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Poales
See text The POALES are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons , and includes families of plants such as the grasses , bromeliads , and sedges . Sixteen plant families are currently recognized by botanists to be part of Poales. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Taxonomy * 2.1 Evolution and phylogeny * 2.2 Diversity * 3 Uses * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTION Billbergia pyramidalis of family Bromeliaceae The flowers are typically small, enclosed by bracts, and arranged in inflorescences (except in the genus Mayaca , with solitary terminal flowers). The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the seeds usually contain starch
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Cronquist System
The CRONQUIST SYSTEM is a taxonomic classification system of flowering plants . It was developed by Arthur Cronquist in a series of monographs and texts, including The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants (1968; 2nd edition, 1988) and An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) (see Bibliography ). Cronquist's system places flowering plants into two broad classes, MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicotyledons ) and LILIOPSIDA (monocotyledons ). Within these classes, related orders are grouped into subclasses. While the scheme was widely used, in either the original form or in adapted versions, many botanists now use the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants, first developed in 1998. The system as laid out in Cronquist's An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants (1981) counts 64 orders and 321 families in class Magnoliopsida and 19 orders and 65 families in class Liliopsida
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Plant
PLANTS are mainly multicellular , predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom PLANTAE. The term is today generally limited to the GREEN PLANTS, which form an unranked clade VIRIDIPLANTAE (Latin for "green plants"). This includes the flowering plants , conifers and other gymnosperms , ferns , clubmosses , hornworts , liverworts , mosses and the green algae , and excludes the red and brown algae . Historically, plants formed one of two kingdoms covering all living things that were not animals , and both algae and fungi were treated as plants; however all current definitions of "plant" exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria ). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts , derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria . Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Neogene
The NEOGENE ( /ˈniːəˌdʒiːn/ ) is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene
Neogene
is sub-divided into two epochs , the earlier Miocene
Miocene
and the later Pliocene . Some geologists assert that the Neogene
Neogene
cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary . During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids , the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa
Africa
near the end of the period
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Prionia
FALCARIA is a genus of moths belonging to the subfamily Drepaninae . DESCRIPTIONPalpi slender and not reaching beyond the frons. Antennae bipectinated in both sexes to near apex, the branches longer in male than in female. Hind tibia not dilated. Fore wings produced at apex. The outer margin usually excurved at middle. vein 3 from close to angle of cell. Veins 7 to 9 stalked from before upper angle and vein 11 anastomosing with vein 12. Hind wings with vein 3 from before angle of cell. SPECIES * Falcaria lacertinaria Linnaeus, 1758 * Falcaria bilineata Packard, 1864REFERENCES * ^ LepIndex * ^ Hampson G. F. (1892). "The Fauna Of British India Including Ceylon And Burma Moths Vol-iii". Digital Library of India. p. 558. Retrieved 4 July 2016. Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to FALCARIA This article on a moth of the Drepanidae
Drepanidae
family is a stub
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John Kunkel Small
JOHN KUNKEL SMALL (January 31, 1869 – January 20, 1938) was an American botanist . Born on January 31, 1869 in Harrisburg Pennsylvania, Kunkel studied botany at Franklin "> Family of John Kunkel Small
John Kunkel Small
in the Florida Everglades near Lake Okeechobee
Lake Okeechobee
aboard the boat "Lida", 1913. Small frequently brought his family with him on his botanical and ethnographic excursions. From left to right: George K. Small, Kathryn Wheeler Small, Elizabeth Wheeler Small, Elizabeth Small, and John Wheeler Small. He was the first Curator of Museums at The New York Botanical
Botanical
Garden , a post in which he served from 1898 until 1906. From 1906 to 1934 he was Head Curator and then from 1934 until his death he was Chief Research Associate and Curator
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Flower
A FLOWER, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom , is the reproductive structure found in plants that are floral (plants of the division Magnoliophyta , also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy ). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen . After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into fruit containing seeds
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Inflorescence
An INFLORESCENCE is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. Morphologically , it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis , as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations , connations and reduction of main and secondary axes. Inflorescence
