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Piano
The PIANO is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented around the year 1700 (the exact year is uncertain), in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard , which is a row of keys (small levers) that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings. The word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano . The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" respectively, in this context referring to the variations in volume (i.e., loudness) produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, and the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack
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Coupling (physics)
In physics , two objects are said to be coupled when they are interacting with each other. In classical mechanics , coupling is a connection between two oscillating systems, such as pendulums connected by a string. The connection affects the oscillatory pattern of both objects. In particle physics , two particles are coupled if they are connected by one of the four fundamental forces . CONTENTS* 1 Wave Mechanics * 1.1 Coupled Harmonic Oscillator * 1.2 Coupled LC Circuits * 2 Chemistry * 2.1 Spin-Spin Coupling * 3 Astrophysics * 4 Plasma * 5 Quantum Mechanics * 5.1 Angular Momentum Coupling * 6 Particle
Particle
Physics and Quantum Field Theory * 7 References WAVE MECHANICSCOUPLED HARMONIC OSCILLATOR Coupled pendulums connected by a spring If two waves are able to transmit energy to each other, then these waves are said to be "coupled." This normally occurs when the waves share a common component
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Resonance
In physics , RESONANCE is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies . Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are known as the system's RESONANT FREQUENCIES or RESONANCE FREQUENCIES. At resonant frequencies, small periodic driving forces have the ability to produce large amplitude oscillations, due to the storage of vibrational energy
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Range (music)
In music , the RANGE of a musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play. For a singing voice , the equivalent is vocal range . The range of a musical part is the distance between its lowest and highest note . The terms SOUNDING RANGE, WRITTEN RANGE, DESIGNATED RANGE, DURATION RANGE and DYNAMIC RANGE have specific meanings. The SOUNDING RANGE refers to the pitches produced by an instrument, while the WRITTEN RANGE refers to the compass (span) of notes written in the sheet music, where the part is sometimes transposed for convenience. A piccolo
piccolo
, for example, typically has a sounding range one octave higher than its written range. The DESIGNATED RANGE is the set of notes the player should or can achieve while playing. All instruments have a designated range, and all pitched instruments have a playing range
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Romantic Music Era
ROMANTIC MUSIC is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century. It is related to Romanticism
Romanticism
, the European artistic and literary movement that arose in the second half of the 18th century, and Romantic music
Romantic music
in particular dominated the Romantic movement in Germany. The title character from a 19th-century performance of Wagner 's opera Siegfried In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional, expanding to encompass literary, artistic, and philosophical themes. Famous early Romantic composers include Beethoven (whose works span both this period and the preceding Classical period) , Schubert , Schumann , Chopin , Mendelssohn , Bellini , and Berlioz . The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra and in the dynamic range and diversity of instruments used in this ensemble
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Acoustic Guitar
An ACOUSTIC GUITAR is a guitar that produces sound acoustically—by transmitting the vibration of the strings to the air—as opposed to relying on electronic amplification (see electric guitar ). The sound waves from the strings of an acoustic guitar resonate through the guitar's body, creating sound. This typically involves the use of a sound board and a sound box to strengthen the vibrations of the strings. The main source of sound in an acoustic guitar is the string, which is plucked or strummed with the finger or with a pick . The string vibrates at a necessary frequency and also creates many harmonics at various different frequencies. The frequencies produced can depend on string length, mass, and tension. The string causes the soundboard and sound box to vibrate, and as these have their own resonances at certain frequencies, they amplify some string harmonics more strongly than others, hence affecting the timbre produced by the instrument
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Music Publisher (sheet Music)
The term MUSIC PUBLISHER originally referred (before the growth of recorded music and popular music) to publishers who issued printed sheet music . * Breitkopf & Härtel
Breitkopf & Härtel
, Leipzig
Leipzig
, founded 1719 * Schott , Mainz
Mainz
, 1770 * Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
, Oxford, founded 18th century * Edition Peters , Leipzig, 1800 * Friedrich Hofmeister Musikverlag , Leipzig, founded 1807 * Casa Ricordi , Milan, founded 1808 * G. Schirmer, Inc. , New York, founded 1861 * Ernst Eulenburg , Leipzig, founded 1874 * Zimmermann , founded 1876 * Universal Edition , Vienna, 1901 * Bärenreiter , founded 1923 * Dr. J
