, it has been an officially recognized ethnic-minority language since 2005. Approximately 106,000 people use mainly Kashubian at home. It is the only remnant of the Pomeranian language . It is close to standard Polish with influence from Low German and the extinct Polabian and Old Prussian . Kashubian language (2011 census) CONTENTS* 1 Origin * 1.1 Related languages * 2 Speakers * 3 Kashubian literature * 3.1 Works * 4 Education * 4.1 Dialects * 5 Components of Kashubian * 5.1 Phonology and morphology * 5.2 Vowels * 5.3 Consonants * 5.3.1 Kashubian alphabet * 6 Samples * 7 Gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links ORIGINKashubian is assumed to have evolved from the language spoken by some tribes of Pomeranians called Kashubians , in the region of Pomerania , on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea between the Vistula and Oder rivers
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German Language
_No official regulation_ ( German orthography regulated by the Council for German Orthography ). LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 de ISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T) ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh – Middle High German goh – Old High German gct – Colonia Tovar German bar – Bavarian cim – Cimbrian geh – Hutterite German ksh – Kölsch nds – Low German sli – Lower Silesian ltz – Luxembourgish vmf – Mainfränkisch mhn – Mócheno pfl – Palatinate German pdc – Pennsylvania German pdt – Plautdietsch swg – Swabian German gsw – Swiss German uln – Unserdeutsch sxu – Upper Saxon wae – Walser German wep – Westphalian hrx – Riograndenser Hunsrückisch yec – Yenish GLOTTOLOG high1287 High Franconian uppe1397 Upper German LINGUASPHERE further information 52-AC (Continental West Germanic) > 52-ACB (Deutsch & Dutch) > 52-ACB-d ( Central German incl. 52-ACB–dl & -dm Standard/Generalised High German ) + 52-ACB-e & -f ( Upper German & Swiss German ) + 52-ACB-h (émigré German varieties incl
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Belarusian Language
BELARUSIAN (/bɛləˈruːsiən/ ; беларуская мова belaruskaya mova ) is an official language of Belarus
Belarus
, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Russia
Russia
, Ukraine
Ukraine
, and small parts in far-eastern Poland
Poland
. Before Belarus
Belarus
gained independence from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, the language was known in English as Byelorussian or Belorussian, transliterating the Russian name, белорусский язык, or alternatively as White Ruthenian (/ruːˈθiːniən/ ) or White Russian (with the meaning Rus' but not Russia). Following independence, it also became known as Belarusian. Belarusian is one of the East Slavic languages and shares many grammatical and lexical features with other members of the group. To some extent, Russian , Ukrainian , and Belarusian are mutually intelligible . Its predecessor stage is known as Ruthenian (14th to 17th centuries), in turn descended from Old East Slavic
Old East Slavic
(10th to 13th centuries). At the 1999 Belarus
Belarus
Census , the Belarusian language
Belarusian language
was declared as a "language spoken at home" by about 3,686,000 Belarusian citizens (36.7% of the population). About 6,984,000 (85.6%) of Belarusians declared it their "mother tongue"
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