The Info List - Pirot

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(Serbian Cyrillic: Пирот) is a city and the administrative center of the Pirot District
Pirot District
in southeastern Serbia. According to 2011 census, the urban area of the city has a population of 38,785, while the population of the city administrative area has 57,928 inhabitants. The city has a rich geographical features, including the mountains of Stara Planina, Vlaška Planina, Belava, Suva Planina; rivers which flow through the town, including Nišava, Jerma, Rasnička Reka, Temštica and the Visočica; and four lakes, the Zavoj Lake, Berovacko Lake, Krupac Lake and Sukovo
Lake. It also has a rich culture, with notable Orthodox church buildings, including the Church of St. Petka, and the monastery of St. Georges and St. John the Theologian from the late 14th century, both of which display a fine example of medieval Serbian architecture. Pirot
is known for its traditional woven carpet, the Pirot
kilim (Pirotski ćilim).[3]


1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Roman era 2.2 Early Byzantine era 2.3 Middle Ages 2.4 Ottoman rule 2.5 Modern history

3 Settlements 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnic groups

5 Culture 6 Tourist attractions 7 Economy 8 Gallery 9 Notable people 10 References 11 Sources 12 External links

Geography The city, which covers an area of 1,235 km2 (476.84 sq mi), has several mountains in the vicinity, including Stara Planina, Vlaška planina, Belava, and Suva Planina. The following rivers flow through Pirot: the Nišava, Jerma, Rasnička Reka, Temštica and the Visočica. Pirot
also has four lakes: Zavoj Lake, Berovacko Lake, Krupac Lake and Sukov Lake. History Roman era During the rule of Roman emperor Tiberius (14–37), Ponišavlje was part of Moesia, and during Vespasian (69–79) it was, as the rest of Serbia, organized into Upper Moesia
(as opposed to most of Bulgaria, Lower Moesia).[4] At the end of the 4th century the basin of the Nišava
was organized into the province of Dacia Mediterranea.[4] The Roman settlement of Turres (Latin for "towers"), which was a military residence, is mentioned in the first half of the 3rd century.[4] Later, the Byzantine town of Quimedava is mentioned here, with remains that have survived.[4] The town was set to enable control and defence of the main road in this part of the empire. Besides, travellers could sleep here overnight, as well as get refreshments and new horses or vehicles. In time, the settlement advanced because of the important road passing through. It was also disturbed very persistently by invasions of the Gothic tribes throughout the 4th century, as well as the Huns in the 5th century. Early Byzantine era According to the written accounts On Buildings by Procopius of Caesarea, writing during the reign of the emperor Justinian I
Justinian I
(527 – 565), the emperor ordered the reconstruction of thirty fortresses in the area from Niš
to Sofia, including the towers of Pirot. He also gave the detailed description of those construction works. In times when the Slavs and Avars were invading the Balkans, the settlement was named Quimedava, and was situated on the southern slope of the Sarlah Hill. Corresponding to the archaeological investigations, the town back then, surrounded by forts and fortified walls, also included an early Christian basilica, thermae (public baths), a necropolis, and other facilities. Beside the military fortress, a civil settlement (vicus) existed on the site called Majilka. By the late 6th century and early 7th century, successive barbarian invasions had broke through the Byzantine Danube
frontier, and Slavs settled in large numbers across the Balkans. Middle Ages

Pirot Fortress
Pirot Fortress
dates back to the 14th century.

