WARSAW (Polish : _Warszawa_ ( listen ); see also other names ) is
the capital and largest city of
Poland . It stands on the Vistula
River in east-central Poland, roughly 260 kilometres (160 mi) from the
Baltic Sea and 300 kilometres (190 mi) from the
Carpathian Mountains .
Its population is estimated at 1.750 million residents within a
greater metropolitan area of 3.101 million residents, which makes
Once described as _PARIS OF THE EAST_,
The city is the seat of the
Polish Academy of Sciences , Warsaw
National Philharmonic Orchestra and the
University of Warsaw . The
historic city-centre of
* 1 Etymology and names
* 2 History
* 2.1 Early history
* 2.2 16th to 18th centuries
* 2.3 19th and 20th centuries
* 2.4 Capital of Second Polish Republic: 1918–39
Second World War
* 2.6 1945–1989:
* 3 Geography
* 3.1 Location and topography * 3.2 Climate
* 3.3 Cityscape
* 3.3.1 Architecture
* 3.4 Landmarks
* 3.4.1 Flora and fauna
* 4 Society and demographics
* 4.1 Immigrant population * 4.2 Religion
* 5 Government and politics
* 5.1 Municipal government * 5.2 Districts
* 6 Economy
* 6.1 Business and commerce * 6.2 Warsaw Stock Exchange * 6.3 Industry
* 7 Education
* 8 Transport and infrastructure
* 8.1 Infrastructure
* 9 Culture
* 10 Famous people * 11 Rankings
* 12 International relations
* 12.1 Twin towns and sister cities * 12.2 Partnerships
* 13 Varieties * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 References * 17 Bibliography
ETYMOLOGY AND NAMES
Warsaw's name in the
Polish language is _Warszawa_, approximately
/vɑːrˈʃɑːvə/ (also formerly spelled _Warszewa_ and
_Warszowa_). Linguist Samuel Bogumił Linde argues that early
spellings of the name included _Worszewa_ and _Werszewa_. According
to some sources, the origin of the name is unknown. In _Pre-Slavic
toponomastic layer of Northern Mazovia: corrections and addenda (the
Narew drainage)_, it is stated that the toponymy of northern Mazovia
tends to have unclear etymology (p. 30). Originally, Warszawa was the
name of a fishing village. According to one theory _Warszawa_ means
"belonging to Warsz", _Warsz_ being a shortened form of the masculine
name of Slavic origin Warcisław; see also etymology of
However the ending -awa is unusual for a big city; the names of Polish
cities derived from personal names usually end in -ow/ew (e.g.
Piotrkow, Adamow) while the -av- in the early name of Wroclaw is part
of a personal name. Folk etymology attributes the city name to a
fisherman, Wars, and his wife, Sawa. According to legend, Sawa was a
mermaid living in the
Vistula River with whom Wars fell in love. In
actuality, Warsz was a 12th/13th-century nobleman who owned a village
located at the modern-day site of the
Mariensztat neighbourhood. See
Vršovci family which had escaped to Poland. The official
city name in full is _miasto stołeczne Warszawa_ (English: "The
Capital City of Warsaw"). A native or resident of
Other names for
Construction of St John\'s Cathedral began in 1390. It is one of Warsaw's most ancient and important buildings.
The first fortified settlements on the site of today's
16TH TO 18TH CENTURIES
19TH AND 20TH CENTURIES
Liberated by Napoleon 's army in 1806,
Following the repeated violations of the Polish constitution by the
Russians, the 1830
November Uprising broke out. However, the
Polish-Russian war of 1831 ended in the uprising's defeat and in the
curtailment of the Kingdom's autonomy. On 27 February 1861 a Warsaw
crowd protesting against Russian rule over
Poland was fired upon by
Russian troops. Five people were killed. The Underground Polish
National Government resided in
The Russian Empire Census of 1897 recorded 626,000 people living in Warsaw, making it the third-largest city of the Empire after St. Petersburg and Moscow.
CAPITAL OF SECOND POLISH REPUBLIC: 1918–39
The history of contemporary civilisation knows no event of greater
importance than the Battle of Warsaw, 1920, and none of which the
significance is less appreciated ... yet never had Poland's services
been greater, never had the danger been more imminent. — Sir Edgar
Vincent d\'Abernon , _The Eighteenth Decisive Battle of the World,
The Średnicowy Bridge was constructed for a railway (1921-1931), connecting both parts of the city. Warszawa Główna railway station (1932-1939) was unfinished and destroyed during WWII.
SECOND WORLD WAR
After the German Invasion of
Poland on 1 September 1939 started the
Second World War ,
By July 1944, the
Red Army was deep into Polish territory and
pursuing the Germans toward Warsaw. Knowing that Stalin was hostile
to the idea of an independent Poland, the Polish government-in-exile
London gave orders to the underground Home Army (AK) to try to
seize control of
The Germans then razed
On 17 January 1945 – after the beginning of the Vistula–Oder Offensive of the Red Army – Soviet troops entered the ruins of Warsaw, and liberated Warsaw's suburbs from German occupation. The city was swiftly taken by the Soviet Army, which rapidly advanced towards Łódź , as German forces regrouped at a more westward position.
1945–1989: WARSAW DURING THE PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC
John Paul II\'s Mass in Victory Square , 1979
In 1945, after the bombings, revolts, fighting, and demolition had
ended, most of
After World War II, under a Communist regime set up by the conquering
Soviets, the "Bricks for Warsaw" campaign was initiated, and large
prefabricated housing projects were erected in
John Paul II 's visits to his native country in 1979 and 1983 brought support to the budding "Solidarity" movement and encouraged the growing anti-communist fervor there. In 1979, less than a year after becoming pope, John Paul celebrated Mass in Victory Square in Warsaw and ended his sermon with a call to "renew the face" of Poland: _Let Thy Spirit descend! Let Thy Spirit descend and renew the face of the land! This land!_ These words were very meaningful for the Polish citizens who understood them as the incentive for liberal-democratic reforms.
RECENT TIMES: 1989–PRESENT
In 1995, the
Warsaw Metro opened with a single line. A second line
was opened in March 2015. With the entry of
Poland into the European
Union in 2004,
LOCATION AND TOPOGRAPHY
Warsaw, seen from the International Space Station
The plain moraine plateau has only a few natural and artificial ponds
and also groups of clay pits . The pattern of the
Vistula terraces is
asymmetrical. The left side consists mainly of two levels: the highest
one contains former flooded terraces and the lowest one the flood
plain terrace. The contemporary flooded terrace still has visible
valleys and ground depressions with water systems coming from the old
Vistula – riverbed . They consist of still quite natural streams and
lakes as well as the pattern of drainage ditches . The right side of
Warsaw's climate is humid continental (Köppen : _Dfb_) with cold, snowy, cloudy winters and warm, sunny, stormy summers. The average temperature ranges between −1.8 °C (29 °F) in January and 19.2 °C (66.6 °F) in July. The mean year temperature is 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). Temperatures may often reach 30 °C (86 °F) in the summer. Yearly rainfall averages 529 millimetres (20.8 in), the wettest month being July.