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Keyboard Amplifier
A KEYBOARD AMPLIFIER is a powered electronic amplifier and loudspeaker in a wooden speaker cabinet used for amplification of electronic keyboard instruments . Keyboard amplifiers are distinct from other types of amplification systems such as guitar amplifiers due to the particular challenges associated with making keyboards sound louder on stage; namely, to provide solid low-frequency sound reproduction for the deep basslines which keyboards can play and crisp high-frequency sound for the high-register notes. Another difference between keyboard amplifiers and guitar/bass amplifiers is that keyboard amps are usually designed with a relatively flat frequency response and low distortion
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Polyphony
In music , POLYPHONY is one type of musical texture , where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, POLYPHONY consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony , or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords , which is called homophony . Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance . Baroque forms such as fugue , which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal . Also, as opposed to the species terminology of counterpoint, polyphony was generally either "pitch-against-pitch" / "point-against-point" or "sustained-pitch" in one part with melismas of varying lengths in another
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Accidental (music)
In music , an ACCIDENTAL is a note of a pitch (or pitch class ) that is not a member of the scale or mode indicated by the most recently applied key signature . In musical notation , the sharp (♯), flat (♭), and natural (♮) symbols, among others, mark such notes—and those symbols are also called accidentals. In the measure (bar) where it appears, an accidental sign raises or lowers the immediately following note (and any repetition of it in the bar) from its normal pitch, overriding sharps or flats (or their absence) in the key signature. A note is usually raised or lowered by a semitone , although microtonal music may use "fractional" accidental signs. There are occasionally double sharps or flats, which raise or lower the indicated note by a whole tone . Accidentals apply within the measure and octave in which they appear, unless canceled by another accidental sign, or tied into a following measure
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Funk Music
FUNK is a music genre that originated in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic , danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music , jazz , and rhythm and blues (R the avant-funk of groups such as Talking Heads
Talking Heads
and the Pop Group ; boogie (or electro-funk), a form of electronic music; electro music , a hybrid of electronic music and funk; funk metal (e.g., Living Colour ); G-funk, a mix of gangsta rap and funk; Timba , a form of funky Cuban popular dance music; and funk jam (e.g., Phish
Phish
). Funk
Funk
samples and breakbeats have been used extensively in genres including hip hop , and various forms of electronic dance music , such as house music , old-school rave, breakbeat , and drum and bass . It is also the main influence of go-go , a subgenre associated with funk
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Traditional Music
FOLK MUSIC includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival . The term originated in the 19th century, but is often applied to music older than that. Some types of folk music are also called world music . TRADITIONAL FOLK MUSIC has been defined in several ways: as music transmitted orally , music with unknown composers, or music performed by custom over a long period of time. It has been contrasted with commercial and classical styles . Starting in the mid-20th century, a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music. This process and period is called the (second) folk revival and reached a zenith in the 1960s. This form of music is sometimes called contemporary folk music or folk revival music to distinguish it from earlier folk forms
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Songwriting
A SONGWRITER is a professional who is paid to write lyrics and melodies for songs , typically for a popular music genre such as rock or country music . A songwriter can also be called a composer , although the latter term tends to be used mainly for individuals from the classical music genre. The pressure from the music industry to produce popular hits means that songwriting is often an activity for which the tasks are distributed between a number of people. For example, a songwriter who excels at writing lyrics might be paired with a songwriter with a gift for creating original melodies. Pop songs may be written by group members from the band or by staff writers – songwriters directly employed by music publishers . Some songwriters serve as their own music publishers, while others have outside publishers. The old-style apprenticeship approach to learning how to write songs is being supplemented by university degrees and college diplomas and "rock schools"
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Popular Music
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