By the mid-6th century Slavs had settled the area.[4] In 679 the Bulgars
crossed the Danube
into Lower Moesia, and eventually, in the 9th century, expand to the west and south.[5] Basil II
Basil II
(r. 960–1025) reconquered the Balkans from the Bulgars.[6] In 1153, Arab geographer Burizi crossed the country, and recorded the place of Atrubi at the site of old Turres, describing it as situated by a small river which arrives from the Serbian mountains and was a tributary of the Morava.[6] During the Komnenos period, rebellious Serbs
were captured and transferred to other areas; Manuel I Komnenos settled many Serbs
in the province of Serdica (Sofia).[6] In 1182–83 the Serbian army led by Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja
Stefan Nemanja
conquered Byzantine territories from Niš
to Sofia.[7] Pirot
and Bela Palanka (Remesiana) were not mentioned as they were in ruin since the rebellions in the 940s.[6] Since the end of the 12th century Pirot
was part of the Serbian state, in which it played an important role in the eastern part.[8] The monastery of St. George in Temska
was an endowment from the Nemanjić period.[8] The name of the city, Pirot, dates to the 14th century and is derived from Greek pirgos ("tower").[4] Pirot
was part of Prince Lazar's state, in which it was an important strategical point.[9] At the Battle of Kosovo
Battle of Kosovo
(1389) soldiers from Pirot
and Nišava
fought under vojvoda Dimitrije Vojihnović from Pirot.[8] The town held out for long in the Serbian Despotate, until it fell to the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1427.[8] It was temporarily liberated in 1443 by Serbian and Hungarian forces.[8] It finally fell in 1445, and remained in Ottoman hands until 1877.[8] Ottoman rule Its Turkish name, Şehirköy (meaning "city, town village"[10]), is first mentioned in 1443.[11] It was organized into the Sanjak of Niš.[10] In 1469, the body of Serbian king Stefan Milutin was transferred via Pirot.[12] In 1561, hieromonk Isaija from Pirot visited Hilandar
where he contributed a book.[12] Hilandar
had dependancies in Pirot
up until the 19th century.[13] Travel writer Stephen Gerlach (fl. 1578) recorded that Pirot
Christians claimed that the town was the earlier estate of Miloš Obilić, the slayer of Sultan Murad at Kosovo.[13] In 1659, Austrian deputy August von Mayern visited the town and described it as "Schiarchici, a town called by the Orthodox as Pirot, but is not surrounded by walls and inhabited by Turks and Serbs
(Rasciani)".[14] In 1664, Austrian deputy Leslie and English nobleman John Burberry visited the town, the latter noting that there were three churches, one of which was earlier Dominican.[14] In 1688 Ottoman renegade Yegen Pasha resided in the town.[15] During the Great Turkish War, after taking Niš
on 25 September 1689, Austrian general Piccolomini with his army of Serb volunteers and some Germans chased Turks towards Sofia. Arriving at Pirot, the town was empty of Turks, and he reported that the town was in flames and some parts in ash. Serbs
were left as a town crew, from where they made raids into Pernik and Banya towards Sofia, and on 29 October attacked and conquered Dragoman.[15] In August 1690 the large Ottoman army took Pirot, defended only by 100 Germans, and then besieged Niš, taking it after three weeks.[16] Hungarian detachments retreating via Temska ravaged the monastery and terrorized the surrounding population, as inscribed by a priest on the church walls.[16] That year, many Serbs fled northwards with Patriarch Arsenije III.[16] During the Austro-Turkish War (1737–39), Serbs
volunteered to fight. The movement in the Nišava
region was led by Niš
metropolitan Đorđe Popović. The Austrian army, composed of Serb volunteers and 60 German infantry, took Pirot
on 23 July 1737. In 1739, upon Ottoman return, the town was burnt down and its churches destroyed (one transformed into a mosque). 140 houses were burnt down which is evidence that hajduks of the region participated. Many Serbs
in the region fled northwards with Patriarch Arsenije IV.[16] In 1768, the town is described as half in ruins.[10] From 1761 to 1878, Pirot
was the seat of the Metropolitan of Nišava.[10]

The Church of the Nativity of Christ was built through donations by the Serbian community in 1830s.

In 1806, during the First Serbian Uprising
First Serbian Uprising
(1804–13), Hajduk-Veljko attacked Bela Palanka.[17] Ibrahim Pasha, unable to enter Serbia
cross Aleksinac
and Deligrad, planned to attack from Pirot
and Lom with the intent to clash with the Serbian army before Niš; the Serbian army went to stop this and defeated him in the mountains between Pirot, Knjaževac
and Chiprovtsi.[17] Rebel leaders from Pirot
included Mita and Marinko, who were tasked to defend the border towards Pirot
(in Ottoman hands).[17] After the Serbian Revolution, some of the population in the area migrated to avoid Ottoman retribution.[18] It was estimated in 1836 that there were 6–8,000 inhabitants.[18] Carpetry was the main occupation, there were many shops and cafés in the centre, the population was mixed, and it was the domain of the sister of the Sultan.[18] On 24 May 1836 a rebellion broke out in the town, which was suppressed by early June, and then another one broke out in August, also unsuccessful.[19] The rebels corresponded with Prince Miloš Obrenović.[20] The Niš
Uprising (1841), which included the Pirot
area, was also suppressed by the Ottomans. In 1846–1864 Pirot
was administratively part of the Niš
Eyalet. With the establishment of the Bulgarian Exarchate
Bulgarian Exarchate
in 1870 Pirot
was the part of the Nishava diocese. In the 19th century Johann Georg von Hahn
Johann Georg von Hahn
stated that the Christian population of Pirot
is Bulgarian. Philipp Kanitz
Philipp Kanitz
claimed that some inhabitants "Did not imagine that six years later the cursed Turkish rule in their city would end, and even less, because they always felt that they are Bulgarians, that they would belong to the Principality of Serbia".[21][22][23] Modern history

Monument to fallen soldiers during the Serbian-Ottoman War (1876–1877)