CLIMATE DATA FOR WARSAW (1981–2010) EXTREMES (1951–PRESENT)
MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 13.8 (56.8) 17.2 (63) 22.9 (73.2) 30.5 (86.9) 32.8 (91) 35.1 (95.2) 36.0 (96.8) 37.1 (98.8) 34.5 (94.1) 25.9 (78.6) 18.9 (66) 15.4 (59.7) 37.1 (98.8)
AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 0.6 (33.1) 1.9 (35.4) 6.6 (43.9) 13.6 (56.5) 19.5 (67.1) 21.9 (71.4) 24.4 (75.9) 23.9 (75) 18.4 (65.1) 12.7 (54.9) 5.9 (42.6) 1.6 (34.9) 12.6 (54.7)
DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −1.8 (28.8) −0.6 (30.9) 2.8 (37) 8.7 (47.7) 14.2 (57.6) 17.0 (62.6) 19.2 (66.6) 18.3 (64.9) 13.5 (56.3) 8.5 (47.3) 3.3 (37.9) −0.7 (30.7) 8.5 (47.3)
AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −4.2 (24.4) −3.6 (25.5) −0.6 (30.9) 3.9 (39) 8.9 (48) 11.8 (53.2) 13.9 (57) 13.1 (55.6) 9.1 (48.4) 4.8 (40.6) 0.6 (33.1) −3.0 (26.6) 4.6 (40.3)
RECORD LOW °C (°F) −30.7 (−23.3) −27.6 (−17.7) −22.6 (−8.7) −6.9 (19.6) −3.1 (26.4) 1.8 (35.2) 4.6 (40.3) 3.0 (37.4) −1.6 (29.1) −9.6 (14.7) −17.0 (1.4) −24.8 (−12.6) −30.7 (−23.3)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 27 (1.06) 26 (1.02) 31 (1.22) 34 (1.34) 56 (2.2) 69 (2.72) 73 (2.87) 64 (2.52) 46 (1.81) 32 (1.26) 37 (1.46) 34 (1.34) 529 (20.83)
AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS 12 11 12 13 14 15 14 13 15 15 15 14 163
Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net
Source #2: KNMI
Warsaw's mixture of architectural styles reflects the turbulent history of the city and country. During the Second World War, Warsaw was razed to the ground by bombing raids and planned destruction . After liberation, rebuilding began as in other cities of the communist-ruled PRL . Most of the historical buildings were thoroughly reconstructed. However, some of the buildings from the 19th century that had been preserved in reasonably reconstructible form were nonetheless eradicated in the 1950s and 1960s (e.g. Kronenberg Palace ). Mass residential blocks were erected, with basic design typical of Eastern bloc countries.
Public spaces attract heavy investment, so that the city has gained entirely new squares, parks and monuments. Warsaw's current urban landscape is one of modern and contemporary architecture.
Warsaw's palaces , churches and mansions display a richness of color and architectural details. Buildings are representatives of nearly every European architectural style and historical period . The city has wonderful examples of architecture from the Gothic , Renaissance , Baroque and neoclassical periods, all of which are located within easy walking distance of the town centre.
Gothic architecture is represented in the majestic churches but also at the burgher houses and fortifications . The most significant buildings are St. John\'s Cathedral (14th century), a typical example of the so-called Masovian Gothic style; St. Mary\'s Church (1411), a town house of Burbach family (14th century); Gunpowder Tower (after 1379); and the Royal Castle _Curia Maior_ (1407–1410). The most notable examples of Renaissance architecture in the city are the house of the Baryczko merchant family (1562), a building called "The Negro" (early 17th century), and Salwator tenement (1632). The most interesting examples of Mannerist architecture are the Royal Castle (1596–1619) and the Jesuit Church (1609–1626) at Old Town. Among the first structures of the early Baroque, the most important are St. Hyacinth\'s Church (1603–1639) and Sigismund\'s Column (1644). Hotel Bristol is a unique example of Warsaw's architectural heritage.
Building activity occurred in numerous noble palaces and churches during the later decades of the 17th century. Some of the best examples of this architecture are Krasiński Palace (1677–1683), Wilanów Palace (1677–1696) and St. Kazimierz Church (1688–1692). The most impressive examples of rococo architecture are Czapski Palace (1712–1721), Palace of the Four Winds (1730s) and Visitationist Church (façade 1728–1761). The neoclassical architecture in Warsaw can be described by the simplicity of the geometrical forms teamed with a great inspiration from the Roman period. Some of the best examples of the neoclassical style are the Palace on the Water (rebuilt 1775–1795), Królikarnia (1782–1786), Carmelite Church (façade 1761–1783) and Evangelical Holy Trinity Church (1777–1782). The economic growth during the first years of Congress Poland caused a rapid rise of architecture. The Neoclassical revival affected all aspects of architecture; the most notable examples are the Great Theater (1825–1833) and buildings located at Bank Square (1825–1828). Warsaw University of Technology building courtyard
Exceptional examples of the bourgeois architecture of the later
periods were not restored by the communist authorities after the war
(like the previously mentioned Kronenberg
Rosja building) or they were rebuilt in socialist realism style (like
Notable examples of post-war architecture include the Palace of Culture and Science (1952–1955), a soc-realist skyscraper located in the city centre, and the Constitution Square with its monumental socialist realism architecture (MDM estate).
Contemporary architecture in
PAST , the oldest skyscraper in
Palace of Culture and Science *
Rondo 1 *
Złota 44 *
Spektrum Tower *
Hotel Marriott and Oxford Tower *
Main article: Tourist attractions in Warsaw
UNESCO WORLD HERITAGE SITE
COORDINATES 52°13′N 21°02′E / 52.22°N 21.03°E / 52.22; 21.03
AREA 517.24 km2 (5.5675×109 sq ft)
CRITERIA II, VI
INSCRIPTION 1980 (4th Session )
Further south is the so-called Royal Route , with many classicist palaces, the Presidential Palace and the University of Warsaw campus. Wilanów Palace , the former royal residence of King John III Sobieski , is notable for its Baroque architecture and parks.
