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Pirot
PIROT (Serbian Cyrillic : Пирот) is a city and the administrative center of the Pirot District in eastern Serbia
Serbia
. According to 2011 census, the urban area of the city has a population of 38,785, while the population of the city administrative area has 57,928 inhabitants. The city has rich geographical features, including the mountains of Stara Planina , Vlaška Planina , Belava , Suva Planina ; rivers which flow through the town, including Nišava
Nišava
, Jerma, Rasnička Reka, Temštica and the Visočica; and four lakes, the Zavoj Lake, Berovacko Lake, Krupac Lake and Sukovo Lake. The city has a rich culture, with notable Orthodox church buildings, including the Church of St. Petka, and the monastery of St. Georges and St. John the Theologian from the late 14th century, both of which display a fine example of medieval Serbian architecture
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Necropolis
A NECROPOLIS is a large, designed cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments. The name stems from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νεκρόπολις nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead". The term usually implies a separate burial site at a distance from a city, as opposed to tombs within cities, which were common in various places and periods of history. They are different from grave fields , which did not have remains above the ground. While the word is most commonly used for ancient sites, the name was revived in the early 19th century and applied to planned city cemeteries, such as the Glasgow Necropolis . HISTORY THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (June 2013) Mastabas in the Giza Necropolis with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background
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Vicus
In Ancient Rome , the VICUS (plural vici) was a neighborhood or settlement. During the Republican era , the four regiones of the city of Rome were subdivided into vici. In the 1st century BC, Augustus reorganized the city for administrative purposes into 14 regions , comprising 265 vici. Each vicus had its own board of officials who oversaw local matters. These administrative divisions are recorded as still in effect at least through the mid-4th century. The Latin word vicus was also applied to the smallest administrative unit of a provincial town within the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, and to an ad hoc provincial civilian settlement that sprang up close to and because of a nearby official Roman site, usually a military garrison or state-owned mining operation
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Danube
The DANUBE (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-ewb , known by various names in other languages ) is Europe
Europe
's second-longest river , after the Volga River . It is located in Central and Eastern Europe
Europe
. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world
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Bulgars
The BULGARS (also Bulghars, Bulgari, Bolgars, Bolghars, Bolgari; Proto- Bulgarians ) were semi-nomadic warrior Turkic tribes who flourished in the Pontic-Caspian steppe and the Volga region
Volga region
during the 7th century. Emerging as nomadic equestrians in the Volga-Ural region , according to some researchers their roots can be traced to Central Asia . During their westward migration across the Eurasian steppe the Bulgars
Bulgars
absorbed other ethnic groups and cultural influences, including Hunnic and Indo-European peoples. Modern genetic research on Central Asian Turkic people
Turkic people
and ethnic groups related to the Bulgars
Bulgars
points to an affiliation with western Eurasian and European populations. The Bulgars
Bulgars
spoke a Turkic language, i.e. Bulgar language of Oghuric branch
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Thermae
In ancient Rome
Rome
, THERMAE (from Greek θερμός thermos, "hot") and BALNEAE (from Greek βαλανεῖον balaneion) were facilities for bathing. Thermae
Thermae
usually refers to the large imperial bath complexes , while balneae were smaller-scale facilities, public or private, that existed in great numbers throughout Rome. Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were centres not only for bathing, but socializing. Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas , town houses , and forts . They were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more normally, by an aqueduct . The water would be heated by a log fire before being channelled into the hot bathing rooms. The design of baths is discussed by Vitruvius
Vitruvius
in De Architectura
De Architectura

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Sofia
SOFIA (/ˈsoʊfiə/ or /ˈsɒfiə/ or /soʊˈfiːə/ ; ) (Bulgarian : София, translit. Sofiya, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria
Bulgaria
. 1.26 million people live in the city and 1.68 million people live in its metropolitan area. The city is at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country. Being in the centre of the Balkan peninsula
Balkan peninsula
, it is midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea , whereas the Aegean Sea is the closest to it. Sofia
Sofia
has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BC. Being Bulgaria's primate city , Sofia
Sofia
is a hometown of many of the major local universities , cultural institutions and commercial companies
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Upper Moesia
MOESIA (/ˈmiːʃə, -siə, -ʒə/ ; Latin
Latin
: Moesia; Greek : Μοισία, Moisía) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans
Balkans
, along the south bank of the Danube
Danube
River . It included most of the territory of modern-day Central Serbia
Central Serbia
, Kosovo
Kosovo