On 16 December 1877, during the Serbian-Ottoman War (1876–1877), the Serbian army entered liberated Pirot.[24] The Treaty of Berlin (1878) saw Pirot
and Vranje
ceded to Serbia.[24] The 1879 Serbian regional population census registered that Pirot
had a population of 76,892 people, and 11,005 households.[25] It was temporarily occupied by the Bulgarian army after the Serbo-Bulgarian War, between 15 November and 15 December 1885 [O.S.].[26] During World War I, the Bulgarian army entered Pirot
on 14 October 1915.[27] In the Interwar period, the Bulgarian terrorist VZRO engaged in repeated attacks against the Yugoslav police and army. From 1929 to 1941, Pirot
was part of the Morava Banovina
Morava Banovina
of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During World War II
World War II
Bulgaria occupied so-called Western Outlands, as well as Pirot
and Vranje. After the Second World War, these regions were returned to Yugoslavia. After Serbia's independence, these areas remained within the Serbian state. Pirot
was granted city status in February 2016.[28] Settlements Aside from the city of Pirot
itself, the city territory covers over 70 settlements:

Bazovik Barje Čiflik Basara Bela Berilovac Berovica Blato Brlog Velika Lukanja Veliki Jovanovac Veliki Suvodol Veliko Selo Visočka Ržana Vlasi Vojnegovac Vranište Gnjilan Gornja Držina Gostuša Gradašnica Gradište Dobri Do Dojkinci Držina Zaskovci Izvor Jalbotina Jelovica Kamik Koprivštica Kostur Krupac Kumanovo Mali Jovanovac Mali Suvodol Milojkovac Mirkovci Nišor Novi Zavoj Obrenovac Oreovica Orlja Osmakova Pakleštica Pasjač Petrovac Planinica Pokrevenik Poljska Ržana Ponor Prisjan Ragodeš Rasnica Rosomač Rsovci Rudinje Sinja Glava Slavinja Sopot Srećkovac Staničenje Sukovo Temska Topli Do Trnjana Cerev Del Cerova Crvenčevo Crnoklište Činiglavci Šugrin


Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1948 70,049 —    

1953 69,210 −1.2%

1961 68,073 −1.6%

1971 69,285 +1.8%

1981 69,653 +0.5%

1991 67,658 −2.9%

2002 63,791 −5.7%

2011 57,928 −9.2%

Source: [29]

According to the 2011 census results, the city of Pirot
has a population of 57,928 inhabitants. Ethnic groups The ethnic composition of the municipality:

Ethnic group Population

Serbs 53,232

Romani 2,576

Bulgarians 549

Gorani 80

Macedonians 67

Yugoslavs 47

Croats 42

Montenegrins 23

Albanians 19

Others 1,293

Total 57,928

Culture Notable brands of Pirot
include the Pirot
Kilim, Pirot
opanak, Pirot cheese, and ironed sausage. Tourist attractions

Fortress, dating to the 14th-century Serbian Empire Temska
Monastery, 16th-century Orthodox monastery Zavoj Lake National Park Old Mountain Mountain home

Economy On the territory of the city of Pirot
operates tire manufacturer Tigar Tyres which is one of top Serbian exporters in the period from 2013 to 2017. The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2016):[30]

Activity Total

Agriculture, forestry and fishing 160

Mining 118

Processing industry 5,283

Distribution of power, gas and water 193

Distribution of water and water waste management 302

Construction 551

Wholesale and retail, repair 2,292

Traffic, storage and communication 567

Hotels and restaurants 517

Media and telecommunications 199

Finance and insurance 246

Property stock and charter 20

Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities 293

Administrative and other services 650

Administration and social assurance 947

Education 795

Healthcare and social work 1,217

Art, leisure and recreation 174

Other services 468

Total 14,993


Southeastern walls of Pirot

Postcard from Pirot
in 1900

The District Hall

The central pedestrian area in the city

The courthouse in Pirot

The National Employment Service building in Pirot

River in Pirot

Church of the Nativity of Christ

Notable people Further information: Category:People from Pirot

Dragutin Gostuški, Serbian composer, musicologist and art historian Dobrosav Živković, illustrator and caricaturist Zoran Đorđević, football manager Svetislav Pešić, basketball coach and former player Nikola Đurđić, Serbian football player Krastyo Krastev, writer and translator, notable as the first Bulgarian literary critic