Warsaw's oldest public park, the
Saxon Garden , is located within 10
minutes' walk from the old town. Warsaw's biggest public park is
Łazienki Park , established in the 17th century and given its current
classical shape in the late 18th century. It is located further
south, on the Royal Route , about 3 km (1.9 mi) from the
Powązki Cemetery is one of the oldest cemeteries in Europe, full of sculptures, some of them by the most renowned Polish artists of the 19th and 20th centuries. Since it serves the religious communities of Warsaw, be it Catholics, Orthodox, Jews, Muslims or Protestants, it is often called a necropolis . Nearby is the Okopowa Street Jewish Cemetery , one of the largest Jewish cemeteries in Europe.
In many places in the city the Jewish culture and history resonates down through time. Among them the most notable are the Jewish theater, the Nożyk Synagogue , Janusz Korczak 's Orphanage and the picturesque Próżna Street. The tragic pages of Warsaw’s history are commemorated in places such as the Monument to the Ghetto Heroes , the Umschlagplatz , fragments of the Ghetto wall on Sienna Street and a mound in memory of the Jewish Combat Organization .
Map of Warsaw Old Town
* Stone stairs
* Historical Museum
* Defensive walls
* Salwator tenement
Museum of Leather Crafts
* St. Anne's tenement
* Fukier tenement
Museum of Literature
Museum of Artistic and Precision Crafts
* St. Mary\'s Church
* Gothic Bridge
* Pelican house
* St. John\'s Cathedral
* Jesuit Church
* Royal Castle
* East – West Route tunnel
* Dung Hill
There are also many places commemorating the heroic history of
Pawiak , an infamous German
Gestapo prison now occupied by a
Mausoleum of Memory of Martyrdom and the museum , is only the
beginning of a walk in the traces of Heroic City. The
Also many references to Marie Curie , her work and her family can be found in Warsaw: Marie's birthplace at the Warsaw New Town , the working places where she did her first scientific works and the Radium Institute at Wawelska Street for the research and the treatment of which she founded in 1925.
Old Town Market Square *
The Barbican , one of few remaining relics of the complex network of historic fortifications *
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is an important central
St. Kazimierz Church at New Town Market Square *
Canon Square with the narrowest townhouse in Europe. *
Holy Cross Church *
Castle Square and Sigismund\'s Column *
St. Anne\'s Church *
Carmelite Church *
Belweder Palace *
Flora And Fauna
Green space covers almost a quarter of the area of Warsaw, including a broad range from small neighborhood parks, green spaces along streets and in courtyards, to avenues of trees and large historic parks, nature conservation areas and the urban forests at the fringe of the city. _ Łazienki Palace , also referred to as the Palace on the Water_
There are as many as 82 parks in the city which cover 8% of its area. The oldest ones, once parts of representative palaces, are Saxon Garden , the Krasiński Palace Garden, Łazienki Park (Royal Baths Park), Wilanów Palace Park and Królikarnia Palace Park (_See also: Greenery in the city _).
The Saxon Garden, covering an area of 15.5 ha, was formally a royal
garden. There are over 100 different species of trees and the avenues
are a place to sit and relax. At the east end of the park, the Tomb of
the Unknown Soldier is situated. In the 19th century the Krasiński
Palace Garden was remodelled by Franciszek Szanior. Within the central
area of the park one can still find old trees dating from that period:
maidenhair tree , black walnut , Turkish hazel and Caucasian wingnut
trees. With its benches, flower carpets, a pond with ducks on and a
playground for kids, the
Krasiński Palace Garden is a popular
strolling destination for the Varsovians. The Monument of the Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising is also situated here.
Łazienki Park covers an area
of 76 ha. The unique character and history of the park is reflected in
its landscape architecture (pavilions , sculptures , bridges ,
cascades , ponds ) and vegetation (domestic and foreign species of
trees and bushes). What makes this park different from other green
Other green spaces in the city include the Botanic Garden and the University Library garden. They have extensive botanical collection of rare domestic and foreign plants, while a palm house in the New Orangery displays plants of subtropics from all over the world. Besides, within the city borders, there are also: _Pole Mokotowskie_ (a big park in the northern Mokotów, where was the first horse racetrack and then the airport), _Park Ujazdowski_ (close to the Sejm and John Lennon street), Park of Culture and Rest in Powsin, by the southern city border, and _Park Skaryszewski_ by the right Vistula bank, in Praga. The oldest park in Praga, the Praga Park , was established in 1865–1871 and designed by Jan Dobrowolski. In 1927 a zoological garden (_Ogród Zoologiczny_) was established on the park grounds, and in 1952 a bear run, still open today.
The flora of the city may be considered very rich in species. The
species richness is mainly due to the location of
There are 13 natural reserves in
The Warsaw Zoo covers an area of 40 hectares (99 acres). There are about 5,000 animals representing nearly 500 species. Although officially created in 1928, it traces back its roots to 17th century private menageries , often open to the public.
SOCIETY AND DEMOGRAPHICS
YEAR POP. ±%
1700 30,000 —
1792 120,000 +300.0%
1800 63,400 −47.2%
1830 139,700 +120.3%
1850 163,600 +17.1%
1882 383,000 +134.1%
1901 711,988 +85.9%
1909 764,054 +7.3%
1925 1,003,000 +31.3%
1933 1,178,914 +17.5%
1939 1,300,900 +10.3%
1945 422,000 −67.6%
1950 803,800 +90.5%
1960 1,136,000 +41.3%
1970 1,315,600 +15.8%
1980 1,596,100 +21.3%
1990 1,655,700 +3.7%
2000 1,672,400 +1.0%
2005 1,697,500 +1.5%
2010 1,710,398 +0.8%
2015 1,744,351 +2.0%
2016 1,753,977 +0.6%
Note: 2010 2014
LARGEST GROUPS OF FOREIGN RESIDENTS
NATIONALITY POPULATION (2016)
United Kingdom 589
United States 356
Demographically , it was the most diverse city in Poland, with significant numbers of foreign-born inhabitants. In addition to the Polish majority , there was a significant Jewish minority in Warsaw. According to the Russian census of 1897 , out of the total population of 638,000, Jews constituted 219,000 (around 34% percent). Warsaw's prewar Jewish population of more than 350,000 constituted about 30 percent of the city's total population. In 1933, out of 1,178,914 inhabitants 833,500 were of Polish mother tongue. World War II changed the demographics of the city, and to this day there is much less ethnic diversity than in the previous 300 years of Warsaw's history. Most of the modern day population growth is based on internal migration and urbanisation.
