HOME
The Info List - Seoul


--- Advertisement ---



Seoul
Seoul
(/soʊl/; 서울; Korean: [sʌ.ul] ( listen)), officially the Seoul
Seoul
Special
Special
Metropolitan City – is the capital[10] and largest metropolis of the Republic of Korea
Korea
(commonly known as South Korea).[1] Seoul
Seoul
forms the heart of the Seoul
Seoul
Capital Area, and includes the surrounding Incheon
Incheon
metropolis and Gyeonggi province, altogether home to roughly half of the country's population.[11][12] Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BC by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. The city was later designated the capital of Korea
Korea
under the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city. As with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area
Seoul Capital Area
contains five UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo
Jongmyo
Shrine, Namhansanseong
Namhansanseong
and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon
Joseon
Dynasty.[13] More recently, Seoul
Seoul
has been a major site of modern architectural construction–major modern landmarks include the N Seoul
Seoul
Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World
Lotte World
Tower, the Dongdaemun
Dongdaemun
Design Plaza, Lotte World, Moonlight Rainbow Fountain, COEX, and the Parc1 Tower. Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. Also the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul
Seoul
received over 10 million international visitors in 2014,[14] making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism.[15] Today, Seoul
Seoul
is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from an economic boom called the Miracle on the Han River, which transformed it to the world's 4th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$845.9 billion[16] in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City
New York City
and Los Angeles. International visitors generally reach Seoul
Seoul
via AREX
AREX
from the Incheon
Incheon
International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years (2005–2013) by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita (PPP) in Seoul
Seoul
being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul
Seoul
are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.[17][18][19] With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City,[20] the Seoul Capital Area
Seoul Capital Area
is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung,[21] LG, and Hyundai-Kia. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences.[22] Seoul
Seoul
has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, and more recently the 2010 G-20 Seoul
Seoul
summit.

A view near Seoul
Seoul
Station

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Climate 3.2 Air Quality

4 Administrative districts 5 Demographics 6 Economy

6.1 Manufacturing 6.2 Finance 6.3 Commerce

7 Architecture

7.1 Historical architecture 7.2 Modern architecture

8 Culture

8.1 Technology 8.2 Museums 8.3 Religious monuments 8.4 Festivals 8.5 Parks

9 Sports

9.1 International competition 9.2 Domestic sports clubs

9.2.1 Football 9.2.2 Baseball 9.2.3 Basketball 9.2.4 Volleyball 9.2.5 Handball

10 Transportation

10.1 Bus 10.2 Urban rail 10.3 Train 10.4 Airports 10.5 Cycling

11 Education

11.1 Universities 11.2 Secondary education

12 International relations

12.1 Twin towns – Sister cities

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

15.1 Official sites 15.2 Tourism and living information

15.2.1 Maps

15.3 Photos

Etymology[edit] Main article: Names of Seoul The city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong (Hangul: 위례성; Hanja: 慰禮城, during the Baekje era), Hanyang (Hangul: 한양; Hanja: 漢陽, during the Goryeo
Goryeo
era), Hanseong
Hanseong
(Hangul: 한성; Hanja: 漢城, during the Joseon
Joseon
era), Keijō (Hangul: 경성; Hanja: 京城, during the colonial era).[23] During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" (漢城) was renamed to "Keijō" (京城) by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja '漢' (a transliteration of an ancient Korean word "Han" (한) meaning "China"), which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China". Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", which is believed to be derived from the word Seorabeol (Hangul: 서라벌; Hanja: 徐羅伐), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.[24] Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja ( Chinese characters
Chinese characters
used in the Korean language). On January 18, 2005, the Seoul
Seoul
government arbitrarily changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng (simplified Chinese: 汉城; traditional Chinese: 漢城; pinyin: Hànchéng), which had not fallen out of common use, to Shou'er (simplified Chinese: 首尔; traditional Chinese: 首爾; pinyin: Shǒu'ěr).[25][26][27] History[edit] Main articles: History of Seoul
History of Seoul
and Timeline of Seoul