^ "Municipalities of Serbia, 2006". Statistical Office of Serbia. Retrieved 2010-11-28.  ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia: Comparative Overview of the Number of Population in 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 2002 and 2011, Data by settlements" (PDF). Statistical Office of Republic Of Serbia, Belgrade. 2014. ISBN 978-86-6161-109-4. Retrieved 2014-06-27.  ^ http://www.rastko.rs/isk/mfruht-applied_art.html ^ a b c d e f Petrović 1996, p. 9. ^ Petrović 1996, pp. 9–10. ^ a b c d Petrović 1996, p. 10. ^ Petrović 1996, pp. 10–11. ^ a b c d e f Nikolić 1974, p. 11. ^ Kostić 1973, p. 13. ^ a b c d Kostić 1973, p. 20. ^ Petrović 1996, p. 16. ^ a b Petrović 1996, p. 17. ^ a b Petrović 1996, p. 18. ^ a b Petrović 1996, p. 19. ^ a b Petrović 1996, p. 20. ^ a b c d Petrović 1996, p. 21. ^ a b c Kostić 1973, p. 21. ^ a b c Kostić 1973, p. 22. ^ Kostić 1973, pp. 23–24. ^ Kostić 1973, pp. 23–25. ^ Felix Philipp Kanitz, Овога пута сам се од Пирота растао с пријатнијим осећањима. Захвалио сам ханџији за његову собицу коју ми je уступио, његовој љупкој жени за изврстан опроштајни ручак. Бољег расположења je био и мој драгоман (тумач, преводилац); певушио je, што већ дуго нисам чуо, неку пољску песмицу за свој рачун; ваљда се радовао и томе што смо се приближавали циљу нашег путовања - Дунаву. Око два часа по подне мој мали караван je преко моста на Нишави кренуо кроз хришћанску махалу, у којој je због панађура било веома живо. Трговци и занатлије које сам посећивао поздрављали су ме скидањем капе и довикивали »срећан пут!« Тада нису ни слутили да ће шест година доцније често проклињаној турској владавини у њиховом граду доћи крај, a још мање, јер су се увек осећали Бугарима, да ће припасти Кнежевини Србији.. ("Србија, земља и становништво од римског доба до краја XIX века", Друга књига, Београд 1986, p. 215) ^ Jérôme-Adolphe Blanqui, „Voyage en Bulgarie pendant l'année 1841“ (Жером-Адолф Бланки. Пътуване из България през 1841 година. Прев. от френски Ел. Райчева, предг. Ив. Илчев. София: Колибри, 2005, 219 с. ISBN 978-954-529-367-2.) The author describes the population of the Sanjak of Niš
as ethnic Bulgarians, see: [1] ^ Bulgarians in southwest Moravia by J. von Hahn, Illuminated by A. Teodoroff-Balan, Sofia, September 1917, Al. Paskaleff & Co. publishers, Chapter II. ^ a b Kostić 1973, p. 50. ^ Svetlana Radovanović (1995). "Demographic Growth and Ethnodemographic Changes in the Republic of Serbia".  ^ Kostić 1973, p. 56. ^ Kostić 1973, p. 63. ^ "Pirot, Kikinda i Vršac dobili status grada" [Pirot, Kikinda and Vršac Granted City Status]. B92. 29 February 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.  ^ "2011 Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Serbia" (PDF). stat.gov.rs. Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 6 March 2017.  ^ "ОПШТИНЕ И РЕГИОНИ У РЕПУБЛИЦИ СРБИЈИ, 2017" (PDF). stat.gov.rs (in Serbian). Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia. Retrieved 20 February 2018. 


Kostić, Kosta N. (1973). Istorija Pirota. Pirot: Muzej Ponišavlja. NBPI-knjige-042.  Lilić, Borislava V. (1994). Istorija Pirota i okoline: Pirot
u periodu turske vlasti 1804-1878. Deo 1. Izdavač NiP Hemikale, štampa "Grafika". ISBN 978-86-82473-01-5.  Nikolić, Vladimir M. (1974). Стари Пирот.  Petrović, Svetislav (1996). Историја града Пирота. Пирот: Хемикалс. NBPI-knjige-007.  Stanković, Stevan M. (1996). Пирот и околина. Pirot: Sloboda. NBPI-knjige-050.  Živković, Vitomir V. (1994). Торлак. Пирот. NBPI-knjige-030. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pirot.

Official web site of the city Pirot.org Independent web portal & forum about the city TV Pirot
Local television station Pirotske novine Local newspapers "Дигитализоване књиге о Пироту и околним насељима". Poreklo.  "Збирке Народне библиотеке Пирот". 

v t e

Municipalities and cities of Southern and Eastern Serbia


Leskovac Niš

Crveni Krst Medijana Niška Banja Palilula Pantelej

Pirot Požarevac

Požarevac Kostolac

Smederevo Vranje

Vranje Vranjska Banja



Aleksinac Babušnica Bela Palanka Blace Bojnik Boljevac Bor Bosilegrad Bujanovac Crna Trava Dimitrovgrad Doljevac Gadžin Han Golubac Kladovo Knjaževac Kučevo Kuršumlija Lebane Majdanpek Malo Crniće Medveđa Merošina Negotin Petrovac Preševo Prokuplje Ražanj Smederevska Palanka Sokobanja Surdulica Svrljig Trgovište Velika Plana Veliko Gradište Vladičin Han Vlasotince Žabari Žagubica Žitorađa

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 241847602 GND: 4403906-2 BNF: