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PIROT (Serbian Cyrillic : Пирот) is a city and the administrative center of the Pirot District in eastern Serbia
Serbia
. According to 2011 census, the urban area of the city has a population of 38,785, while the population of the city administrative area has 57,928 inhabitants.

The city has rich geographical features, including the mountains of Stara Planina
Stara Planina
, Vlaška Planina , Belava , Suva Planina
Suva Planina
; rivers which flow through the town, including Nišava , Jerma, Rasnička Reka, Temštica and the Visočica; and four lakes, the Zavoj Lake, Berovacko Lake, Krupac Lake and Sukovo Lake.

The city has a rich culture, with notable Orthodox church buildings, including the Church of St. Petka, and the monastery of St. Georges and St. John the Theologian from the late 14th century, both of which display a fine example of medieval Serbian architecture. Pirot
Pirot
is known for its traditional woven carpet, the Pirot
Pirot
kilim (Pirotski ćilim).

CONTENTS

* 1 Geography

* 2 History

* 2.1 Roman era * 2.2 Early Byzantine era * 2.3 Middle Ages * 2.4 Ottoman rule * 2.5 Modern history

* 3 Settlements

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Ethnic groups

* 5 Culture * 6 Tourist attractions * 7 Gallery * 8 Notable people * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 External links

GEOGRAPHY

The city, which covers an area of 1,235 km2 (476.84 sq mi), has several mountains in the vicinity, including Stara Planina
Stara Planina
, Vlaška planina , Belava , and Suva Planina
Suva Planina
.

The following rivers flow through Pirot: the Nišava , Jerma, Rasnička Reka, Temštica and the Visočica. Pirot
Pirot
also has four lakes: Zavoj Lake, Berovacko Lake, Krupac Lake and Sukov Lake.

HISTORY

ROMAN ERA

During the rule of Roman emperor Tiberius (14–37), Ponišavlje was part of Moesia
Moesia
, and during Vespasian (69–79) it was, as the rest of Serbia, organized into Upper Moesia
Moesia
(as opposed to most of Bulgaria, Lower Moesia
Moesia
). At the end of the 4th century the basin of the Nišava was organized into the province of Dacia Mediterranea . The Roman settlement of Turres (Latin for "towers"), which was a military residence, is mentioned in the first half of the 3rd century. Later, the Byzantine town of Quimedava is mentioned here, with remains that have survived.

The town was set to enable control and defence of the main road in this part of the empire. Besides, travellers could sleep here overnight, as well as get refreshments and new horses or vehicles. In time, the settlement advanced because of the important road passing through. It was also disturbed very persistently by invasions of the Gothic tribes throughout the 4th century, as well as the Huns in the 5th century.

EARLY BYZANTINE ERA

According to the written accounts On Buildings by Procopius of Caesarea , writing during the reign of the emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(527 – 565), the emperor ordered the reconstruction of thirty fortresses in the area from Niš
Niš
to Sofia
Sofia
, including the towers of Pirot. He also gave the detailed description of those construction works. In times when the Slavs and Avars were invading the Balkans, the settlement was named Quimedava, and was situated on the southern slope of the Sarlah Hill.

Corresponding to the archaeological investigations, the town back then, surrounded by forts and fortified walls, also included an early Christian basilica, thermae (public baths), a necropolis , and other facilities. Beside the military fortress, a civil settlement (vicus ) existed on the site called Majilka . By the late 6th century and early 7th century, successive barbarian invasions had broke through the Byzantine Danube
Danube
frontier, and Slavs settled in large numbers across the Balkans.

MIDDLE AGES

Pirot Fortress
Pirot Fortress
dates back to the 14th century.

By the mid-6th century Slavs had settled the area. In 679 the Bulgars
Bulgars
crossed the Danube
Danube
into Lower Moesia, and eventually, in the 9th century, expand to the west and south. Basil II (r. 960–1025) reconquered the Balkans from the Bulgars.

In 1153, Arab geographer Burizi crossed the country, and recorded the place of Atrubi at the site of old Turres, describing it as situated by a small river which arrives from the Serbian mountains and was a tributary of the Morava. During the Komnenos period, rebellious Serbs were captured and transferred to other areas; Manuel I Komnenos settled many Serbs
Serbs
in the province of Serdica (Sofia). In 1182–83 the Serbian army led by Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja conquered Byzantine territories from Niš
Niš
to Sofia. Pirot
Pirot
and Bela Palanka (Remesiana) were not mentioned as they were in ruin since the rebellions in the 940s. Since the end of the 12th century Pirot
Pirot
was part of the Serbian state, in which it played an important role in the eastern part. The monastery of St. George in Temska was an endowment from the Nemanjić period. The name of the city, Pirot, dates to the 14th century and is derived from Greek pirgos ("tower"). Pirot
Pirot
was part of Prince Lazar 's state , in which it was an important strategical point. At the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
(1389) soldiers from Pirot and Nišava fought under vojvoda Dimitrije Vojihnović from Pirot. The town held out for long in the Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
, until it fell to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1427. It was temporarily liberated in 1443 by Serbian and Hungarian forces. It finally fell in 1445, and remained in Ottoman hands until 1877.

