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Pescetarianism
PESCETARIANISM /ˌpɛskəˈtɛəriənɪzm/ (also spelled PESCATARIANISM) or PESCO-VEGETARIANISM is the practice of following a diet that includes fish or other seafood , but not the flesh of other animals. Most pescetarians maintain a lacto-ovo vegetarian diet with the addition of fish and shellfish. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Rationale * 2.1 Ethics * 2.2 Health considerations * 3 Abstinence in religion * 3.1 Judaism * 3.2 Roman Catholicism * 3.3 Orthodox Christian and Byzantine Catholic usages * 3.4 Hinduism * 4 Comparisons to other diets * 5 List of notable pescetarians * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGY"Pescetarian" or "pescatarian" is a neologism formed as a portmanteau of the Italian word _pesce_ ("fish ") and the English word "vegetarian". The English pronunciation of both "pescetarian" and "pescatarian" is /ˌpɛskᵻˈtɛəriən/ , with the same sound present in _pescato_ (Italian: , derived from _piscatus_, the perfect passive participle of the Latin verb _piscor_ meaning "to fish"), though not in the word _pesce_ (Italian: ). _Pesce_ in turn derives from the Latin _piscis_, which has the form _pisci-_ when it serves as a prefix, as it often does in scholarly terms (e.g. "pisciculture ", "piscivore "). A piscivore, a type of carnivore, subsists on a diet primarily of fish, whereas a pescetarian eats plant derivatives as well as fish
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Nigiri Sushi
SUSHI (すし, 寿司, 鮨) is the Japanese preparation and serving of specially prepared vinegared rice (鮨飯, _sushi-meshi_) combined with varied ingredients (ネタ, _neta_) such as chiefly seafood (often uncooked), vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits . Styles of sushi and its presentation vary widely, but the key ingredient in all cases is the sushi rice, also referred to as _shari_ (しゃり), or _sumeshi_ (酢飯). Sushi
Sushi
can be prepared with either brown or white rice . It is often prepared with raw seafood, but some common varieties of sushi use cooked ingredients, and many other sorts are vegetarian . Sushi
Sushi
is often served with pickled ginger , wasabi , and soy sauce . Daikon radish is popular as a garnish. Sushi
Sushi
is often confused with sashimi , a related Japanese dish consisting of thinly sliced raw fish or occasionally meat, and an optional serving of rice
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Diet (nutrition)
In nutrition , DIET is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism . The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for health or weight-management reasons (with the two often being related). Although humans are omnivores , each culture and each person holds some food preferences or some food taboos. This may be due to personal tastes or ethical reasons. Individual dietary choices may be more or less healthy. Complete nutrition requires ingestion and absorption of vitamins , minerals , and food energy in the form of carbohydrates , proteins , and fats . Dietary habits and choices play a significant role in the quality of life , health and longevity . CONTENTS * 1 Religious and cultural dietary choices * 2 Dietary choices * 3 Weight management * 3.1 Eating disorders * 4 Health * 5 Diet classification table * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 See also * 9 External links RELIGIOUS AND CULTURAL DIETARY CHOICESSome cultures and religions have restrictions concerning what foods are acceptable in their diet. For example, only Kosher foods are permitted by Judaism , and Halal foods by Islam . Although Buddhists are generally vegetarians , the practice varies and meat-eating may be permitted depending on the sects. In Hinduism , vegetarianism is the ideal. Jains are strictly vegetarian and consumption of roots is not permitted. DIETARY CHOICESMany people choose to forgo food from animal sources to varying degrees (e.g
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Fish (food)
FISH are consumed as food by many species, including humans. It has been an important source of protein and other nutrients for humans throughout recorded history. In culinary and fishery contexts, the term fish can also include shellfish , such as molluscs , crustaceans and echinoderms . English does not distinguish between fish as an animal and the food prepared from it, as it does with pig vs. pork or cow vs. beef. Some other languages do, as in the Spanish peces versus pescado. The modern English word for fish comes from the Old English word fisc (plural: fiscas) which was pronounced as it is today. English also has the term seafood , which covers fish found in the seas and oceans as well as other marine life used as food. CONTENTS * 1 Species * 2 Preparation * 3 Nutritional value * 4 Health benefits * 5 Health hazards * 5.1 Allergens * 5.2 Biotoxins * 5.3 Mercury and other toxic metals * 5.4 Mislabelling * 5.5 Persistent organic pollutants * 5.6 Parasites * 6 Fish, meat and vegetarians * 7 In religion * 8 Taboos on eating fish * 9 Dishes * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References * 13 External links SPECIESOver 32,000 species of fish have been described, making them the most diverse group of vertebrates. In addition, there are many species of shellfish . However, only a small number of species are commonly eaten by humans
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Seafood
SEAFOOD is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans. Seafood prominently includes fish and shellfish . Shellfish include various species of molluscs , crustaceans , and echinoderms . Historically, sea mammals such as whales and dolphins have been consumed as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae , are widely eaten as seafood around the world, especially in Asia (see the category of sea vegetables ). In North America , although not generally in the United Kingdom , the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. For the sake of completeness, this article includes all edible aquatic life. The harvesting of wild seafood is usually known as fishing or hunting , and the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture , or fish farming in the case of fish. Seafood is often distinguished from meat , although it is still animal and is excluded in a strict vegetarian diet. Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world, especially in coastal areas. Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as fish food to farm other fish or rear farm animals. Some seafoods (kelp ) are used as food for other plants (fertilizer )
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Lacto-ovo Vegetarian
An OVO-LACTO VEGETARIAN (or LACTO-OVO VEGETARIAN) is a vegetarian who does not eat meat , but does consume some animal products such as eggs and dairy . Unlike pescatarians , they do not consume fish or other seafood . A typical ovo-lacto vegetarian diet can include fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, seeds, herbs, roots, fungi, milk, cheese, yogurt, kefir, and eggs. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Diet * 3 Religion * 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGYThe terminology stems from the Latin lac meaning "milk" (as in 'lactation '), ovum meaning "egg", and the English term vegetarian, so as giving the definition of a vegetarian diet containing milk and eggs. DIETIn the Western world , ovo-lacto vegetarians are the most common type of vegetarian. Generally speaking, when one uses the term vegetarian an ovo-lacto vegetarian is assumed. Ovo-lacto vegetarians are often well-catered to in restaurants and shops, especially in some parts of Europe and metropolitan cities in North America . RELIGIONJainism prohibits causing harm to anything with a soul or potential life. Traditionally this includes eggs and certain kinds of vegetables, as well as animals, but dairy products are permitted. Jains are therefore lacto vegetarians , not ovo-lacto vegetarians. In Hinduism , many individuals are either raised as ovo-lacto vegetarians or lacto vegetarians . The Bible Christian Church was a Christian vegetarian sect founded by William Cowherd in 1809
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Neologism
A NEOLOGISM (/niːˈɒlədʒɪzəm/ ; from Greek νέο- _néo-_, "new" and λόγος _lógos_, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language. Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Sources * 3 History and meaning * 4 Literature * 5 Popular culture * 6 Translations * 7 Other uses * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links BACKGROUNDNeologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective ) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes . Portmanteaux are combined words that are sometimes used commonly. "Brunch" is an example of a portmanteau word (breakfast + lunch). Lewis Carroll\'s "snark" (snake + shark) is also a portmanteau. Neologisms also can be created through abbreviation or acronym , by intentionally rhyming with existing words or simply through playing with sounds. Neologisms can become popular through memetics , by way of mass media , the Internet , and word of mouth , including academic discourse in many fields renowned for their use of distinctive jargon , and often become accepted parts of the language
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Portmanteau
A PORTMANTEAU (/pɔːrtˈmæntoʊ/ (_ listen ), /ˌpɔːrtmænˈtoʊ/ ; plural portmanteaus_ or _portmanteaux_ /-ˈtoʊz/ ) or PORTMANTEAU WORD is a linguistic blend of words , in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in _smog_, coined by blending _smoke_ and _fog_, or _motel_, from _motor_ and _hotel_. In linguistics , a portmanteau is defined as a single morph that represents two or more morphemes . The definition overlaps with the grammatical term _contraction _, but contractions are formed from words that would otherwise appear together in sequence, such as _do_ and _not_ to make _don't_, whereas a portmanteau word is formed by combining two or more existing words that all relate to a singular concept which the portmanteau describes. A portmanteau also differs from a compound , which does not involve the truncation of parts of the stems of the blended words. For instance, _starfish_ is a compound, not a portmanteau, of _star_ and _fish_; whereas a hypothetical portmanteau of _star_ and _fish_ might be _stish_
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Fish
A FISH is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill -bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits . They form a sister group to the tunicates , together forming the olfactores . Included in this definition are the living hagfish , lampreys , and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes , so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods (i.e., the amphibians , reptiles , birds and mammals which all descended from within the same ancestry). Because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology . The traditional term PISCES (also ICHTHYES) is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification. The earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine , they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms. Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators
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Pisciculture
FISH FARMING or PISCICULTURE involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds , usually for food. It is the principal form of aquaculture , while other methods may fall under mariculture . A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species' natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery . Worldwide, the most important fish species used in fish farming are carp , tilapia , salmon , and catfish . Demand is increasing for fish and fish protein, which has resulted in widespread overfishing in wild fisheries . China provides 62% of the world's farmed fish. As of 2016, more than 50% of seafood was produced by aquaculture. Farming carnivorous fish , such as salmon, does not always reduce pressure on wild fisheries, since carnivorous farmed fish are usually fed fishmeal and fish oil extracted from wild forage fish . The 2008 global returns for fish farming recorded by the FAO totaled 33.8 million tonnes worth about $US 60 billion
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Piscivore
A PISCIVORE /ˈpɪsᵻvɔər/ is a carnivorous animal which eats primarily fish . Piscivorous is equivalent to the Greek-derived word ICHTHYOPHAGOUS. Fish were the diet of early tetrapods (amphibians); insectivory came next, then in time, reptiles added herbivory . Some animals, such as the sea lion and alligator , are not completely piscivorous, often preying on aquatic invertebrates or land animals in addition to fish, while others, such as the bulldog bat and gharial , are strictly dependent on fish for food. Humans can live on fish-based diets as can their carnivorous domesticated pets, such as dogs and cats. The name "piscivore" is derived from the Latin word for fish, piscis. Some creatures, including cnidarians , octopuses , squid , spiders , sharks , cetaceans , grizzly bears , jaguars , wolves , snakes , turtles , and sea gulls , may have fish as significant if not dominant portions of their diets. The ecological effects of piscivores can extend to other food chains. In a study of cutthroat trout stocking, researchers found that the addition of this piscivore can have noticeable effects on non-aquatic organisms, in this case bats feeding on insects emerging from the water with the trout. There exists classifications of primary and secondary piscivores. Primary piscivores, also known as "specialists", shift to this habit in the first few months of their lives. Secondary piscivores will move to eating primarily fish later in their lifetime
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Merriam-Webster
MERRIAM-WEBSTER, INCORPORATED, is an American company that publishes reference books, especially known for its dictionaries . In 1831, George and Charles Merriam founded the company as G it sold poorly, with only 2,500 copies putting him in debt. However, in 1840, he published the second edition in two volumes with much greater success. Author and poet Nathan W. Austin explores the intersection of lexicographical and poetic practices in American literature, and attempts to map out a "lexical poetics" using Webster's dictionaries as a base. He shows ways that American poetry inherited Webster's ideas and draws on his lexicography to develop the language. Austin explicates key definitions from the _Compendious_ (1806) and _American_ (1828) dictionaries, and expresses various concerns, including the politics of American English , the question of national identity and culture in the early moments of American independence, and the poetics of citation and definition. MERRIAM AS PUBLISHER Further information: Webster\'s Dictionary In 1843, after Webster's death, George Merriam and Charles Merriam secured publishing and revision rights to the 1840 edition of the dictionary. They published a revision in 1847, which did not change any of the main text but merely added new sections, and a second update with illustrations in 1859