In 1939, c. 1,300,000 people lived in Warsaw, but in 1945 – only
420,000. During the first years after the war, the population growth
was c. 6%, so shortly the city started to suffer from the lack of
flats and of areas for new houses. The first remedial measure was the
Much like most capital cities in Europe,
Throughout its existence,
GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
As the capital of Poland,
The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish (literally 'Envoy'). It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm (Marszałek Sejmu).
The municipal government existed in
The basic unit of territorial division in Poland is a commune (_gmina_). A city is also a commune – but with a city charter. Both cities and communes are governed by a mayor – but in the communes the mayor is vogt (_wójt_ in Polish), however in the cities – _burmistrz_. Some bigger cities obtain the entitlements, i.e. tasks and privileges, which are possessed by the units of the second level of the territorial division – counties or _powiat_s. An example of such entitlement is a car registration: a _gmina_ cannot register cars, this is a _powiat's_ task (i.e. a registration number depends on what _powiat_ a car had been registered in, not the _gmina_). In this case we say "city county" or _powiat grodzki_. Such cities are for example Lublin , Kraków , Gdańsk , and Poznań . In Warsaw, its districts additionally have some of a _powiat_'s entitlements – like the already mentioned car registration. For example, the Wola district has its own evidence and the Ursynów district – its own (and the cars from Wola have another type of registration number than those from Ursynów). But for instance the districts in Kraków do not have the entitlements of a _powiat_, so the registration numbers in Kraków are of the same type for all districts. Embassy of the Netherlands
Legislative power in
Each of the 18 separate city districts has its own council (_Rada dzielnicy_). Their duties are focused on aiding the President and the City Council, as well as supervising various municipal companies, city-owned property and schools. The head of each of the District Councils is named the Mayor (_Burmistrz_) and is elected by the local council from the candidates proposed by the President of Warsaw.
The mayor of
The current President of
* Headquarters of Polish government agencies in Warsaw
Poland\'s bicameral parliament , the Sejm and the Senate *
Chancellery of the Prime Minister *
Presidential Palace , the seat of the Polish president *
Supreme Court of Poland *
Supreme Administrative Court *
The seat of the administration of the Masovian Voivodeship *
Mostowski Palace , the seat of Warsaw's police headquarters *
The main gate of the Ministry of Health *
Ministry of Agriculture
DISTRICT POPULATION AREA
Mokotów 220,682 35.4 km2 (13.7 sq mi)
Praga Południe 178,665 22.4 km2 (8.6 sq mi)
Ursynów 145,938 48.6 km2 (18.8 sq mi)
Wola 137,519 19.26 km2 (7.44 sq mi)
Bielany 132,683 32.3 km2 (12.5 sq mi)
Targówek 123,278 24.37 km2 (9.41 sq mi)
Śródmieście 122,646 15.57 km2 (6.01 sq mi)
Bemowo 115,873 24.95 km2 (9.63 sq mi)
Białołęka 96,588 73.04 km2 (28.20 sq mi)
Ochota 84,990 09.7 km2 (3.7 sq mi)
Wawer 69,896 79.71 km2 (30.78 sq mi)
Praga Północ 69,510 11.4 km2 (4.4 sq mi)
Ursus 53,755 09.35 km2 (3.61 sq mi)
Żoliborz 48,342 08.5 km2 (3.3 sq mi)
Włochy 38,075 28.63 km2 (11.05 sq mi)
Wilanów 23,960 36.73 km2 (14.18 sq mi)
Rembertów 23,280 19.30 km2 (7.45 sq mi)
Wesoła 22,811 22.6 km2 (8.7 sq mi)
TOTAL 1,708,491 521.81 km2 (201.47 sq mi)
Until 1994, there were 7 districts in Warsaw: Śródmieście, Praga
Praga Południe, Żoliborz, Wola, Ochota, and Mokotów.
Between 1994 and 2002, there were 11 districts: Centrum, Białołęka,
Targówek, Rembertów, Wawer, Wilanów, Ursynów, Włochy, Ursus,
Bemowo, and Bielany. In 2002, the town
Wesoła was incorporated and
the territorial division of
BUSINESS AND COMMERCE
Warsaw's most significant attractions and locations
Warsaw, especially its city centre (_Śródmieście_ ), is home not
only to many national institutions and government agencies, but also
to many domestic and international companies. In 2006, 304,016
companies were registered in the city. Warsaw's ever-growing business
community has been noticed globally, regionally, and nationally.
MasterCard Emerging Market Index has noted Warsaw's economic strength
and commercial center. Moreover,
At the same time the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in Poland. According to the official figures it was around 4% in February 2015. The city itself collects around 8,740,882,000 złotys in taxes and direct government grants.
WARSAW STOCK EXCHANGE
Warsaw's first stock exchange was established in 1817 and continued
trading until World War II. It was re-established in April 1991,
following the end of the post-war communist control of the country and
the reintroduction of a free-market economy . Today, the
During Warsaw's reconstruction after World War II, the communist authorities decided that the city would become a major industrial centre. As a result, numerous large factories were built in and around the city. The largest were the _Huta Warszawa_ Steel Works, the FSO car factory and the "Ursus" tractor factory.
As the communist economy deteriorated, these factories lost significance and most went bankrupt after 1989. Today, the Arcelor Warszawa Steel Mill (formerly _Huta Warszawa_) is the only major factory remaining.
The FSO Car Factory was established in 1951. A number of vehicles have been assembled there over the decades, including the Warszawa, Syrena, Fiat 125p (under license from Fiat, later renamed FSO 125p when the license expired) and the Polonez. The last two models listed were also sent abroad and assembled in a number of other countries, including Egypt and Colombia. In 1995 the factory was purchased by the South Korean car manufacturer Daewoo , which assembled the Tico, Espero, Nubia, Tacuma, Leganza, Lanos and Matiz there for the European market. In 2005 the factory was sold to AvtoZAZ, a Ukrainian car manufacturer which assembled the Chevrolet Aveo there. The license for the production of the Aveo expired in February 2011 and has not been renewed since. Currently the company is defunct.
The "Ursus" factory opened in 1893 and is still in operation today. Throughout its history various machinery was assembled there, including motorcycles, military vehicles, trucks and buses. However, since World War II only tractors are still being assembled there.
The number of state-owned enterprises continues to decrease while the
number of companies operating with foreign capital is on the rise,
reflecting the continued shift towards a modern market-based economy .
The largest foreign investors are
Coca-Cola Amatil and
Metro AG .