and the northern parts of the modern Republic of Macedonia (MOESIA SUPERIOR), as well as Northern Bulgaria and Romanian Dobrudja (MOESIA INFERIOR). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYIn ancient geographical sources, Moesia
Moesia
was bounded to the south by the Haemus (Balkans) and Scardus (Šar) mountains, to the west by the Drinus (Drina) river, on the north by the Donaris (Danube) and on the east by the Euxine (Black Sea)
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Dacia Mediterranea
DACIA MEDITERRANEA (Midland Dacia") was a late Roman province
Roman province
, split off from the former Dacia Aureliana
Dacia Aureliana
by Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Diocletian . Serdica (or Sardica; later Sradetz or Sredets, now Sofia) was the province capital
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Procopius Of Caesarea
PROCOPIUS OF CAESAREA (Greek : Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Latin : Procopius Caesariensis; c. 500 – c. 554 AD) was a prominent late antique scholar from Palaestina Prima . Accompanying the Roman general Belisarius
Belisarius
in the wars of the Emperor Justinian , he became the principal Byzantine historian of the 6th century, writing the Wars (or Histories), the Buildings of Justinian and the now-celebrated (and infamous) Secret History. He is commonly held to be the last major historian of the ancient Western world
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Justinian I
JUSTINIAN I (/dʒʌˈstɪniən/ ; Latin : Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek : Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós) (c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as JUSTINIAN THE GREAT and also SAINT JUSTINIAN THE GREAT in the Eastern Orthodox Church , was the Byzantine (East Roman) emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire. Justinian's rule constitutes a distinct epoch in the history of the Later Roman empire
Later Roman empire
, and his reign is marked by the ambitious but only partly realized renovatio imperii, or "restoration of the Empire". Because of his restoration activities, Justinian has sometimes been called the "last Roman " in modern historiography
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Basil II
BASIL II (Greek : Βασίλειος Β΄, Basileios II; 958 – 15 December 1025) was a Byzantine Emperor
Byzantine Emperor
from the Macedonian dynasty who reigned from 10 January 976 to 15 December 1025. He was known in his time as BASIL THE PORPHYROGENITUS and BASIL THE YOUNG to distinguish him from his supposed ancestor, Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian . He was the second longest reigning emperor after his brother Constantine VIII whom he named co-emperor in 962, but outlived him by 3 years. The early years of his long reign were dominated by civil war against powerful generals from the Anatolian aristocracy. Following their submission, Basil oversaw the stabilization and expansion of the eastern frontier of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
, and above all, the final and complete subjugation of Bulgaria , the Empire's foremost European foe, after a prolonged struggle
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Manuel I Komnenos
MANUEL I KOMNENOS (or COMNENUS; Greek : Μανουήλ Α' Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Komnēnos; 28 November 1118 – 24 September 1180) was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean . His reign saw the last flowering of the Komnenian restoration , during which the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
had seen a resurgence of its military and economic power, and had enjoyed a cultural revival. Eager to restore his empire to its past glories as the superpower of the Mediterranean world, Manuel pursued an energetic and ambitious foreign policy. In the process he made alliances with the Pope and the resurgent West . He invaded the Norman Kingdom of Sicily
Kingdom of Sicily
, although unsuccessfully. The passage of the potentially dangerous Second Crusade was adroitly managed through his empire
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Hilandar
The HILANDAR MONASTERY (Serbian Cyrillic : Манастир Хиландар, pronounced , Greek : Μονή Χιλανδαρίου) is the Serbian Orthodox monastery
Serbian Orthodox monastery
in Mount Athos in Greece
Greece
. It was founded in 1198 by first Archbishop
Archbishop
of the Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
Saint Sava
Saint Sava
and his father and founder of the Nemanjić dynasty Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
, who upon relinquishing his crown, took monastic vows to become ordinary monk Symeon in Hilandar. This monastery represents a focal point of Serbian religious and secular culture, as well as "the first Serbian university". It is ranked fourth in the Athonite hierarchy of 20 sovereign monasteries
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Miloš Obilić
MILOš OBILIć (Serbian Cyrillic : Милош Обилић, pronounced ; died June 15, 1389) was a Serbian knight in the service of Prince Lazar
Prince Lazar
, during the invasion of the Ottoman Empire . He is not mentioned in contemporary sources, but he features prominently in later accounts of the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
as the assassin of the Ottoman sultan Murad I
Murad I
. Although the assassin remains anonymous in sources until the late 15th century, the dissemination of the story of Murad's assassination in Florentine, Serbian, Ottoman and Greek sources suggests that versions of it circulated widely across the Balkans within half a century after the event. It is not certain whether Obilić actually existed, but Lazar's family – strengthening their political control – "gave birth to the myth of Kosovo", including the story of Obilić
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Great Turkish War
Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
* Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
* Principality of Upper Hungary
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