Gyeongbokgung
Gyeongbokgung
Palace

Donggwoldo, the landscape painting of Changdeokgung

Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul
Seoul
is located, began around 4000 BC.[28] Seoul
Seoul
is first recorded as Wiryeseong, the capital of Baekje
Baekje
(founded in 18 BC) in the northeastern Seoul
Seoul
area.[28] There are several city walls remaining in the area that date from this time. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall just outside Seoul, is widely believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong
Wiryeseong
site.[29] As the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje
Baekje
to Goguryeo
Goguryeo
in the 5th century, and from Goguryeo
Goguryeo
to Silla
Silla
in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, which was referred to as the "Southern Capital". It was only from this period that Seoul
Seoul
became a larger settlement.[28] When Joseon
Joseon
replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul
Seoul
(also known as Hanyang or Hanseong), where it remained until the fall of the dynasty. The Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, Changdeokgung, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872.[28] After Joseon
Joseon
changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong also designated Seoul. Originally, the city was entirely surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals, thieves and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands (except along Bugaksan Mountain (Hangul: 북악산; Hanja: 北岳山), north of the downtown area[30]), the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun
Sungnyemun
(commonly known as Namdaemun) and Heunginjimun
Heunginjimun
(commonly known as Dongdaemun).[31] During the Joseon dynasty, the gates were opened and closed each day, accompanied by the ringing of large bells at the Bosingak
Bosingak
belfry.[32] In the late 19th century, after hundreds of years of isolation, Seoul
Seoul
opened its gates to foreigners and began to modernize. Seoul
Seoul
became the first city in East Asia to introduce electricity in the royal palace, built by the Edison Illuminating Company[33] and a decade later Seoul
Seoul
also implemented electrical street lights.[34] Much of the development was due to trade with foreign countries like France
France
and United States. For example, the Seoul
Seoul
Electric Company, Seoul
Seoul
Electric Trolley Company, and Seoul
Seoul
Fresh Spring Water Company were all joint Korean–American owned enterprises.[35] In 1904, an American by the name of Angus Hamilton visited the city and said, "The streets of Seoul
Seoul
are magnificent, spacious, clean, admirably made and well-drained. The narrow, dirty lanes have been widened, gutters have been covered, roadways broadened. Seoul
Seoul
is within measurable distance of becoming the highest, most interesting and cleanest city in the East."[36] After the annexation treaty in 1910, the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
annexed Korea and renamed the city Gyeongseong
Gyeongseong
("Kyongsong" in Korean and "Keijo" in Japanese). Japanese technology was imported, the city walls were removed, some of the gates demolished. Roads became paved and Western-style buildings were constructed. The city was liberated at the end of World War II.[28] In 1945, the city was officially named Seoul, and was designated as a special city in 1949.[28] During the Korean War, Seoul
Seoul
changed hands between the Russian/Chinese-backed North Korean forces and the American-backed South Korean forces several times, leaving the city heavily damaged after the war. The capital was temporarily relocated to Busan.[28] One estimate of the extensive damage states that after the war, at least 191,000 buildings, 55,000 houses, and 1,000 factories lay in ruins. In addition, a flood of refugees had entered Seoul
Seoul
during the war, swelling the population of the city and its metropolitan area to an estimated 1.5 million by 1955.[37] Following the war, Seoul
Seoul
began to focus on reconstruction and modernization. As Korea's economy started to grow rapidly from the 1960s, urbanization also accelerated and workers began to move to Seoul
Seoul
and other larger cities.[37] From the 1970s, the size of Seoul administrative area greatly expanded as it annexed a number of towns and villages from several surrounding counties.[38] According to 2012 census data, the population of the Seoul
Seoul
area makes up around 20% of the total population of South Korea,[39] Seoul
Seoul
has become the economic, political and cultural hub of the country,[28] with several Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, SK Holdings, Hyundai, POSCO
POSCO
and LG Group
LG Group
headquartered there.[40] Seoul
Seoul
was the host city of the 1986 Asian Games
1986 Asian Games
and 1988 Summer Olympics as well as one of the venues of the Football World Cup 2002. Geography[edit] Seoul
Seoul
is in the northwest of South Korea. Seoul
Seoul
proper comprises 605.25 km2 (233.69 sq mi),[2] with a radius of approximately 15 km (9 mi), roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea
Korea
strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China
China
(via the Yellow Sea).[41] The river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, with civilian entry barred. Historically, the city was during the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty bounded by the Seoul
Seoul
Fortress Wall, which stretched between the four main mountains in central Seoul: Namsan, Naksan, Bukaksan and Inwangsan. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas. Due to its geography and to economic development policies, Seoul
Seoul
is a very polycentric city. The area that was the old capital in the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty, and mostly comprises Jongno District
Jongno District
and Jung District, constitutes the historical and political center of the city. However, for example, the city's financial capital is widely considered to be in Yeouido, while its economic capital is Gangnam District. Climate[edit] Main article: Climate of Seoul Under the Köppen climate classification, Seoul
Seoul
has a humid continental climate, also bordering a humid subtropical climate. The suburbs of Seoul
Seoul
are generally cooler than the center of Seoul
Seoul
because of the urban heat island effect.[42] Summers are generally hot and humid, with the East Asian monsoon taking place from June until September. August, the warmest month, has average high and low temperatures of 29.6 and 22.4 °C (85 and 72 °F) with higher temperatures possible. Winters are usually cold to freezing with average January high and low temperatures of 1.5 and −5.9 °C (34.7 and 21.4 °F) and are generally much drier than summers, with an average of 28 days of snow annually. Sometimes, temperatures drop dramatically to below −10.0 °C (14.0 °F), and on some occasions as low as −15.0 °C (5.0 °F) in the mid winter period of January and February. Temperatures below −20.0 °C (−4.0 °F) have been recorded.

Climate data for Seoul
Seoul
(normals 1981–2010, extremes 1907–present)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 14.4 (57.9) 18.7 (65.7) 23.8 (74.8) 29.8 (85.6) 34.4 (93.9) 37.2 (99) 38.4 (101.1) 38.2 (100.8) 35.1 (95.2) 30.1 (86.2) 25.9 (78.6) 17.7 (63.9) 38.4 (101.1)

Average high °C (°F) 1.5 (34.7) 4.7 (40.5) 10.4 (50.7) 17.8 (64) 23.0 (73.4) 27.1 (80.8) 28.6 (83.5) 29.6 (85.3) 25.8 (78.4) 19.8 (67.6) 11.6 (52.9) 4.3 (39.7) 17.0 (62.6)

Daily mean °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) 0.4 (32.7) 5.7 (42.3) 12.5 (54.5) 17.8 (64) 22.2 (72) 24.9 (76.8) 25.7 (78.3) 21.2 (70.2) 14.8 (58.6) 7.2 (45) 0.4 (32.7) 12.5 (54.5)

Average low °C (°F) −5.9 (21.4) −3.4 (25.9) 1.6 (34.9) 7.8 (46) 13.2 (55.8) 18.2 (64.8) 21.9 (71.4) 22.4 (72.3) 17.2 (63) 10.3 (50.5) 3.2 (37.8) −3.2 (26.2) 8.6 (47.5)

Record low °C (°F) −22.5 (−8.5) −19.6 (−3.3) −14.1 (6.6) −4.3 (24.3) 2.4 (36.3) 8.8 (47.8) 12.9 (55.2) 13.5 (56.3) 3.2 (37.8) −5.1 (22.8) −11.9 (10.6) −23.1 (−9.6) −23.1 (−9.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 20.8 (0.819) 25.0 (0.984) 47.2 (1.858) 64.5 (2.539) 105.9 (4.169) 133.2 (5.244) 394.7 (15.539) 364.2 (14.339) 169.3 (6.665) 51.8 (2.039) 52.5 (2.067) 21.5 (0.846) 1,450.5 (57.106)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6.5 5.8 7.4 7.8 9.0 9.9 16.3 14.6 9.1 6.3 8.7 7.4 108.8

Average snowy days 8.0 5.2 3.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.1 6.1 24.9

Average relative humidity (%) 59.8 57.9 57.8 56.2 62.7 68.1 78.3 75.6 69.2 64.0 62.0 60.6 64.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 160.3 163.3 189.0 205.0 213.0 182.0 120.0 152.5 176.2 198.8 153.2 152.6 2,066

Percent possible sunshine 52.3 53.6 51.0 51.9 48.4 41.2 26.8 36.2 47.2 57.1 50.2 51.1 46.4

Source: Korea
Korea
Meteorological Administration[43][44][45] (percent sunshine and snowy days)[46]

Air Quality[edit]

   Very Unhealthy    Unhealthy    Unhealthy for sensitive groups

   Moderate   Good

According to the Environmental Performance Index 2016, South Korea ranked 173rd out of 180 countries in terms of air quality. More than 50 percent of the populations in South Korea
South Korea
exposed to dangerous levels of fine dust.[47][48]

Air pollution
Air pollution
is a major issue in Seoul.[49][50] According to the 2016 World Health Organization
World Health Organization
Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database,[51] the annual average PM2.5
PM2.5
concentration in 2014 was 24 μg/m3, which is 2.4 times higher than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines[52] for the annual mean PM2.5. The Seoul Metropolitan Government monitors and publicly shares real-time air quality data.[53] Since the early 1960s, the Ministry of Environment (South Korea)
Ministry of Environment (South Korea)
has implemented a range of policies and air pollutant standards to improve and manage air quality for its people.[54] The " Special
Special
Act on the Improvement of Air Quality in the Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Area" was passed in December 2003. Its 1st Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement Plan (2005-2014) focused on improving the concentrations of PM10
PM10
and nitrogen dioxide by reducing emissions.[55] As a result, the annual average PM10
PM10
concentrations decreased from 70.0 μg/m3 in 2001 to 44.4 μg/m3 in 2011[56] and 46 μg/m3 in 2014.[51] As of 2014, the annual average PM10
PM10
concentration was still at least twice than that recommended by the WHO Air Quality Guidelines.[52] The 2nd Seoul Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement Plan (2015–2024) added PM2.5 and ozone to its list of managed pollutants.[57] Asian dust, emissions from Seoul
Seoul
and in general from South Korea, as well as emissions from China, all contribute to Seoul's air quality.[50][58] A partnership between researchers in South Korea
South Korea
and the United States
United States
is conducting an international air quality field study in Korea
Korea
(KORUS-AQ) to determine how much each source contributes.[59] Administrative districts[edit] Main article: List of districts of Seoul

Seoul
Seoul
Districts

Seoul
Seoul
is divided into 25 gu (Hangul: 구; Hanja: 區) (district).[60] The gu vary greatly in area (from 10 to 47 km2) and population (from fewer than 140,000 to 630,000). Songpa has the most people, while Seocho has the largest area. The government of each gu handles many of the functions that are handled by city governments in other jurisdictions. Each gu is divided into "dong" (Hangul: 동; Hanja: 洞) or neighbourhoods. Some gu have only a few dong while others like Jongno District
Jongno District
have a very large number of distinct neighbourhoods. Gu of Seoul
Seoul
consist of 423 administrative dongs (Hangul: 행정동) in total.[60] Dong are also sub-divided into 13,787 tong (Hangul: 통; Hanja: 統), which are further divided into 102,796 ban in total.

Dobong District
Dobong District
(도봉구; 道峰區) Dongdaemun District
Dongdaemun District
(동대문구; 東大門區) Dongjak District
Dongjak District
(동작구; 銅雀區) Eunpyeong District
Eunpyeong District
(은평구; 恩平區) Gangbuk District
Gangbuk District
(강북구; 江北區) Gangdong District
Gangdong District
(강동구; 江東區) Gangnam District
Gangnam District
(강남구; 江南區) Gangseo District (강서구; 江西區) Geumcheon District
Geumcheon District
(금천구; 衿川區) Guro District
Guro District
(구로구; 九老區) Gwanak District
Gwanak District
(관악구; 冠岳區) Gwangjin District
Gwangjin District
(광진구; 廣津區) Jongno District
Jongno District
(종로구; 鍾路區) Jung District (중구; 中區) Jungnang District
Jungnang District
(중랑구; 中浪區) Mapo District
Mapo District
(마포구; 麻浦區) Nowon District
Nowon District
(노원구; 蘆原區) Seocho District
Seocho District
(서초구; 瑞草區) Seodaemun District
Seodaemun District
(서대문구; 西大門區) Seongbuk District
Seongbuk District
(성북구; 城北區) Seongdong District
Seongdong District
(성동구; 城東區) Songpa District
Songpa District
(송파구; 松坡區) Yangcheon District
Yangcheon District
(양천구; 陽川區) Yeongdeungpo District
Yeongdeungpo District
(영등포구; 永登浦區) Yongsan District
Yongsan District
(용산구; 龍山區)

Seoul
Seoul
City Hall

Demographics[edit] Seoul
Seoul
proper is noted for its population density, which is almost twice that of New York and eight times greater than Rome. Its metropolitan area was the most densely populated in the OECD
OECD
in Asia in 2012, and second worldwide after that of Paris.[61] As of 2015, the population was 9.86 million,[62] in 2012, it was 10,442,426.[63] As of the end of June 2011, 10.29 million Republic of Korea
Korea
citizens lived in the city. This was a .24% decrease from the end of 2010. The population of Seoul
Seoul
has been dropping since the early 1990s, the reasons being the high costs of living and an aging population.[62] As of 2016, the number of foreigners living in Seoul
Seoul
was 404,037, 22.9% of the total foreign population in South Korea.[64] As of June 2011, 186,631 foreigners were Chinese citizens of Korean ancestry. This was an 8.84% increase from the end of 2010 and a 12.85% increase from June 2010. The next largest group was Chinese citizens who are not of Korean ethnicity; 29,901 of them resided in Seoul. The next highest group consisted of the 9,999 United States
United States
citizens who were not of Korean ancestry. The next highest group were the Republic of China
China
(Taiwan) citizens, at 8,717.[65] The two major religions in Seoul
Seoul
are Christianity and Buddhism. Other religions include Muism
Muism
(indigenous religion) and Confucianism. Seoul is home to one of the world's largest Christian congregations, Yoido Full Gospel Church, which has around 830,000 members.[66] Seoul
Seoul
is home to the world's largest modern university founded by a Buddhist Order, Dongguk University.[citation needed] Economy[edit]

Gangnam Commercial Area

See also: Economy of South Korea Seoul
Seoul
is the business and financial hub of South Korea. Although it accounts for only 0.6 percent of the nation's land area, 48.3 percent of South Korea's bank deposits were held in Seoul
Seoul
in 2003,[67] and the city generated 23 percent of the country's GDP overall in 2012.[68] In 2008 the Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index ranked Seoul
Seoul
No.9.[69] The Global Financial Centres Index in 2015 listed Seoul
Seoul
as the 6th financially most competitive city in the world.[70] The Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Seoul
Seoul
15th in the list of "Overall 2025 City Competitiveness" regarding future competitiveness of cities.[71] Manufacturing[edit] The traditional, labour-intensive manufacturing industries have been continuously replaced by information technology, electronics and assembly-type of industries;[72][73] however, food and beverage production, as well as printing and publishing remained among the core industries.[72] Major manufacturers are headquartered in the city, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai, Kia and SK. Notable food and beverage companies include Jinro, whose soju is the most sold alcoholic drink in the world, beating out Smirnoff
Smirnoff
vodka;[74] top selling beer producers Hite (merged with Jinro) and Oriental Brewery.[75] It also hosts food giants like Seoul
Seoul
Dairy Cooperative, Nongshim Group, Ottogi, CJ, Orion, Maeil Holdings, Namyang Dairy Products and Lotte. Finance[edit] Seoul
Seoul
hosts large concentration of headquarters of International companies and banks, including 15 companies on fortune 500 list such as Samsung, LG and Hyundai.[76] Most bank headquarters and the Korea Exchange are located in Yeouido
Yeouido
(Yeoui island),[72] which is often called "Korea's Wall Street" and has been serving as the financial center of the city since the 1980s.[77] The Seoul
Seoul
international finance center & SIFC MALL, Hanhwa 63 building, the Hanhwa insurance company head office. Hanhwa is one of the three largest Korean insurance companies, along with Samsung
Samsung
Life and Gangnam & Kyob life insurance group. Commerce[edit] Main article: Shopping in Seoul

Lotte World Tower
Lotte World Tower
and Jamsil Railway Bridge

The largest wholesale and retail market in South Korea, the Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul.[78] Myeongdong
Myeongdong
is a shopping and entertainment area in downtown Seoul
Seoul
with mid- to high-end stores, fashion boutiques and international brand outlets.[79] The nearby Namdaemun
Namdaemun
Market, named after the Namdaemun
Namdaemun
Gate, is the oldest continually running market in Seoul.[80] Insadong
Insadong
is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold.[81] Hwanghak-dong Flea Market
Hwanghak-dong Flea Market
and Janganpyeong Antique Market also offer antique products.[82][83] Some shops for local designers have opened in Samcheong-dong, where numerous small art galleries are located. While Itaewon
Itaewon
had catered mainly to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city, Koreans now comprise the majority of visitors to the area.[84] The Gangnam district
Gangnam district
is one of the most affluent areas in Seoul[84] and is noted for the fashionable and upscale Apgujeong-dong
Apgujeong-dong
and Cheongdam-dong
Cheongdam-dong
areas and the COEX Mall. Wholesale markets include Noryangjin Fisheries Wholesale Market and Garak Market. The Yongsan Electronics
Electronics
Market is the largest electronics market in Asia. Electronics
Electronics
markets are Gangbyeon station metro line 2 Techno mart, ENTER6 MALL & Shindorim station Technomart mall complex.[85] Times Square is one of Seoul's largest shopping malls featuring the CGV Starium, the world's largest permanent 35 mm cinema screen.[86] Korea
Korea
World Trade Center Complex, which comprises COEX mall, congress center, 3 Inter-continental hotels, Business tower (Asem tower), Residence hotel, Casino and City airport terminal was established in 1988 in time for the Seoul Olympics
Seoul Olympics
. 2nd World trade trade center is planning at Seoul
Seoul
Olympic stadium complex as MICE HUB by Seoul
Seoul
city. Ex-Kepco head office building was purchased by Hyundai
Hyundai
motor group with 9billion USD to build 115-storey Hyundai
Hyundai
GBC & hotel complex until 2021. Now ex-kepco 25-storey building is under demolition. Architecture[edit] See also: Architecture of South Korea

Sungnyemun

The traditional heart of Seoul
Seoul
is the old Joseon
Joseon
dynasty city, now the downtown area, where most palaces, government offices, corporate headquarters, hotels, and traditional markets are located. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs from west to east through the valley before emptying into the Han River, was for many years covered with concrete, but was recently restored by an urban revival project in 2005.[87] Jongno
Jongno
street, meaning "Bell Street", has been a principal street and one of the earliest commercial streets of the city,[88][89] on which one can find Bosingak, a pavilion containing a large bell. The bell signaled the different times of the day and controlled the four major gates to the city. North of downtown is Bukhan Mountain, and to the south is the smaller Namsan. Further south are the old suburbs, Yongsan District
Yongsan District
and Mapo District. Across the Han River are the newer and wealthier areas of Gangnam District, Seocho District
Seocho District
and surrounding neighborhoods. Historical architecture[edit]

Jongmyo, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage
World Heritage
Site

Changdeokgung, one of the five grand palaces of Korea, is a UNESCO World Heritage
World Heritage
Site.

Seoul
Seoul
has many historical and cultural landmarks. In Amsa-dong Prehistoric Settlement Site, Gangdong District, neolithic remains were excavated and accidentally discovered by a flood in 1925.[90] Urban and civil planning was a key concept when Seoul
Seoul
was first designed to serve as a capital in the late 14th century. The Joseon dynasty built the "Five Grand Palaces" in Seoul
Seoul
– Changdeokgung, Changgyeonggung, Deoksugung, Gyeongbokgung
Gyeongbokgung
and Gyeonghuigung
Gyeonghuigung
– all of which are located in the district of Jongno District
Jongno District
and Jung District. Among them, Changdeokgung
Changdeokgung
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List in 1997 as an "outstanding example of Far Eastern palace architecture and garden design". The main palace, Gyeongbokgung, underwent a large-scale restoration project.[91] The palaces are considered exemplary architecture of the Joseon
Joseon
period. Beside the palaces, Unhyeongung
Unhyeongung
is known for being the royal residence of Regent Daewongun, the father of Emperor Gojong
Emperor Gojong
at the end of the Joseon Dynasty.

Deoksugung
Deoksugung
in autumn

Seoul
Seoul
has been surrounded by walls that were built to regulate visitors from other regions and protect the city in case of an invasion. Pungnap Toseong
Pungnap Toseong
is a flat earthen wall built at the edge of the Han River, which is widely believed to be the site of Wiryeseong. Mongchon Toseong (Hangul: 몽촌토성; Hanja: 蒙村土城) is another earthen wall built during the Baekje
Baekje
period that is now located inside the Olympic Park.[29] The Fortress Wall of Seoul
Fortress Wall of Seoul
was built early in the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty for protection of the city. After many centuries of destruction and rebuilding, about ⅔ of the wall remains, as well as six of the original eight gates. These gates include Sungnyemun
Sungnyemun
and Heunginjimun, commonly known as Namdaemun (South Great Gate) and Dongdaemun
Dongdaemun
(East Great Gate). Namdaemun
Namdaemun
was the oldest wooden gate until a 2008 arson attack, and was re-opened after complete restoration in 2013.[92] Situated near the gates are the traditional markets and largest shopping center, Namdaemun
Namdaemun
Market and Dongdaemun
Dongdaemun
Market. There are also many buildings constructed with international styles in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The Independence Gate
Independence Gate
was built in 1897 to inspire an independent spirit. Seoul Station
Seoul Station
was opened in 1900 as Gyeongseong
Gyeongseong
Station. Modern architecture[edit]

Dongdaemun
Dongdaemun
Design Plaza

Various high-rise office buildings and residential buildings, like the Gangnam Finance Center, the Tower Palace, Namsan Seoul
Seoul
Tower, and the Lotte World
Lotte World
Tower, dominate the city's skyline. The tallest building is Lotte World
Lotte World
Tower, reaching a height of 555m. It opened to the public in April 2017. The World Trade Center Seoul, located in Gangnam District, hosts various expositions and conferences. Also in Gangnam District
Gangnam District
is the COEX Mall, a large indoor shopping and entertainment complex. Downstream from Gangnam District
Gangnam District
is Yeouido, an island that is home to the National Assembly, major broadcasting studios, and a number of large office buildings, as well as the Korea
Korea
Finance Building and the Yoido Full Gospel Church. The Olympic Stadium, Olympic Park, and Lotte World are located in Songpa District, on the south side of the Han River, upstream from Gangnam District. Three new modern landmarks of Seoul
Seoul
are Dongdaemun Design Plaza
Dongdaemun Design Plaza
& Park, designed by Zaha Hadid, the new wave-shaped Seoul
Seoul
City Hall, by Yoo Kerl of iArc, and the Lotte World
Lotte World
Tower, the 5th tallest building in the world designed by Kohn Pederson Fox. In 2010 Seoul
Seoul
was designated the World Design Capital for the year.[93] Culture[edit] Technology[edit] Seoul
Seoul
has been described as the world's "most wired city",[94] ranked first in technology readiness by PwC's Cities of Opportunity report.[95] Seoul
Seoul
has a very technologically advanced infrastructure.[96][97] Seoul
Seoul
is among the world leaders in Internet connectivity, being the capital of South Korea, which has the world's highest fibre-optic broadband penetration and highest global average internet speeds of 26.1 Mbit/s.[98][99] Since 2015, Seoul
Seoul
has provided free Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
access in outdoor spaces through a 47.7 billion won ($44 million) project with Internet access at 10,430 parks, streets and other public places.[100] Internet speeds in some apartment buildings reach up to 52.5 Gbit/s with assistance from Nokia, and though the average standard consists of 100 Mbit/s services, providers nationwide are rapidly rolling out 1 Gbit/s connections at the equivalent of 20 USD per month.[101] In addition, the city is served by the KTX
KTX
high-speed rail and the Seoul
Seoul
Subway, which provides 4G LTE, WiFi
WiFi
and DMB inside subway cars. 5G is expected to be introduced commercially in 2019 in Seoul. Museums[edit] Main article: List of museums in Seoul

National Museum of Korea

National Folk Museum of Korea.

Seoul
Seoul
is home to 115 museums,[102] including four national and nine official municipal museums. Amongst the city's national museum, The National Museum of Korea
Korea
is the most representative of museums in not only Seoul
Seoul
but all of South Korea. Since its establishment in 1945, the museum has built a collection of 220,000 artifacts.[103] In October 2005, the museum moved to a new building in Yongsan Family Park. The National Folk Museum is situated on the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung
Gyeongbokgung
Palace
Palace
in the district of Jongno District
Jongno District
and uses replicas of historical objects to illustrate the folk history of the Korean people.[104] The National Palace
Palace
Museum of Korea
Korea
is also located on the grounds of the Gyeongbokgung
Gyeongbokgung
Palace. Finally, the Seoul branch of the National Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, whose main museum is located in Gwacheon, opened in 2013, in Sogyeok-dong. Bukchon Hanok Village
Bukchon Hanok Village
and Namsangol Hanok Village
Namsangol Hanok Village
are old residential districts consisting of hanok Korean traditional houses, parks, and museums that allows visitors to experience traditional Korean culture.[105][106] The War Memorial, one of nine municipal museums in Seoul, offers visitors an educational and emotional experience of various wars in which Korea
Korea
was involved, including Korean War
Korean War
themes.[107][108] The Seodaemun Prison
Seodaemun Prison
is a former prison built during the Japanese occupation, and is currently used as a historic museum.[109] The Seoul Museum of Art
Seoul Museum of Art
and Ilmin Museum of Art
Ilmin Museum of Art
have preserved the appearance of the old building that is visually unique from the neighboring tall, modern buildings. The former is operated by Seoul City Council and sits adjacent to Gyeonghuigung
Gyeonghuigung
Palace, a Joseon dynasty royal palace. Leeum, Samsung
Samsung
Museum of Art, is widely regarded as one of Seoul's largest private museum. For many Korean film lovers from all over the world, the Korean Film Archive is running the Korean Film Museum and Cinematheque KOFA in its main center located in Digital Media City(DMC), Sangam-dong. The Tteok & Kitchen Utensil Museum and Kimchi Field Museum
Kimchi Field Museum
provide information regarding Korean culinary history. Religious monuments[edit]

Myeongdong
Myeongdong
Cathedral

There are also religious buildings that take important roles in Korean society and politics. The Wongudan
Wongudan
altar was a sacrificial place where Korean rulers held heavenly rituals since the Three Kingdoms period. Since the Joseon
Joseon
dynasty adopted Confucianism
Confucianism
as its national ideology in the 14th century, the state built many Confucian shrines. The descendants of the Joseon
Joseon
royal family still continue to hold ceremonies to commemorate ancestors at Jongmyo. It is the oldest royal Confucian shrine preserved and the ritual ceremonies continue a tradition established in the 14th century. Munmyo
Munmyo
and Dongmyo
Dongmyo
were built during the same period. Although Buddhism was suppressed by the Joseon
Joseon
state, it has continued its existence. Jogyesa
Jogyesa
is the headquarters of the Jogye Order
Jogye Order
of Korean Buddhism. Hwagyesa and Bongeunsa
Bongeunsa
are also major Buddhist temples in Seoul. The Myeongdong
Myeongdong
Cathedral is a landmark of the Myeongdong, Jung District and the biggest Catholic church established in 1883. It is a symbol of Catholicism in Korea. It was also a focus for political dissent in the 1980s. In this way the Roman Catholic Church has a very strong influence in Korean society. There are many Protestant churches in Seoul. The most numerous are Presbyterian, but there are also many Methodist, Baptist, and Lutheran churches. Yoido Full Gospel Church
Yoido Full Gospel Church
is a Pentecostal
Pentecostal
church affiliated with the Assemblies of God
Assemblies of God
on Yeouido
Yeouido
in Seoul. With approximately 830,000 members (2007), it is the largest Pentecostal
Pentecostal
Christian congregation in the world, which has been recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records.[citation needed] Festivals[edit] In October 2012 KBS Hall in Seoul
Seoul
hosted major international music festivals – First ABU TV and Radio Song Festivals within frameworks of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union
Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union
49th General Assembly.[110][111] Hi! Seoul Festival
Hi! Seoul Festival
is a seasonal cultural festival held four times a year every spring, summer, autumn, and winter in Seoul, South Korea
South Korea
since 2003. It is based on the " Seoul
Seoul
Citizens' Day" held on every October since 1994 to commemorate the 600 years history of Seoul
Seoul
as the capital of the country. The festival is arranged under the Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. As of 2012[update], Seoul
Seoul
has hosted Ultra Music Festival
Ultra Music Festival
Korea, an annual dance music festival that takes place on the 2nd weekend of June.[112] Parks[edit] Further information: List of parks in Seoul Despite the city's population density, Seoul
Seoul
has a large quantity of parks. One of the most famous parks is Namsan Park, which offers recreational hiking and views of the downtown Seoul
Seoul
skyline. The N Seoul
Seoul
Tower is located at Namsan Park. Seoul
Seoul
Olympic Park, located in Songpa District
Songpa District
and built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
is Seoul's largest park. Amongst the other largest parks in the city are Seoul Forest, Dream Forest, Children's Grand Park and Haneul Park. The Wongaksa Pagoda
Wongaksa Pagoda
10 tier pagoda is situated In Tapgol Park, a small public park with an area of 19,599 m2 (210,962 sq ft). Areas around streams serve as public places for relaxation and recreation. Tancheon
Tancheon
stream and the nearby area serve as a large park with paths for both walkers and cyclists. Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs nearly 6 km (4 mi) through downtown Seoul, is popular among both Seoul
Seoul
residents and tourists. In 2017 the Seoullo 7017 Skypark opened, spanning diagonally overtop Seoul
Seoul
Station.

Olympic Park, Seoul.

There are also many parks along the Han River, such as Ichon Hangang Park, Yeouido
Yeouido
Hangang Park, Mangwon Hangang Park, Nanji Hangang Park, Banpo Hangang Park, Ttukseom Hangang Park and Jamsil Hangang Park. The Seoul National Capital Area
Seoul National Capital Area
also contains a green belt aimed at preventing the city from sprawling out into neighboring Gyeonggi Province. These areas are frequently sought after by people looking to escape from urban life on weekends and during vacations. There are also various parks under construction or in project, such as the Gyeongui Line
Gyeongui Line
Forest Trail, Seoul Station
Seoul Station
7017, Seosomun Memorial Park and Yongsan Park. Seoul
Seoul
is also home to the world's largest indoor amusement park, Lotte World. Other recreation centers include the former Olympic and World Cup stadiums and the City Hall public lawn. Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Seoul

Seoul
Seoul
Olympic Stadium.

Fireworks at the closing ceremonies of the 1988 Summer Olympics
1988 Summer Olympics
in Seoul

Seoul
Seoul
is a major center for sports in South Korea. Seoul
Seoul
has greatest number of professional sports teams and facilities in South Korea. In the history of South Korean major professional sports league championships, which include the K League, KBO League, KBL, V-League, Seoul
Seoul
had multiple championships in a season 2 times, 1990 K League Classic Lucky-Goldstar FC (currently FC Seoul) and KBO League
KBO League
LG Twins in 1990, K League
K League
Classic FC Seoul
FC Seoul
and KBO League
KBO League
Doosan Bears
Doosan Bears
in 2016[113] International competition[edit] Seoul
Seoul
hosted the 1986 Asian Games, also known as Asiad, 1988 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games. It also served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Seoul World Cup Stadium
Seoul World Cup Stadium
hosted the opening ceremony and first game of the tournament. Taekwondo
Taekwondo
is Korea's national sport and Seoul
Seoul
is the location of the Kukkiwon, the world headquarters of taekwondo, as well as the World Taekwondo
Taekwondo
Federation. Domestic sports clubs[edit] Football[edit] Main article: Football in Seoul Seoul's most well-known football club is FC Seoul.

Men's football

Tier League Club Home stadium

Top K League
K League
1 FC Seoul Seoul World Cup Stadium
Seoul World Cup Stadium
(North Seoul)

2nd K League
K League
2 Seoul
Seoul
E-Land Seoul Olympic Stadium
Seoul Olympic Stadium
(South Seoul)

4th K3 League Seoul
Seoul
United Madeul Stadium

Jungnang Chorus Mustang Jungnang Public Ground

Women's football

Tier League Club Home stadium

Top WK League Seoul
Seoul
WFC Hyochang Stadium, Seoul
Seoul
Olympic Auxiliary Stadium

Baseball[edit]

League Club Home stadium

KBO League

LG Twins Jamsil Baseball Stadium

Doosan Bears

Nexen Heroes Gocheok Sky Dome

Basketball[edit]

Seoul SK Knights
Seoul SK Knights
and Seoul
Seoul
Samsung
Samsung
Thunders.