Main article: Education in Warsaw
NAME AND YEAR ESTABLISHED
* University of Warsaw (1816) * Warsaw University of Technology (1826) * Warsaw School of Economics (1906) * Warsaw University of Life Sciences (1818) * Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University (1999) * Medical University of Warsaw (1809/1950) * Academy of Fine Arts (1844) * Academy of National Defence (1947/1990) * Military University of Technology (1951) * University of Physical Education in Warsaw (1929) * Fryderyk Chopin University of Music (1810) * Kozminski University (1993)
University of Warsaw was established in 1816, when the partitions
Another important library – the University Library, founded in 1816, is home to over two million items. The building was designed by architects Marek Budzyński and Zbigniew Badowski and opened on 15 December 1999. It is surrounded by green. The University Library garden, designed by Irena Bajerska, was opened on 12 June 2002. It is one of the largest and most beautiful roof gardens in Europe with an area of more than 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft), and plants covering 5,111 m2 (55,010 sq ft). As the university garden it is open to the public every day.
TRANSPORT AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Thanks to the A2 motorway stretching west from Warsaw, which opened in June 2012, the city now has a direct motorway connection with Łódź, Poznań and ultimately with Berlin.
The city has two international airports : Warsaw Chopin Airport , located just 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the city centre, and Warsaw- Modlin Airport , located 35 kilometres (22 mi) to the north, opened in July 2012. With around 100 international and domestic flights a day and with 11,206,700 passengers served in 2015, Warsaw Frédéric Chopin Airport is by far the biggest airport in Poland and it has also been called "the most important and largest airport in Central Europe". Warsaw Chopin Airport
Public transport in
The regional rail and light rail is operated by Polish State Railways (PKP). There are also some suburban bus lines run by private operators. Bus service covers the entire city, with approximately 170 routes totalling about 2,603 kilometres (1,617 mi), and with some 1,600 vehicles.
Currently, the _Tramwaje Warszawskie_ (
The first section of the
Warsaw Metro was opened in 1995 initially
with a total of 11 stations. It now has 21 stations running a
distance of approximately 23 km (14 mi). Initially, all of the trains
were Russian built. In 1998, 108 new carriages were ordered from
The main railway station is Warszawa Centralna serving both domestic traffic to almost every major city in Poland, and international connections. There are also five other major railway stations and a number of smaller suburban stations.
* Public transport in Warsaw
Metro Line 1 , Wilson Square station *
Metro Line 2 , Nowy Świat-Uniwersytet station *
Entrance to Warsaw Metro *
Tram car *
Fast City Rail trains, Chopin Airport station *
Veturilo bicycle station
Main article: Infrastructure in Warsaw
Like many cities in Central and
Eastern Europe , infrastructure in
MUSIC AND THEATRE
The edifice of the Grand Theatre in Warsaw. It is one of the largest theatres in Europe, featuring one of the biggest stages in the world.
Thanks to numerous musical venues, including the _Teatr Wielki_, the
Polish National Opera , the Chamber Opera , the National Philharmonic
Hall and the National Theatre , as well as the Roma and Buffo music
theatres and the Congress Hall in the
Palace of Culture and Science ,
From 1833 to the outbreak of World War II, Plac Teatralny _(Theatre Square )_ was the country's cultural hub and home to the various theatres. Plac Teatralny and its environs was the venue for numerous parades, celebrations of state holidays, carnival balls and concerts.
The main building housed the Great Theatre from 1833 to 1834, the Rozmaitości Theatre from 1836 to 1924 and then the National Theatre, the Reduta Theatre from 1919 to 1924, and from 1928 to 1939 – the Nowy Theatre, which staged productions of contemporary poetical drama, including those directed by Leon Schiller .
Nearby, in Ogród Saski (the Saxon Garden ), the Summer Theatre was in operation from 1870 to 1939, and in the inter-war period , the theatre complex also included Momus, Warsaw's first literary cabaret, and Leon Schiller 's musical theatre Melodram. The Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre (1922–26) was the best example of "Polish monumental theatre". From the mid-1930s, the Great Theatre building housed the Upati Institute of Dramatic Arts – the first state-run academy of dramatic art, with an acting department and a stage directing department.
Several commemorative events take place every year. Gatherings of thousands of people on the banks of the Vistula on Midsummer’s Night for a festival called Wianki (Polish for _Wreaths_) have become a tradition and a yearly event in the programme of cultural events in Warsaw. The festival traces its roots to a peaceful pagan ritual where maidens would float their wreaths of herbs on the water to predict when they would be married, and to whom. By the 19th century this tradition had become a festive event, and it continues today. The city council organize concerts and other events. Each Midsummer’s Eve, apart from the official floating of wreaths, jumping over fires, and looking for the fern flower , there are musical performances, dignitaries' speeches, fairs and fireworks by the river bank.
MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES
NAME AND OFFICIAL WEBSITE
Zachęta National Gallery of Art (site)
* Royal Castle (site)
Copernicus Science Centre (site)
* Centre for Contemporary Art (site)
Museum of Modern Art (site)
Museum of the Polish Army (site)
* Fryderyk Chopin
The levelling of
As interesting examples of expositions the most notable are: the world's first Museum of Posters boasting one of the largest collections of art posters in the world, the Museum of Hunting and Riding and the Railway Museum. From among Warsaw's 60 museums, the most prestigious ones are the National Museum with a collection of works whose origin ranges in time from antiquity till the present epoch as well as one of the best collections of paintings in the country including some paintings from Adolf Hitler's private collection, and the Museum of the Polish Army whose set portrays the history of arms.
The collections of Łazienki and Wilanów palaces (both buildings came through the war in good shape) focus on the paintings of the "old masters", as do those of the Royal Castle which displays the Lanckoroński Collection including two paintings by Rembrandt. The Palace in Natolin , a former rural residence of Duke Czartoryski , is another venue with its interiors and park accessible to tourists. The 17th-century Ostrogski Castle houses the Chopin Museum .
Holding Poland's largest private collection of art, the Carroll Porczyński Collection Museum displays works from such varied artists as Paris Bordone , Cornelis van Haarlem , José de Ribera , William-Adolphe Bouguereau , Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Vincent van Gogh along with some copies of masterpieces of European painting.