Inflorescence
can also be defined as the reproductive portion of a plant that bears a cluster of flowers in a specific pattern. The stem holding the whole inflorescence is called a peduncle and the major axis (incorrectly referred to as the main stem) holding the flowers or more branches within the inflorescence is called the RACHIS . The stalk of each single flower is called a pedicel
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Starch
STARCH or AMYLUM is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds . This polysaccharide is produced by most green plants as energy storage. It is the most common carbohydrate in human diets and is contained in large amounts in staple foods like potatoes , wheat , maize (corn), rice , and cassava . Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. It consists of two types of molecules: the linear and helical amylose and the branched amylopectin . Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen
Glycogen
, the glucose store of animals, is a more highly branched version of amylopectin. In industry, starch is converted into sugars, for example by malting , and fermented to produce ethanol in the manufacture of beer , whisky and biofuel
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Order (biology)
In biological classification , the ORDER (Latin : ordo) is * a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes . Other well-known ranks are life , domain , kingdom , phylum , class , family , genus , and species , with order fitting in between class and family. An immediately higher rank, SUPERORDER, may be added directly above order, while SUBORDER would be a lower rank. * a taxonomic unit, a taxon , in that rank. In that case the plural is orders (Latin ordines). Example: All owls belong to the order Strigiformes. What does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist , as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. Often there is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in describing or recognizing an order
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Late Cretaceous
The LATE CRETACEOUS (100.5–66 Ma ) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
period is divided in the geologic timescale . Rock strata from this epoch form the UPPER CRETACEOUS series . The Cretaceous
Cretaceous
is named after the white limestone known as chalk which occurs widely in northern France and is seen in the white cliffs of south-eastern England, and which dates from this time. CONTENTS * 1 Climate * 2 Geography * 3 Vertebrate fauna * 3.1 Dinosaurs * 3.2 Pterosaurs * 3.3 Mammals * 3.4 Marine life * 4 Flora * 5 Cretaceous– Paleogene mass extinction * 6 See also * 7 References CLIMATEDuring the Late Cretaceous, the climate was warmer than present, although throughout the period a cooling trend is evident. The tropics became restricted to equatorial regions and northern latitudes experienced markedly more seasonal climatic conditions
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Paleogene
The PALEOGENE ( /ˈpæliːədʒiːn/ or /ˈpeɪliːədʒiːn/ ; also spelled PALAEOGENE or PALæOGENE; informally LOWER TERTIARY) is a geologic period and system that spans 43 million years from the end of the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period 66 million years ago (Mya ) to the beginning of the Neogene Period 23.03 Mya. It is the beginning of the Cenozoic Era of the present Phanerozoic Eon. The Paleogene is most notable for being the time during which mammals diversified from relatively small, simple forms into a large group of diverse animals in the wake of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event
that ended the preceding Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period. This period consists of the Paleocene , Eocene , and Oligocene epochs
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Ordovician
The ORDOVICIAN ( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/ ) is a geologic period and system , the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era . The Ordovician
Ordovician
spans 41.2 million years from the end of the Cambrian Period 485.4 million years ago (Mya) to the start of the Silurian Period 443.8 Mya. The Ordovician, named after the Celtic tribe of the Ordovices , was defined by Charles Lapworth in 1879 to resolve a dispute between followers of Adam Sedgwick and Roderick Murchison , who were placing the same rock beds in northern Wales into the Cambrian
Cambrian
and Silurian periods, respectively. Lapworth recognized that the fossil fauna in the disputed strata were different from those of either the Cambrian or the Silurian
Silurian
periods, and placed them in a period of their own
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Silurian
The SILURIAN is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya ), to the beginning of the Devonian
Devonian
Period, 419.2 Mya. As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian
Silurian
is set at a major Ordovician-Silurian extinction event
Ordovician-Silurian extinction event
when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian
Silurian
was the diversification of jawed and bony fish
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Cambrian
The CAMBRIAN Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/ ) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician Period 485.4 mya. Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux. The period was established (as “Cambrian series”) by