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Past
The past is a term used to indicate the totality of events that occurred before a given point in time. The past is contrasted with and defined by the present and the future. The concept of the past is derived from the linear fashion in which human observers experience time, and is accessed through memory and recollection
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Retro Style
Retro style
Retro style
(also known as "vintage inspired") is a style that is consciously derivative or imitative of trends, music, modes, fashions, or attitudes of the past.Contents1 Definition 2 Specific types of retro2.1 Objects 2.2 Interior design 2.3 Graphic design, typography, and packaging 2.4 Fashion design 2.5 Retro art 2.6 Media and culture2.6.1 Film, music, fashion, and television 2.6.2 Retrogaming 2.6.3 Retro erotica (photography)2.7 Aircraft3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 External linksDefinition[edit] The term retro has been in use since the 1960s to describe[1] on the one hand, new artifacts that self-consciously refer to particular modes, motifs, techniques, and materials of the past.[2] But on the other hand, many people use the term to categorize styles that have been created in the past.[3] Retro style
Retro style
refers to new things that display characteristics of the past
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Geology
Geology
Geology
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse"[1][2]) is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite, (such as Mars
Mars
or the Moon). Geology
Geology
describes the structure of the Earth
Earth
beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure
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Historic Preservation
Historic preservation
Historic preservation
(US), heritage preservation or heritage conservation (UK), is an endeavour that seeks to preserve, conserve and protect buildings, objects, landscapes or other artifacts of historical significance
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Fossil
A fossil (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging")[1] is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons, stone imprints of animals or microbes, hair, petrified wood, oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old.[2] The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old[3][4][5] to 4.1 billion years old.[6][7] The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Artifact (archaeology)
An artifact (usually in American English) or artefact (British English) (from Latin
Latin
phrase arte factum~ars skill + facere to make) is something made or given shape by man, such as a tool or a work of art, especially an object of archaeological interest.[1] In archaeology, however, the word has become a term of particular nuance and is defined as: an object recovered by archaeological endeavor, which may be a cultural artifact having cultural interest. However, modern archaeologists take care to distinguish material culture from ethnicity, which is often more complex, as expressed by Carol Kramer in the dictum "pots are not people".[2]Archaeological artifact from Black Sea region: a Sarmatian-Parthian gold necklace and amulet, 2nd century AD.Examples include stone tools, pottery vessels, metal objects such as weapons, and items of personal adornment such as buttons, jewelry and clothing
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Archaism
In language, an archaism (from the Ancient Greek: ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts. Their deliberate use can be subdivided into literary archaisms, which seeks to evoke the style of older speech and writing; and lexical archaisms, the use of words no longer in common use.[1] A distinction between archaic and obsolete words and word senses is widely used by dictionaries. An archaic word or sense is one that still has some current use but whose use has dwindled to a few specialized contexts, outside which it connotes old-fashioned language. In contrast, an obsolete word or sense is one that is no longer used at all. A reader encounters them when reading texts that are centuries old
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Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
(or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes. Palaeogeography
Palaeogeography
can also include the study of human or cultural environments. When the focus is specifically on the study of landforms, the term paleogeomorphology is sometimes used instead. Paleogeography yields information that is crucial to scientific understanding in a variety of contexts. For example, paleogeographic analysis of sedimentary basins plays a key role in the field of petroleum geology, because the ancient geomorphological environments of the Earth's surface are preserved in the stratigraphic record. Paleogeographers also study the sedimentary environment associated with fossils for clues to the evolutionary development of extinct species
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Paleoethnobotany
Pal(a)eoethnobotany or Archaeobotany, "is the study of remains of plants cultivated or used by people in ancient times, which have survived in archaeological contexts."[1] Paleoethnobotany
Paleoethnobotany
is the archaeological sub-field that studies plant remains from archaeological sites. Basing on the recovery and identification of plant remains and the ecological and cultural information available for modern plants, the major research themes are the use of wild plants, the origins of agriculture and domestication, and the co-evolution of human-plant interactions.Contents1 Preservation 2 Recovery methods 3 Identification 4 Research 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksPreservation[edit] Plant
Plant
macrofossils are preserved through four main modes of preservation at archaeological sites
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Paleobotany
Paleobotany, also spelled as palaeobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and "botany", study of plants), is the branch of paleontology or paleobiology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use for the biological reconstruction of past environments (paleogeography), and both the evolutionary history of plants, with a bearing upon the evolution of life in general. A synonym is paleophytology. Paleobotany
Paleobotany
includes the study of terrestrial plant fossils, as well as the study of prehistoric marine photoautotrophs, such as photosynthetic algae, seaweeds or kelp
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Ontology
Ontology
Ontology
(introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.[1] Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. A very simple definition of ontology is that it is the examination of what is meant by 'being'. In modern terms, the formal study of reality itself is in the domain of the physical sciences, while the study of personal "reality" is left to psychology
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Law
Law
Law
is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.[2] Law
Law
is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent, normally in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create legally binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process. The formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, and the rights encoded therein
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Historical Geology
Historical geology or paleogeology is a discipline that uses the principles and techniques of geology to reconstruct and understand the geological history of Earth.[1] It focuses on geologic processes that change the Earth's surface
Earth's surface
and subsurface; and the use of stratigraphy, structural geology and paleontology to tell the sequence of these events. It also focuses on the evolution of plants and animals during different time periods in the geological timescale. The discovery of radioactivity and the development of several radiometric dating techniques in the first half of the 20th century provided a means of deriving absolute versus relative ages of geologic history. Economic geology, the search for and extraction of fuel and raw materials, is heavily dependent on an understanding of the geological history of an area
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Historical Linguistics
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.[1] Principal concerns of historical linguistics include:[2]to describe and account for observed changes in particular languages to reconstruct the pre-history of languages and to determine their relatedness, grouping them into language families (comparative linguistics) to develop general theories about how and why language changes to describe the history of speech communities to study the history of words, i.e
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Terminology
Terminology is the study of terms and their use. Terms are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language. Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from lexicography, as it involves the study of concepts, conceptual systems and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings. Terminology is a discipline that systematically studies the "labelling or designating of concepts" particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activity. It does this through the research and analysis of terms in context for the purpose of documenting and promoting consistent usage
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Recall (memory)
Recall in memory refers to the mental process of retrieval of information from the past. Along with encoding and storage, it is one of the three core processes of memory. There are three main types of recall: free recall, cued recall and serial recall
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