A fine tribute to the fall of
The 17th century Royal
Ujazdów Castle currently houses the Centre
for Contemporary Art, with some permanent and temporary exhibitions,
concerts, shows and creative workshops. The Centre currently realizes
about 500 projects a year. The
Zachęta National Gallery of Art , the
oldest exhibition site in Warsaw, with a tradition stretching back to
the mid-19th century organises exhibitions of modern art by Polish and
international artists and promotes art in many other ways. Since 2011
MEDIA AND FILM
See also: List of films featuring Warsaw Main TVP headquarters at Woronicza street
Since May 1661 the first Polish newspaper, the _Polish Ordinary Mercury _, was printed in Warsaw. The city is also the printing capital of Poland with a wide variety of domestic and foreign periodicals expressing diverse views, and domestic newspapers are extremely competitive. _Rzeczpospolita _, _ Gazeta Wyborcza _ and _ Dziennik Polska-Europa-Świat _, Poland's large nationwide daily newspapers , have their headquarters in Warsaw.
Over the next few years the new Film City in Nowe Miasto , located a
mere 80 km (50 mi) from Warsaw, will become the centre of Polish film
production and international co-production. It is to be the largest
high-tech film studio in Europe. The first projects filmed in the new
Film City will be two films about the
Warsaw Uprising . Two backlots
will be constructed for these projects – a lot of pre-World War II
Since World War II,
Main article: Sport in Warsaw
On 9 April 2008 the President of Warsaw,
Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz ,
obtained from the mayor of
Wolfgang Schuster a challenge
award – a commemorative plaque awarded to
The National Stadium , a 58,500 seat capacity football (soccer) stadium , replaced Warsaw's recently demolished 10th-Anniversary Stadium . The national stadium hosted the opening match, 2 group matches, a quarterfinal, and a semifinal of the UEFA Euro 2012 hosted jointly by Poland and Ukraine . The Olympic Center
There are many sports centres in the city as well. Most of these facilities are swimming pools and sports halls, many of them built by the municipality in the past several years. The main indoor venue is Hala Torwar , used for all kinds of indoor sports (it was a venue for the 2009 EuroBasket but it is also used as an indoor skating rink). There is also an open-air skating rink (Stegny) and a horse racetrack (Służewiec).
The best of the city's swimming centres is at Wodny Park Warszawianka, 4 km (2 mi) south of the centre at Merliniego Street, where there's an Olympic-sized pool as well as water slides and children's areas.
From the Warsovian football teams, the most famous is Legia Warsaw – the army club with a nationwide following play at Polish Army Stadium , just southeast of the centre at Łazienkowska Street . Established in 1916, they have won the country’s championship 11 times (most recently in 2016) and won the Polish Cup 18 times. In the Champions League season 1995/96 they reached the quarter-finals, where they lost to Panathinaikos Athens.
Their local rivals, Polonia Warsaw , have significantly fewer supporters, yet they managed to win the country's championship two times (in 1946 and 2000) and won the cup twice as well. Polonia's home venue is located at Konwiktorska Street, a ten-minute walk north from the Old Town . Polonia was relegated from the country's top flight in 2013 because of their disastrous financial situation. They are now playing in the second league (3rd tier in Poland).
The mermaid (_syrenka_) is Warsaw's symbol and can be found on
statues throughout the city and on the city\'s coat of arms . This
imagery has been in use since at least the mid-14th century. The
oldest existing armed seal of
— Zygmunt Laukowski
_ 1855 bronze sculpture of The
Mermaid Statue stands in the very centre of Old Town Square,
surrounded by a fountain. Due to vandalism, the original statue had
been moved to the grounds of the Historical
The origin of the legendary figure is not fully known. The best-known legend, by Artur Oppman, is that long ago two of Triton 's daughters set out on a journey through the depths of the oceans and seas. One of them decided to stay on the coast of Denmark and can be seen sitting at the entrance to the port of Copenhagen . The second mermaid reached the mouth of the Vistula River and plunged into its waters. She stopped to rest on a sandy beach by the village of Warszowa, where fishermen came to admire her beauty and listen to her beautiful voice. A greedy merchant also heard her songs; he followed the fishermen and captured the mermaid.
Another legend says that a mermaid once swam to
Every member of the Queen\'s Royal Hussars of the United Kingdom light cavalry wears the _Maid of Warsaw_, the crest of the City of Warsaw, on the left sleeve of his No. 2 (Service) Dress. Members of 651 Squadron Army Air Corps of the United Kingdom also wear the _Maid of Warsaw_ on the left sleeve of their No. 2 (Service) Dress.
One of the most famous people born in
Tamara de Lempicka was a famous artist born in Warsaw. She was born
Maria Górska in
* Largest capital cities of the European Union : ranked 9th (2012). * Most expensive cities : ranked 113th of 144. * Livability Index : ranked 32nd (2012)
TWIN TOWNS AND SISTER CITIES
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Poland
* _ Astana in Kazakhstan (since 2002)_ * _ Berlin in Germany (since 1991)_ * _ Budapest in Hungary (since 2005)_ * _ Buenos Aires in Argentina (since 1992)_ * _ Chicago in the United States (since 1960)_ * _ Coventry in the United Kingdom (since 1957)_ * _ Düsseldorf in Germany (since 1989)_ * _ Grozny in Russia (since 1997)_ * _ Hamamatsu in Japan (since 1990)_
* _ Hanoi in Vietnam (since 2000)_ * _ Harbin in China (since 1993)_ * _ Île-de- France in France (since 1990)_ * _ Istanbul in Turkey (since 1991)_ * _ Kiev in Ukraine (since 1994)_ * _ Madrid in Spain (since 1981)_ * _ Manila in Philippines (since 2006)_ * _ Moscow in Russia (since 1993)_ * _ Oslo in Norway (since 2005)_ * _ Riga in Latvia (since 2002)_
* _ Rio de Janeiro in Brazil (since 1997)_ * _ Saint-Étienne in France (since 1995)_ * _ St. Petersburg in Russia (since 1997)_ * _ Seoul in South Korea (since 1996)_ * _ Taipei in Taiwan (since 1995)_ * _ Tel Aviv in Israel (since 1992)_ * _ The Hague in Netherlands (since 1991)_ * _ Toronto in Canada (since 1990)_ * _ Vilnius in Lithuania (since 1998)_
References – city's official site.