OTTOMAN RULE

Its Turkish name, Şehirköy (meaning "city, town village" ), is first mentioned in 1443. It was organized into the Sanjak of Niš
Niš
. In 1469, the body of Serbian king Stefan Milutin was transferred via Pirot. In 1561, hieromonk Isaija from Pirot
Pirot
visited Hilandar
Hilandar
where he contributed a book. Hilandar
Hilandar
had dependancies in Pirot
Pirot
up until the 19th century. Travel writer Stephen Gerlach (fl. 1578) recorded that Pirot
Pirot
Christians claimed that the town was the earlier estate of Miloš Obilić , the slayer of Sultan Murad at Kosovo. In 1659, Austrian deputy August von Mayern visited the town and described it as "Schiarchici, a town called by the Orthodox as Pirot, but is not surrounded by walls and inhabited by Turks and Serbs
Serbs
(Rasciani)". In 1664, Austrian deputy Leslie and English nobleman John Burberry visited the town, the latter noting that there were three churches, one of which was earlier Dominican. In 1688 Ottoman renegade Yegen Pasha resided in the town.

During the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
, after taking Niš
Niš
on 25 September 1689, Austrian general Piccolomini with his army of Serb volunteers and some Germans chased Turks towards Sofia. Arriving at Pirot, the town was empty of Turks, and he reported that the town was in flames and some parts in ash. Serbs
Serbs
were left as a town crew, from where they made raids into Pernik and Banya towards Sofia, and on 29 October attacked and conquered Dragoman. In August 1690 the large Ottoman army took Pirot, defended only by 100 Germans, and then besieged Niš, taking it after three weeks. Hungarian detachments retreating via Temska ravaged the monastery and terrorized the surrounding population, as inscribed by a priest on the church walls. That year, many Serbs
Serbs
fled northwards with Patriarch Arsenije III.

During the Austro-Turkish War (1737–39) , Serbs
Serbs
volunteered to fight. The movement in the Nišava region was led by Niš
Niš
metropolitan Đorđe Popović. The Austrian army, composed of Serb volunteers and 60 German infantry, took Pirot
Pirot
on 23 July 1737. In 1739, upon Ottoman return, the town was burnt down and its churches destroyed (one transformed into a mosque). 140 houses were burnt down which is evidence that hajduks of the region participated. Many Serbs
Serbs
in the region fled northwards with Patriarch Arsenije IV.

In 1768, the town is described as half in ruins. From 1761 to 1878, Pirot
Pirot
was the seat of the Metropolitan of Nišava. The Church of the Nativity of Christ was built through donations by the Serbian community in 1830s.

In 1806, during the First Serbian Uprising (1804–13), Hajduk-Veljko attacked Bela Palanka. Ibrahim Pasha, unable to enter Serbia
Serbia
cross Aleksinac and Deligrad, planned to attack from Pirot
Pirot
and Lom with the intent to clash with the Serbian army before Niš; the Serbian army went to stop this and defeated him in the mountains between Pirot, Knjaževac and Chiprovtsi. Rebel leaders from Pirot
Pirot
included Mita and Marinko, who were tasked to defend the border towards Pirot
Pirot
(in Ottoman hands). After the Serbian Revolution
Serbian Revolution
, some of the population in the area migrated to avoid Ottoman retribution. It was estimated in 1836 that there were 6–8,000 inhabitants. Carpetry was the main occupation, there were many shops and cafés in the centre, the population was mixed, and it was the domain of the sister of the Sultan. On 24 May 1836 a rebellion broke out in the town, which was suppressed by early June, and then another one broke out in August, also unsuccessful. The rebels corresponded with Prince Miloš Obrenović. The Niš
Niš
Uprising (1841) , which included the Pirot
Pirot
area, was also suppressed by the Ottomans. In 1846–1864 Pirot
Pirot
was administratively part of the Niš
Niš
Eyalet . With the establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870 Pirot
Pirot
was the part of the Nishava diocese.

