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Poetry
Poetry
Poetry
(the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic[1][2][3] qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry
Poetry
has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy
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Simile
A simile (/ˈsɪməli/) is a figure of speech that directly compares two things.[1][2] Although similes and metaphors are similar, similes explicitly use connecting words (such as like, as, so, than, or various verbs such as resemble),[1] though these specific words are not always necessary.[3] While similes are mainly used in forms of poetry that compare the inanimate and the living, there are also terms in which similes and personifications are used for humorous purposes and comparison.Contents1 Uses1.1 In literature 1.2 In comedy2 In languages other than English2.1 Arabic 2.2 Vietnamese3 See also 4 ReferencesUses[edit] In literature[edit]"O My Luve's like a red, red rose." "A Red, Red Rose," by Robert Burns.[1][4] John Milton, Paradise Lost, a Homeric simile:[5]As when a prowling Wolf, Whom hunger drives to seek new haunt for prey, Watching where Shepherds pen thir Flocks at eve In hurdl'd Cotes amid the field secure, Le
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Meaning (linguistics)
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.[1][2]Contents1 The sources of ambiguity1.1 Pragmatics 1.2 Semantic meaning 1.3 Conceptual meaning2 Semiotics 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksThe sources of ambiguity[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Ambiguity
Ambiguity
means confusion about what is conveyed, since the current context may lead to different interpretations of meaning. Many words in many languages have multiple definitions. Ambiguity
Ambiguity
is an effect of a rupture of the rule of identity in the context of the exchange of information
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Symbol
A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship. Symbols allow people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences. All communication (and data processing) is achieved through the use of symbols. Symbols take the form of words, sounds, gestures, ideas or visual images and are used to convey other ideas and beliefs. For example, a red octagon may be a symbol for "STOP". On a map, a blue line might represent a river. Numerals are symbols for numbers. Alphabetic letters may be symbols for sounds. Personal names are symbols representing individuals. A red rose may symbolize love and compassion
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Ambiguity
Ambiguity
Ambiguity
is a type of uncertainty of meaning in which several interpretations are plausible. It is thus an attribute of any idea or statement whose intended meaning cannot be definitively resolved according to a rule or process with a finite number of steps. (The ambi- part of the term reflects an idea of "two", as in "two meanings".) The concept of ambiguity is generally contrasted with vagueness. In ambiguity, specific and distinct interpretations are permitted (although some may not be immediately obvious), whereas with information that is vague, it is difficult to form any interpretation at the desired level of specificity. Context may play a role in resolving ambiguity
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Incantation
An incantation or enchantment is a charm or spell created using words. An incantation may take place during a ritual, either a hymn or prayer, and may invoke or praise a deity. In magic, occultism, shamanism, and witchcraft it is used with the intention of casting a spell on an object or a person. The term derives from Latin "incantare" (tr.), meaning "to chant (a magical spell) upon," from in- "into, upon" and cantare "to sing". In medieval literature, folklore, fairy tales and modern fantasy fiction, enchantments (from the Old French
Old French
"enchantement") are charms or spells. The term was loaned into English since around AD 1300. The corresponding native English term being "galdr" "song, spell"
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Music
Music
Music
is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time. The common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, meter, and articulation), dynamics (loudness and softness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (which are sometimes termed the "color" of a musical sound). Different styles or types of music may emphasize, de-emphasize or omit some of these elements. Music
Music
is performed with a vast range of instruments and vocal techniques ranging from singing to rapping; there are solely instrumental pieces, solely vocal pieces (such as songs without instrumental accompaniment) and pieces that combine singing and instruments
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Rhythm
Rhythm
Rhythm
(from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry" (Liddell and Scott 1996)) generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions" (Anon. 1971, 2537). This general meaning of regular recurrence or pattern in time can apply to a wide variety of cyclical natural phenomena having a periodicity or frequency of anything from microseconds to several seconds (as with the riff in a rock music song); to several minutes or hours, or, at the most extreme, even over many years. In the performance arts, rhythm is the timing of events on a human scale; of musical sounds and silences that occur over time, of the steps of a dance, or the meter of spoken language and poetry. In some performing arts, such as hip hop music, the rhythmic delivery of the lyrics is one of the most important elements of the style
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Onomatopoeia
An onomatopoeia (/ˌɒnəˌmætəˈpiːə, -ˌmɑː-/ ( listen);[1][2] from the Greek ὀνοματοποιία;[3] ὄνομα for "name"[4] and ποιέω for "I make",[5] adjectival form: "onomatopoeic" or "onomatopoetic") is a word that phonetically imitates, resembles or suggests the sound that it describes. As an uncountable noun, onomatopoeia refers to the property of such words
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Song
A song, most broadly, is a single (and often standalone) work of music that is typically intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that often include the repetition of sections. Written words created specifically for music or for which music is specifically created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are often referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs. These songs, which have broad appeal, are often composed by professional songwriters, composers and lyricists
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Speech Communication
Speech
Speech
is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon. Each spoken word is created out of the phonetic combination of a limited set of vowel and consonant speech sound units (phonemes). These vocabularies, the syntax that structures them, and their sets of speech sound units differ, creating many thousands of different, and mutually unintelligible, human languages. The vocal abilities that enable humans to produce speech also enable them to sing. A gestural form of human communication exists for the deaf in the form of sign language. Speech
Speech
in some cultures has become the basis of written language, often one that differs in its vocabulary, syntax and phonetics from its associated spoken one, a situation called diglossia
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Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna (Persian: مَزدَیَسنا یا دین زرتشتی), is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world".[1] Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster
Zoroaster
(or Zarathustra),[2] it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda
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Sumerian Language
Sumerian (Sumerian: 𒅴𒂠 EME.G̃IR15 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer
Sumer
and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(modern-day Iraq)
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Gathas
The Gathas are 17 Avestan
Avestan
hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan
Avestan
term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
gatha, both from the Indo-Iranian root *gā "to sing".Contents1 Structure and organization 2 Language 3 Content 4 Excerpts 5 Bibliography 6 Further reading 7 External linksStructure and organization[edit] The Gathas are in verse, metrical in the nature of ancient Iranian religious poetry, which is extremely terse, and in which grammatical constructs are an exception.[citation needed] The 17 hymns of the Gathas consist of 238 stanzas, of about 1300 lines or 6000 words in total
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Mount Parnassus
Mount Parnassus
Mount Parnassus
(/pɑːrˈnæsəs/; Greek: Παρνασσός, Parnassos) is a mountain of limestone in central Greece
Greece
that towers above Delphi, north of the Gulf of Corinth, and offers scenic views of the surrounding olive groves and countryside. According to Greek mythology, this mountain was sacred to Dionysus
Dionysus
and the Dionysian mysteries; it was also sacred to Apollo
Apollo
and the Corycian nymphs, and it was the home of the Muses. The mountain was also favored by the Dorians
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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