* v * t * e
WARSAW IN ART
_Castle Square _ , Bernardo Bellotto , 1767-1768 *
_New Town Market Square _, Bernardo Bellotto , 1778 *
_Piarist church_, Marcin Zaleski , 1830 *
_Sand miners_, Aleksander Gierymski , 1887 *
WARSAW IN LITERATURE
“ City of menace, like a coffin lid thrown down an abyss as if by a tempest's blow – yet proud as a black lion who takes long to die ”
— _Warsaw_, Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński
“ What are you doing here, poet, on the ruins Of St. John's Cathedral this sunny Day in spring? What are you thinking here, where the wind Blowing from the Vistula scatters The red dust of the rubble? ”
— _In Warsaw_, Czesław Miłosz
BEFORE THE WAR AND TODAY
Marszałkowska Street 1912 *
Marszałkowska Street 2012 *
Great Synagogue 1910s *
Blue Skyscraper 2011 *
Vienna Railway Station the end of the nineteenth century *
Roman Dmowski Roundabout 2014 *
Saxon Square 1919 *
Piłsudski Square 2013 *
Brühl Palace 1939 *
Metropolitan building 2009 *
Sienna and Zgoda streets intersection 1917 *
Stefan Wiechecki "Wiech" Passage 2007
WARSAW IN PHOTOCHROME PRINTS
Adam Mickiewicz monument *
City Hall *
Grand Theatre *
St. Alexander\'s Church *
GREENERY IN THE CITY
Library Garden *
Botanical Garden *
Wilanów Palace Park *
Krasiński Garden *
Mokotów Field *
Agrykola Park *
* Poland portal
* ^ "Urząd Statystyczny w Warszawie". _warszawa.stat.gov.pl_.
* ^ "Population on 1 January by age groups and sex - functional
urban areas". Eurostat. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
* ^ "Warsaw". _goeuro2012.com_. Archived from the original on 3
June 2008. Retrieved 15 July 2008.
* ^ Pleshakov, Constantine (27 October 2009). "There Is No Freedom
Without Bread!: 1989 and the Civil War That Brought Down Communism".
Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Retrieved 9 April 2017 – via Google
* ^ "The SETAC Europe 18th Annual Meeting". _setac.eu_. Archived
from the original on 28 May 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
* ^ "The city of phoenix – War*saw everything" (in Polish).
Retrieved 22 January 2009.
* ^ "Coat of Arms and Colours of the Capital City of Warsaw".
_bip.warszawa.pl_. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
* ^ Czerkawski, Andrzej; Jurga, Tadeusz (1969). _Dla ciebie
ojczyzno_. Sport i Turystyka. p. 435. ORDER OF VALOUR "VIRTUTI
MILITARI", FIFTH CLASS Capital City of
* ^ _The Soviet troops, ordered by Stalin to wait until the Germans
had destroyed the remnants of Polish resistance, then moved into what
was left of Warsaw, flushed out the remaining Germans, and proclaimed
themselves liberators of the city_.
Wesley Adamczyk (2004). _When God looked the other way: an odyssey of
war, exile, and redemption_.
Chicago Press. p. 170. ISBN
0-226-00443-0 . * ^ "Historic Centre of Warsaw". _whc.unesco.org_.
Retrieved 24 July 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Pope in Warsaw". _destinationwarsaw.com_.
Retrieved 5 February 2009.
* ^ UK, DVV Media. "Warszawa opens second metro line".
* ^ "Attracting foreign investments". _polandtrade.com.hk_. The
* ^ "
* ^ "Tourism". _poland.gov.pl_. Retrieved 28 July 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Industry". _e-warsaw.pl_. Retrieved 28 July
* ^ Jerzy J. Parysek. "The socio-economic and spatial
transformation of Polish cities after 1989" (PDF). _ff.uni-lj.si_.
Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2008. Retrieved 28
* ^ "Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of
Poland 2008" (PDF).
_stat.gov.pl_. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 February 2009.
Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ "Studia w liczbach: Warszawa bije Kraków". _miasta.gazeta.pl_
(in Polish). 10 March 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ "
University of Warsaw". _uw.edu.pl_. Archived from the original
on 18 January 2009. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ "
Warsaw University of Technology (WUT)". _onelab.eu_. Archived
from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2009. _With
over 30,000 students served by over 2,000 professors and instructors,
WUT is the largest and the highest-ranking engineering university in
* ^ "The Fryderyk Chopin
University of Music". _infochopin.pl_.
Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ "
Warsaw School of Economics – Overview". _sgh.waw.pl_.
Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ "
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Garden". _buw.uw.edu.pl_. Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Michal Jeziorski (7 March 2007). "Improving
Infrastructure". _warsawvoice.pl_. Archived from the original on 27
June 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2009.
* ^ "TomTom European Traffic Index" (PDF). TomTom. 2013. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 25 November
* ^ "
Frédéric Chopin International Airport".
_airport-technology.com_. Retrieved 24 July 2008.
* ^ "Pole position: Developing "the most important and largest
airport in Central Europe"". _airport-business.com_. Retrieved 30
* ^ "Public transport". _e-warsaw.pl_. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
* ^ "From monopoly towards market" (PDF).
_siteresources.worldbank.org_. Retrieved 22 August 2008.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "A History of Subway Construction". _metro.waw.pl_.
Archived from the original on 10 December 2006. Retrieved 30 January
* ^ "Technical and Operating Data of the Existing Subway Section".
_metro.waw.pl_. Archived from the original on 17 January 2007.
Retrieved 30 January 2009.
* ^ Ewa Pronicka and coordinators (27 April 2004). "Perfect for
Children". _warsawvoice.pl_. Archived from the original on 22 October
2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Denise Wise, PT, with Kristin Wodzinski, PT. "People to
Russia and Poland". _apta.org_. Archived from the original on
1 December 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2009. CS1 maint: Multiple names:
authors list (link )
* ^ *_
* ^ "Sister Cities of Istanbul". Retrieved 8 September 2007.
* ^ Erdem, Selim Efe (3 November 2003). "İstanbul\'a 49 kardeş"
(in Turkish). Radikal. 49 sister cities in 2003
* ^ "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de
Madrid city council webpage.
* ^ "Partners –
Oslo kommune". oslo.kommune.no. Archived from the
original on 2 January 2009.
* ^ "Twin cities of Riga".
Riga City Council . Archived from the
original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
* ^ "
Saint Petersburg in figures – International and
Saint Petersburg City Government. Archived from
the original on 24 February 2009. Retrieved 23 March 2008.
* ^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". _
Government_. seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on 10 December
2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.
* ^ "
Seoul -Sister Cities ". _
Seoul Metropolitan Government
(archived 2012-04-25)_. Archived from the original on 25 March 2012.
Retrieved 23 August 2013.
* ^ Archived 10 April 2014 at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ "
Tel Aviv sister cities" (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv-Yafo
Municipality. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009.
Retrieved 14 July 2009.
* ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". _um.warszawa.pl_ (in Polish).
Biuro Promocji Miasta. 4 May 2005. Archived from the original on 4
July 2010. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
* ^ "
Tbilisi Sister Cities". _
Tbilisi City Hall_.
Portal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August
* ^ "Friendship and cooperation agreements". Paris: Marie de Paris.
