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Paralympics
The Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
is a major international multi-sport event involving athletes with a range of disabilities, including impaired muscle power (e.g. paraplegia and quadriplegia, muscular dystrophy, post-polio syndrome, spina bifida), impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency (e.g. amputation or dysmelia), leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. There are Winter and Summer Paralympic Games, which since the 1988 Summer Games in Seoul, South Korea, are held almost immediately following the respective Olympic Games. All Paralympic Games
Paralympic Games
are governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). The Paralympics has grown from a small gathering of British World War II veterans in 1948 to become one of the largest international sporting events by the early 21st century
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Normalization (people With Disabilities)
"The normalization principle means making available to all people with disabilities patterns of life and conditions of everyday living which are as close as possible to the regular circumstances and ways of life or society."[1] Normalization is a rigorous theory of human services that can be applied to disability services.[2] Normalization theory arose in the early 1970s, towards the end of the institutionalisation period in the US; it is one of the strongest and long lasting integration theories for people with severe disabilities.Contents1 Definition1.1 Theoretical foundations2 History2.1 Academe 2.2 Significance in structuring service systems 2.3 Critical ideology of human services3 In contemporary society3.1 Deinstitutionalization and community development 3.2 Community supports and community integration 3.3 Contemporary services and workforces 3.4 Personal wounds, quality of life and social role valorization 3.5 Related theories and
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People-first Language
People-first language (PFL),[1] also called person-first language (PFL), is a type of linguistic prescription to avoid marginalization or dehumanization (either conscious or subconscious) when discussing people with a health issue or disability. It can be a type of disability etiquette but more often is applied to any group that would otherwise be defined or mentally categorized by a condition or trait (for example, disease, age, disability, or appearance) rather than as a group of people who have that condition or trait. Rather than using a label or an adjective to define someone, person-first language puts the person before the diagnosis and describes what the person has (for example, "a person with diabetes" or "a person with alcoholism"), not an assertion of what the person is (for example, "a diabetic" or "a drunk"). Thus a person is foremost a person and secondly a person with some trait
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Physical Therapy
Physical therapy
Physical therapy
(PT), also known as physiotherapy, is one of the allied health professions that, by using mechanical force and movements (bio-mechanics or kinesiology), manual therapy, exercise therapy and electrotherapy, remediates impairments and promotes mobility and function. Physical therapy
Physical therapy
is used to improve a patient's quality of life through examination, diagnosis, prognosis and physical intervention. It is performed by physical therapists (known as physiotherapists in many countries). In addition to clinical practice, other activities encompassed in the physical therapy profession include research, education, consultation and administration
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Occupational Therapy
Occupational therapy
Occupational therapy
(OT) is the use of assessment and intervention to develop, recover, or maintain the meaningful activities, or occupations, of individuals, groups, or communities. It is an allied health profession performed by occupational therapists. OTs often work with people with mental health problems, disabilities, injuries, or impairments.[1] The American Occupational Therapy Association defines an occupational therapist as someone who "helps people across the lifespan participate in the things they want and need to do through the therapeutic use of everyday activities (occupations)
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Speech-language Pathology
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist[1] or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others. The field of SLP is distinguished from other "related health professions" as SLPs are legally permitted to diagnose certain disorders which fall within their scope of practice. SLPs specialize in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of communication disorders (speech disorders and language disorders), cognitive-communication disorders, voice disorders, and swallowing disorders
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Disability Rights Movement
The disability rights movement is a global[1][2] social movement to secure equal opportunities and equal rights for all people with disabilities. It is made up of organizations of disability activists around the world working together with similar goals and demands, such as: accessibility and safety in architecture, transportation, and the physical environment; equal opportunities in independent living, employment equity, education, and housing; and freedom from discrimination, abuse, neglect, and from other rights violations.[3] Disability
Disability
activists are working to break institutional, physical, and societal barriers that prevent people with disabilitie
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Inclusion (disability Rights)