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Free-range
FREE RANGE denotes a method of farming husbandry where the animals , for at least part of the day, can roam freely outdoors, rather than being confined in an enclosure for 24 hours each day. On many farms, the outdoors ranging area is fenced, thereby technically making this an enclosure, however, free range systems usually offer the opportunity for extensive locomotion and sunlight prevented by indoor housing systems. Free range may apply to meat, eggs or dairy farming. The term is used in two senses that do not overlap completely: as a farmer-centric description of husbandry methods, and as a consumer-centric description of them. There is a diet where the practitioner only eats meat from free-range sources called ethical omnivorism , which is a type of semivegetarian . In ranching , free-range livestock are permitted to roam without being fenced in, as opposed to fenced-in pastures . In many of the agriculture-based economies, free-range livestock are quite common. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 United States * 2.1 Free-range poultry * 2.2 Free-range livestock * 3 European Union * 3.1 United Kingdom * 4 Australia * 4.1 Egg laying hens * 4.2 Chicken Meat * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY Free range ducks in Hainan Province, China If one allows "free range" to include "herding", free range was a typical husbandry method at least until the development of barbed wire and chicken wire
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Seafood Watch
SEAFOOD WATCH is one of the best known sustainable seafood advisory lists , and has influenced similar programs around the world. It is best known for developing science-based seafood recommendations that consumers, chefs and business professionals use to inform their seafood purchasing decisions. Seafood Watch is a program of the Monterey Bay Aquarium . It has roots in the Monterey Bay Aquarium's Fishing for Solutions exhibit which ran from 1997 to 1999 and produced a list of sustainable seafood. It was one of the first resources for sustainable seafood information together with the Audubon Society 's What is a fish lover to eat? which also came out in the late 1990s. Seafood Watch assesses impacts on marine and freshwater ecosystems of fisheries (wild-caught) and aquaculture (farming) operations. The assessments and calculations result in an overall scoring and final rating known as a Seafood Watch Recommendation. There is currently a seafood watch app for the iPhone and the Android. One of its features allows people to find restaurants and stores near them that serve ocean-friendly seafood. SUSTAINABLE SEAFOOD LISTThe organization's recommendations focus on the North American market, suggesting what seafood is a green "Best Choice," yellow "Good Alternative," or a red "Avoid." The "Avoid" category is for seafood which is overfished or fished or farmed in ways that harm other marine life or the environment
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Mercury In Fish
Fish
Fish
and shellfish concentrate mercury in their bodies, often in the form of methylmercury , a highly toxic organic compound of mercury. Fish
Fish
products have been shown to contain varying amounts of heavy metals, particularly mercury and fat-soluble pollutants from water pollution . Species
Species
of fish that are long-lived and high on the food chain , such as marlin , tuna , shark , swordfish , king mackerel , tilefish (Gulf of Mexico), and northern pike , contain higher concentrations of mercury than others. Mercury is known to bioaccumulate in humans , so bioaccumulation in seafood carries over into human populations, where it can result in mercury poisoning . Mercury is dangerous to both natural ecosystems and humans because it is a metal known to be highly toxic , especially due to its ability to damage the central nervous system . In human-controlled ecosystems of fish, usually done for market production of wanted seafood species , mercury clearly rises through the food chain via fish consuming small plankton , as well as through non-food sources such as underwater sediment . This mercury grows in concentration within the bodies of fish and can be measured in the tissues of selected species. The presence of mercury in fish can be a particular health concern for women who are or may become pregnant, nursing mothers, and young children
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Health
HEALTH is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism . In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes with environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete". Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications , including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health
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