Archived from the original on 3 April 2016. Retrieved 10 September
* ^ "Partnerská města HMP" . _Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" _ (in
Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013.
Retrieved 5 August 2013.
* ^ "Official website - Partner cities". _yerevan.am_. Retrieved 28
* ^ _Cracow
Suburb as seen from the Cracow Gate_ shows the view of
Castle Square and
* ^ _The return of squads of Polish army from Wierzbna_ is showing
the general view of
Krakowskie Przedmieście with Tyszkiewicz Palace
* ^ The painting shows the
Vistula embankment near the Kierbedź
Bridge in Warsaw. The framework bridge was constructed by Stanisław
Kierbedź in 1850–1864. It was recognized by once as modern
structure and as "amazing heap of iron" by others. The bridge was
destroyed by the Nazis in 1944.
* ^ Full name: _
Nowy Świat Street in
Find more aboutWARSAWat's sister projects
* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity
* Crowley, David (2003). _Warsaw_.
Reaktion Books . ISBN
1-86189-179-2 . Retrieved 28 August 2011.
* Olchowik-Adamowska, Liliana; Ławecki, Tomasz (1 April 2006).
_Travellers Warsaw_ (First ed.).
Peterborough , United Kingdom: Thomas
Cook Publishing . ISBN 978-1-84157-492-9 . Retrieved 11 March 2010.
* Bozenna Kirkpatrick (18 July 2012). "Polish
Vistula River Victory
of 1920, implications". _An Outline_. Electronic Museum.ca. Archived
from the original (Internet Archive) on 1 November 2012. Retrieved 3
* Official webpage of
_See also: Bibliography of the history of
LINKS TO RELATED ARTICLES
* v * t * e
* v * t * e
Principal cities of Poland
* KRAKóW * ŁóDź * WROCłAW * POZNAń
* Gliwice * RZESZóW * Zabrze * OLSZTYN * Bytom * Bielsko-Biała * Ruda Śląska * Rybnik * Tychy * Dąbrowa Górnicza * GORZóW WIELKOPOLSKI * Płock * Elbląg * OPOLE * Wałbrzych * ZIELONA GóRA * Włocławek * Tarnów * Chorzów * Koszalin * Kalisz * Legnica
* v * t * e
Capitals of European states and territories
Capitals of dependent territories and states whose sovereignty is disputed shown in italics_.
* AMSTERDAM , Netherlands1 * ANDORRA LA VELLA , Andorra * BERN , Switzerland * BRUSSELS , Belgium2 * _DOUGLAS , Isle of Man (UK)_ * DUBLIN , Ireland * LONDON , United Kingdom * LUXEMBOURG , Luxembourg * PARIS , France * _SAINT HELIER , Jersey (UK)_ * _SAINT PETER PORT , Guernsey (UK)_
* COPENHAGEN , Denmark * HELSINKI , Finland * _LONGYEARBYEN , Svalbard (Norway)_ * _MARIEHAMN , Åland Islands (Finland)_ * _NUUK , Greenland (Denmark)_ * _OLONKINBYEN , Jan Mayen (Norway)_ * OSLO , Norway * REYKJAVíK , Iceland * STOCKHOLM , Sweden * _TóRSHAVN , Faroe Islands (Denmark)_
* BERLIN , Germany * BRATISLAVA , Slovakia * BUDAPEST , Hungary * LJUBLJANA , Slovenia * PRAGUE , Czech Republic * VADUZ , Liechtenstein * VIENNA , Austria * WARSAW, Poland
* ANKARA , Turkey3 * ATHENS , Greece * BELGRADE , Serbia * BUCHAREST , Romania * _GIBRALTAR , Gibraltar (UK)_ * LISBON , Portugal * MADRID , Spain * MONACO , Monaco * NICOSIA , Cyprus4 * _NORTH NICOSIA , Northern Cyprus_4, 5 * PODGORICA , Montenegro * _PRISTINA , Kosovo_5 * ROME , Italy * SAN MARINO , San Marino * SARAJEVO , Bosnia and Herzegovina * SKOPJE , Macedonia * SOFIA , Bulgaria * TIRANA , Albania * VALLETTA , Malta * VATICAN CITY , Vatican City * ZAGREB , Croatia
* ASTANA , Kazakhstan3 * BAKU , Azerbaijan3 * CHIșINăU , Moldova * KIEV , Ukraine * MINSK , Belarus * MOSCOW , Russia3 * RIGA , Latvia * _STEPANAKERT , Nagorno-Karabakh_4, 5 * _SUKHUMI , Abkhazia_3, 5 * TALLINN , Estonia * TBILISI , Georgia3 * _TIRASPOL , Transnistria_5 * _TSKHINVALI , South Ossetia_3, 5 * VILNIUS , Lithuania * YEREVAN , Armenia4
* 1 Also the capital of the Kingdom of the Netherlands * 2 Also the seat of the European Union , see Institutional seats of the European Union and Brussels and the European Union * 3 Transcontinental country * 4 Entirely in Southwest Asia but having socio-political connections with Europe * 5 Partially recognised country
* v * t * e
Capital cities of the member states of the European Union
Ireland : Dublin
* v * t * e
World Heritage Sites in Poland
* Auschwitz-Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination
Białowieża Forest / Belovezhskaya Pushcha (with
* Castle of the Teutonic Order in Malbork
* Centennial Hall,
Churches of Peace in Jawor and Świdnica
* Cracow\'s Historic Centre
* Kalwaria Zebrzydowska : the Mannerist Architectural and Park
Landscape Complex and Pilgrimage Park
* Medieval Town of
* Muskauer Park / Park Mużakowski (with
Old City of Zamość
* Tarnowskie Góry Lead-Silver-Zinc Mine and its Underground Water
* Historic Centre of
* v * t * e
European Capitals of Sport
* 2001 Madrid * 2002 Stockholm * 2003 Glasgow * 2004 Alicante * 2005 Rotterdam * 2006 Copenhagen * 2007 Stuttgart * 2008 Warsaw * 2009 Milan * 2010 Dublin * 2011 Valencia * 2012 Istanbul * 2013 Antwerp * 2014 Cardiff * 2015 Turin * 2016 Prague * 2017 Marseille * 2018 Sofia * 2019 Budapest * 2020 Málaga
* v * t * e
Counties of Masovian Voivodeship
* Grodzisk Mazowiecki
* Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki
* Ostrów Mazowiecka
Coordinates : 52°14′N 21°1′E / 52.233°N 21.017°E / 52.233; 21.017
* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 146267734 * LCCN : n79018894 * GND : 4079048-4 * SELIBR : 162121 * BNF : cb11957734t (data)