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Petroleum
Petroleum
Petroleum
is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface. It is commonly refined into various types of fuels. Components of petroleum are separated using a technique called fractional distillation i.e. separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point by means of distillation, typically using a fractionating column. It consists of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other organic compounds.[1] The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both intense heat and pressure. Petroleum
Petroleum
has mostly been recovered by oil drilling (natural petroleum springs are rare)
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Crude Oil (film)
Crude Oil (simplified Chinese: 采油日记; traditional Chinese: 採油日記; pinyin: Cǎi yóu rì jì) is a 2008 Chinese documentary film directed by Wang Bing. Filmed in the Inner Mongolian portion of the Gobi Desert, it follows a group of oil field workers as they go about their daily routine. Like Wang's debut feature — the nine-hour Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks — Crude Oil is notable for its extreme length, running 840 minutes (14 hours)
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water. Sedimentation
Sedimentation
is the collective name for processes that cause mineral or organic particles (detritus) to settle in place. The particles that form a sedimentary rock by accumulating are called sediment. Before being deposited, the sediment was formed by weathering and erosion from the source area, and then transported to the place of deposition by water, wind, ice, mass movement or glaciers, which are called agents of denudation
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Reagent
A reagent /riˈeɪdʒənt/ is a substance or compound added to a system to cause a chemical reaction, or added to test if a reaction occurs.[1] The terms reactant and reagent are often used interchangeably—however, a reactant is more specifically a substance consumed in the course of a chemical reaction.[1] Solvents, though involved in the reaction, are usually not called reactants. Similarly, catalysts are not consumed by the reaction, so they are not reactants. In biochemistry, especially in connection with enzyme-catalyzed reactions, the reactants are commonly called substrates. In organic chemistry, the term "reagent" denotes a chemical ingredient (a compound or mixture, typically of inorganic or small organic molecules) introduced to cause a desired transformation of an organic substance. Examples include the Collins reagent, Fenton's reagent, and Grignard reagents
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Plastic
Note 1: The use of this term instead of polymer is a source of confusion and thus is not recommended. Note 2: This term is used in polymer engineering for materials often compounded that can be processed by flow.[1] Plastic
Plastic
is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often contain other substances
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Pharmaceuticals
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply as drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug
Drug
therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves)
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Ecosystems
An ecosystem can be defined as a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water and mineral soil.[2] However, ecosystems can be defined in many ways.[3] The biotic and abiotic components interact through nutrient cycles and energy flows.[4] Ecosystems include a network of interactions among organisms, and between organisms and their environment.[5] Ecosystems can be of any size but one ecosystem has a specific, limited space.[6] Some scientists view the entire planet as one ecosystem.[7] Energy, water, nitrogen and soil minerals are other essential abiotic components of an ecosystem. The energy that flows through ecosystems comes primarily from the sun, through photosynthesis. Photosynthesis also captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Animals also play an important role in the movement of matter and energy through ecoystems. They influence the amount of plant and microbial biomass that lives in the system
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Ground-level Ozone
Ozone
Ozone
(O3) is a constituent of the troposphere (it is also an important constituent of some regions of the stratosphere commonly known as the ozone layer). The troposphere extends from the Earth's surface to between 12 and 20 kilometers above sea level and consists of many layers. Ozone
Ozone
is more concentrated above the mixing layer, or ground layer. Ground-level ozone, though less concentrated than ozone aloft, is more of a problem because of its health effects.[1] Photochemical and chemical reactions involving it drive many of the chemical processes that occur in the atmosphere by day and by night. At abnormally high concentrations brought about by human activities (largely incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, such as gasoline, diesel, etc.), it is a pollutant, and a constituent of smog. Many highly energetic reactions produce it, ranging from combustion to photocopying
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Romanization Of Ancient Greek
Romanization
Romanization
of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
into the Latin
Latin
alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek
Modern Greek
differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B (/b/) was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V (/v/) instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes
Johannes
in Latin
Latin
and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek
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Zooplankton
Zooplankton
Zooplankton
(pronounced in several different ways, including /ˈzoʊəˌplæŋktən, ˈzuːəˌ-, ˈzoʊoʊˌ-, ˈzuːˌ-, -ˌplæŋtən/[1] or /ˌzoʊəˈplæŋktən, -ˌtɒn/.[2]) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton. Plankton
Plankton
are organisms drifting in oceans, seas, and bodies of fresh water. The word "zooplankton" is derived from the Greek zoon (ζῴον), meaning "animal", and planktos (πλαγκτός), meaning "wanderer" or "drifter".[3] Individual zooplankton are usually microscopic, but some (such as jellyfish) are larger and visible with the naked eye.Contents1 Ecology 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEcology[edit]A copepod ( Calanoida
Calanoida
sp.)A jellyfish (Aequorea victoria) Zooplankton
Zooplankton
is a categorization spanning a range of organism sizes including small protozoans and large metazoans
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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De Natura Fossilium
De Natura Fossilium
De Natura Fossilium
is a scientific text written by Georg Bauer also known as Georgius Agricola, first published in 1546. The book represents the first scientific attempt to categorize minerals, rocks and sediments since the publication of Pliny's Natural History. This text along with Agricola's other works including De Re Metallica compose the earliest comprehensive "scientific" approach to mineralogy, mining, and geological science.[1] Notes[edit]^ Foreword, De natura fossiliumReferences[edit]Agricola, Georgius (2004). De natura fossilium (Textbook of mineralogy). Translated from the first Latin edition of 1546 by Mark Chance Bandy and Jean A. Bandy. Mineola, N.Y.: Dover Publications. ISBN 9780486495910.  Rudwick, Martin J. S. (2008). The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Palaeontology. University of Chicago Press. p. 23. ISBN 9780226148984.  Zittel, Karl Alfred von (1901)
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Georg Bauer
Georgius Agricola
Georgius Agricola
(/əˈɡrɪkələ/; 24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist. He is known as "the father of mineralogy",[1] he was born at Glauchau
Glauchau
in Saxony. His birth name was Georg Pawer (Bauer in modern German);[2] Agricola is the Latinized version of his name, by which he was known his entire adult life; Agricola and Bauer mean "farmer" in their respective languages
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Cannel Coal
Cannel coal
Cannel coal
or candle coal, is a type of bituminous coal,[1] also classified as terrestrial type oil shale.[2][3][4] Due to its physical morphology and low mineral content cannel coal is considered to be coal but by its texture and composition of the organic matter it is considered to be oil shale.[5] Although historically the term cannel coal has been used interchangeably with boghead coal, a more recent classification system restricts cannel coal to terrestrial origin, and boghead coal to lacustrine environments.[2]Contents1 History 2 Composition 3 See also 4 References 5 BibliographyHistory[edit]
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Okemah, Oklahoma
Okemah is the largest city in and the county seat of Okfuskee County, Oklahoma, United States.[3] It is the birthplace of folk music legend Woody Guthrie. Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, a federally recognized Muscogee
Muscogee
Indian tribe, is headquartered in Okemah
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