Inclusion is a term used by people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that all people should take action to freely, accommodate people with a physical, mental, cognitive, and or developmental disability. For example providing ramps and accessible toilets in meeting facilities or providing additional intervention and resources in the education system are known as 'universal design'[citation needed] or efforts towards the goal of inclusion.[1] The concept of inclusion emphasizes universal design for policy-oriented physical accessibility issues, such as ease-of-use of physical structures and elimination of barriers to ease movement in the world, but the largest part of its purpose is on being culturally transformational
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Ticket To Work
The United States Social Security Administration’s Ticket to Work and Self-Sufficiency Program is the centerpiece of the Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999. This voluntary program is designed to help people who are receiving disability benefits from Social Security "find good jobs, good careers, and better self-supporting futures."[1] To be eligible for the program people must be ages 18 through 64 and receive Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) benefits under Title II of the Social Security Act and/or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments under Title XVI of the Social Security Act
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List Of Disability-related Terms With Negative Connotations
The following is a list of terms used to describe disabilities or people with disabilities that may be considered negative and/or offensive by people with or without disabilities. There is a great deal of disagreement as to what should be considered offensive. Views vary with geography and culture, over time, and among individuals. Many terms that some people view as offensive are not viewed as offensive by others, and even where some people are offended by certain terms, others may be offended by the replacement of such terms with what they consider to be euphemisms (e.g., "differently abled" or "special needs"). Some people believe that terms should be avoided if they might offend people; others hold the listener responsible for misinterpreting terms used with non-offensive intent. For some terms, the grammar structure of their use determine if they are offensive
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Special Education
Special
Special
education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special
Special
Ed) is the practice of educating students with special educational needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, and accessible settings
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Unlicensed Assistive Personnel
Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) is a class of paraprofessionals who assist individuals with physical disabilities, mental impairments, and other health care needs with their activities of daily living (ADLs) and provide bedside care—including basic nursing procedures—all under the supervision of a registered nurse, licensed practical nurse or other health care professional. UAPs must demonstrate their abilities and competencies before gaining any expanded responsibilities within the clinical setting. They provide care for patients in hospitals, residents of nursing facilities, clients in private homes, and others in need of their services due to effects of old age or disability. UAPs, by definition, do not hold a license or other mandatory professional requirements for practice, though many hold various certifications
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Activities Of Daily Living
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities. The concept of ADLs was originally proposed in the 1950s by Sidney Katz and his team at the Benjamin Rose Hospital in Cleveland, OH and has been added to and refined by a variety of researchers since that time.[1] Health professionals often use a person's ability or inability to perform ADLs as a measurement of their functional status, particularly in regard to people post injury, with disabilities and the elderly.[2] Younger children often require help from adults to perform ADLs, as they have not yet developed the skills necessary to perform them independently. ADLs are defined as "the things we normally do... such as feeding ourselves, bathing, dressing, grooming, work, homemaking, and leisure."[3] A number of national surveys collect data on the ADL status of the U.S
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Orthotics
Orthotics
Orthotics
(Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses. An orthosis (plural: orthoses) is "an externally applied device used to modify the structural and functional characteristics of the neuromuscular and skeletal system".[1] An orthotist is the primary medical clinician responsible for the prescription, manufacture and management of orthoses
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Supplemental Security Income
Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States
United States
government means-tested welfare program that provides cash assistance and health care coverage (i.e., Medicaid) to people with low-income and limited assets who are either aged 65 or older, blind, or disabled (children included).[1] Although administered by the Social Security Administration,[2] SSI is funded from the U.S. Treasury general funds,[1] not the Social Security trust fund. SSI was created in 1974 to replace federal-state adult assistance programs that served the same purpose, but was administered by the State agencies and received criticism for lacking consistent eligibility criteria throughout the United States
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Accessibility
Accessibility
Accessibility
refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities.[1] The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). Accessibility
Accessibility
can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity
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