In the 19th century Johann Georg von Hahn stated that the Christian population of Pirot
Pirot
is Bulgarian. Philip Kanitz claimed that some inhabitants "Did not imagine that six years later the cursed Turkish rule in their city would end, and even less, because they always felt that they are Bulgarians, that they would belong to the Principality of Serbia".

MODERN HISTORY

Monument to fallen soldiers during the Serbian-Ottoman War (1876–1877)

On 16 December 1877, during the Serbian-Ottoman War (1876–1877) , the Serbian army entered liberated Pirot. The Treaty of Berlin (1878) saw Pirot
Pirot
and Vranje ceded to Serbia. The 1879 Serbian regional population census registered that Pirot
Pirot
had a population of 76,892 people, and 11,005 households. It was temporarily occupied by the Bulgarian army after the Serbo-Bulgarian War
Serbo-Bulgarian War
, between 15 November and 15 December 1885 . During World War I
World War I
, the Bulgarian army entered Pirot
Pirot
on 14 October 1915.

In the Interwar period, the Bulgarian terrorist VZRO engaged in repeated attacks against the Yugoslav police and army. From 1929 to 1941, Pirot
Pirot
was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia . During World War II
World War II
Bulgaria occupied so-called Western Outlands, as well as Pirot
Pirot
and Vranje . After the Second World War , these regions were returned to Yugoslavia. After Serbia
Serbia
's independence, these areas remained within the Serbian state.

Pirot
Pirot
was granted city status in February 2016.

SETTLEMENTS

Aside from the city of Pirot
Pirot
itself, the city territory covers over 70 settlements. In 2011, the whole territory had 57,911 inhabitants: 93.8% Serbs, 3.0% Roma and 0.8% Bulgarians.

* Bazovik * Barje Čiflik * Basara * Bela * Berilovac * Berovica * Blato * Brlog * Velika Lukanja
Velika Lukanja
* Veliki Jovanovac * Veliki Suvodol * Veliko Selo * Visočka Ržana * Vlasi * Vojnegovac * Vranište * Gnjilan * Gornja Držina * Gostuša * Gradašnica * Gradište * Dobri Do * Dojkinci * Držina * Zaskovci * Izvor * Jalbotina * Jelovica * Kamik * Koprivštica * Kostur * Krupac * Kumanovo * Mali Jovanovac * Mali Suvodol * Milojkovac * Mirkovci * Nišor * Novi Zavoj
Novi Zavoj
* Obrenovac
Obrenovac
* Oreovica * Orlja * Osmakova * Pakleštica
Pakleštica
* Pasjač * Petrovac * PIROT * Planinica * Pokrevenik * Poljska Ržana * Ponor * Prisjan * Ragodeš * Rasnica * Rosomač * Rsovci * Rudinje * Sinja Glava * Slavinja * Sopot * Srećkovac * Staničenje * Sukovo * Temska * Topli Do * Trnjana * Cerev Del * Cerova * Crvenčevo * Crnoklište * Činiglavci * Šugrin

DEMOGRAPHICS

HISTORICAL POPULATION

YEAR POP. ±%

1948 70,049 —

1953 69,210 −1.2%

1961 68,073 −1.6%

1971 69,285 +1.8%

1981 69,653 +0.5%

1991 67,658 −2.9%

2002 63,791 −5.7%

2011 57,928 −9.2%

Source:

According to the 2011 census results, the city of Pirot
Pirot
has a population of 57,928 inhabitants.

ETHNIC GROUPS

Ethnic composition of the municipality:

ETHNIC GROUP POPULATION

Serbs
Serbs
53,232

Romani 2,576

Bulgarians 549

Gorani 80

Macedonians 67

Yugoslavs 47

Croats 42

Montenegrins 23

Albanians 19

Others 1,293

TOTAL 57,928

CULTURE

Notable brands of Pirot
Pirot
include the Pirot Kilim , Pirot
Pirot
opanak , Pirot
Pirot
cheese , and ironed sausage .

TOURIST ATTRACTIONS

* Pirot Fortress
Pirot Fortress
, dating to the 14th-century Serbian Empire * Temska Monastery , 16th-century Orthodox monastery * Zavoj Lake
Zavoj Lake
* National Park Old Mountain * Mountain home

GALLERY

*

Southeastern walls of Pirot Fortress
Pirot Fortress
*

Monument to Captain Milutin Karanović and others died in Serbo-Turkish War in 1877 *

Postcard from Pirot
Pirot
in 1900 *

The District Hall *

The central pedestrian area in the city *

The courthouse in Pirot
Pirot
*

The National Employment Service building in Pirot
Pirot
*

Nišava River in Pirot
Pirot
*

Church of the Nativity of Christ

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Further information: Category:People from Pirot
Pirot

* Dragutin Gostuški , Serbian composer, musicologist and art historian * Dobrosav Živković , illustrator and caricaturist * Zoran Đorđević , football manager * Svetislav Pešić , basketball coach and former player * Nikola Đurđić
Nikola Đurđić
, Serbian football player * Krastyo Krastev , writer and translator, notable as the first Bulgarian literary critic

REFERENCES

* ^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28. * ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4 . Retrieved 2014-06-27. * ^ http://www.rastko.rs/isk/mfruht-applied_art.html * ^ A B C D E F Petrović 1996 , p. 9. * ^ Petrović 1996 , pp. 9–10. * ^ A B C D Petrović 1996 , p. 10. * ^ Petrović 1996 , pp. 10–11. * ^ A B C D E F Nikolić 1974 , p. 11. * ^ Kostić 1973 , p. 13. * ^ A B C D Kostić 1973 , p. 20. * ^ Petrović 1996 , p. 16. * ^ A B Petrović 1996 , p. 17. * ^ A B Petrović 1996 , p. 18. * ^ A B Petrović 1996 , p. 19. * ^ A B Petrović 1996 , p. 20. * ^ A B C D Petrović 1996 , p. 21. * ^ A B C Kostić 1973 , p. 21. * ^ A B C Kostić 1973 , p. 22. * ^ Kostić 1973 , pp. 23–24. * ^ Kostić 1973 , pp. 23–25. * ^ Felix Philipp Kanitz , Овога пута сам се од Пирота растао с пријатнијим осећањима. Захвалио сам ханџији за његову собицу коју ми je уступио, његовој љупкој жени за изврстан опроштајни ручак. Бољег расположења je био и мој драгоман (тумач, преводилац); певушио je, што већ дуго нисам чуо, неку пољску песмицу за свој рачун; ваљда се радовао и томе што смо се приближавали циљу нашег путовања - Дунаву. Око два часа по подне мој мали караван je преко моста на Нишави кренуо кроз хришћанску махалу, у којој je због панађура било веома живо. Трговци и занатлије које сам посећивао поздрављали су ме скидањем капе и довикивали »срећан пут!« Тада нису ни слутили да ће шест година доцније често проклињаној турској владавини у њиховом граду доћи крај, a још мање, јер су се увек осећали Бугарима, да ће припасти Кнежевини Србији.. ("Србија, земља и становништво од римског доба до краја XIX века", Друга књига, Београд 1986, p. 215) * ^ Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui
Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui
, „Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l'année 1841“ (Жером-Адолф Бланки. Пътуване из България през 1841 година. Прев. от френски Ел. Райчева, предг. Ив. Илчев. София: Колибри, 2005, 219 с. ISBN 978-954-529-367-2 .) The author describes the population of the Sanjak of Niš
Niš
as ethnic Bulgarians, see: * ^ Bulgarians in southwest Moravia by J. von Hahn, Illuminated by A. Teodoroff-Balan, Sofia, September 1917, Al. Paskaleff & Co. publishers, Chapter II. * ^ A B Kostić 1973 , p. 50. * ^ Svetlana Radovanović (1995). "Demographic Growth and Ethnodemographic Changes in the Republic of Serbia". * ^ Kostić 1973 , p. 56. * ^ Kostić 1973 , p. 63. * ^ "Pirot, Kikinda i Vršac
Vršac
dobili status grada" . B92
B92
. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016. * ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 6 March 2017.

SOURCES

* Kostić, Kosta N. (1973). Istorija Pirota. Pirot: Muzej Ponišavlja. NBPI-knjige-042. * Lilić, Borislava V. (1994). Istorija Pirota i okoline: Pirot
Pirot
u periodu turske vlasti 1804-1878. Deo 1. Izdavač NiP Hemikale, štampa "Grafika". ISBN 978-86-82473-01-5 . * Nikolić, Vladimir M. (1974). Стари Пирот. * Petrović, Svetislav (1996). Историја града Пирота. Пирот: Хемикалс. NBPI-knjige-007. * Stanković, Stevan M. (1996). Пирот и околина. Pirot: Sloboda. NBPI-knjige-050. * Živković, Vitomir V. (1994). Торлак. Пирот. NBPI-knjige-030.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons has media related to PIROT .

* Official web site of the city * Pirot.org Independent web portal & forum about the city * TV Pirot
Pirot
Local television station * Pirotske novine Local newspapers * "Дигитализоване књиге о Пироту и околним насељима". Poreklo. * "Збирке Народне библиотеке Пирот".

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