Volleyball[edit]

Seoul Woori Card Hansae
Seoul Woori Card Hansae
and GS Caltex Seoul
Seoul
KIXX

Handball[edit]

Doosan Handball Club, SK Sugar Gliders
SK Sugar Gliders
and Seoul
Seoul
City

Transportation[edit] Main article: Transportation in Seoul Seoul
Seoul
has a well developed transportation network. Its system dates back to the era of the Korean Empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad linking Seoul
Seoul
and Incheon
Incheon
was completed. Seoul's most important streetcar line ran along Jongno
Jongno
until it was replaced by Line 1 of the subway system in the early 1970s. Other notable streets in downtown Seoul
Seoul
include Euljiro, Teheranno, Sejongno, Chungmuro, Yulgongno, and Toegyero. There are nine major subway lines stretching for more than 250 km (155 mi), with one additional line planned. As of 2010[update], 25% of the population has a commute time of an hour or more. Bus[edit] Main article: Seoul
Seoul
Buses

Seoul
Seoul
Buses

Seoul's bus system is operated by the Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government (S.M.G.), with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city. Seoul
Seoul
has many large intercity/express bus terminals. These buses connect Seoul
Seoul
with cities throughout South Korea. The Seoul
Seoul
Express Bus Terminal, Central City Terminal and Seoul Nambu Terminal are located in the district of Seocho District. In addition, East Seoul
Seoul
Bus Terminal in Gwangjin District
Gwangjin District
and Sangbong Terminal in Jungnang District
Jungnang District
handles traffics mainly from Gangwon and Chungcheong provinces. Urban rail[edit]

Yongsan Station

Main article: Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Subway Seoul
Seoul
has a comprehensive urban railway network of 21 rapid transit, light metro and commuter lines that interconnects every district of the city and the surrounding areas of Incheon, Gyeonggi province, western Gangwon province, and northern Chungnam
Chungnam
province. With more than 8 million passengers per day, the subway has one of the busiest subway systems in the world and the largest in the world, with a total track length of 940 km. In addition, in order to cope with the various modes of transport, Seoul's metropolitan government employs several mathematicians to coordinate the subway, bus, and traffic schedules into one timetable. The various lines are run by Korail, Seoul
Seoul
Metro, Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation, NeoTrans Co. Ltd., AREX, and Seoul Metro
Seoul Metro
Line 9 Corporation. Train[edit]

KTX
KTX
Sancheon

Seoul
Seoul
is connected to every major city in South Korea
South Korea
by rail. Seoul is also linked to most major South Korean cities by the KTX
KTX
high-speed train, which has a normal operation speed of more than 300 km/h (186 mph). Another train that stops at all major stops are the Mugunghwa and Saemaeul trains. Major railroad stations include:

Seoul
Seoul
Station, Yongsan District: Gyeongbu line (KTX/ITX-Saemaeul/Nuriro/Mugunghwa-ho) Yongsan Station, Yongsan District: Honam
Honam
line (KTX/ITX-Saemaeul/Nuriro/Mugunghwa), Jeolla/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa) Yeongdeungpo Station, Yeongdeungpo District: Gyeongbu/Honam/Janghang lines (KTX/ITX-Saemaeul/Saemaul/Nuriro/Mugunghwa) Cheongnyangni Station, Dongdaemun
Dongdaemun
District: Gyeongchun/Jungang/Yeongdong/ Taebaek
Taebaek
lines (ITX-Cheongchun/ITX-Saemaeul/Mugunghwa) Suseo Station
Suseo Station
(HSR), Gangnam District: Suseo HSR (SRT)

Airports[edit] Two international airports, Incheon
Incheon
International and Gimpo International, serve Seoul. Gimpo International Airport
Gimpo International Airport
opened in 1939 as Japanese Imperial Army airfield, and opened for civil aircraft in 1957. Since opening of Incheon
Incheon
International, Gimpo
Gimpo
International handles scheduled domestic flights along with selected short haul international shuttle flights to Tokyo
Tokyo
Haneda, Osaka
Osaka
Kansai, Taipei
Taipei
Songshan, Shanghai
Shanghai
Hongqiao, and Beijing
Beijing
Capital. Incheon
Incheon
International Airport, opened in March 2001 in Yeongjong island, is now responsible for major international flights and some domestic shuttle flights. Incheon
Incheon
International Airport is Asia's eighth busiest airport in terms of passengers, the world's fourth busiest airport by cargo traffic, and the world's eighth busiest airport in terms of international passengers in 2014. In 2016, 57,765,397 passengers used the airport. Incheon
Incheon
and Gimpo
Gimpo
are linked to Seoul
Seoul
by expressway, and to each other by the AREX
AREX
to Seoul
Seoul
Station. High speed service via AREX
AREX
opened in 30 June 2014. Intercity bus services are available to various destinations around the country. Cycling[edit] Cycling
Cycling
is becoming increasingly popular in Seoul
Seoul
and in the entire country. Both banks of the Han River have cycling paths that run all the way across the city along the river. In addition, Seoul
Seoul
introduced in 2015 a bicycle-sharing system named Ddareungi. Education[edit] Further information: Education in South Korea
South Korea
and List of universities in Seoul Universities[edit] Seoul
Seoul
is home to the majority of South Korea's most prestigious universities, including Seoul
Seoul
National University, Korea
Korea
University, Yonsei University, Sogang University, Sungkyunkwan University, Hanyang University, Chung-Ang University, Kyung Hee University, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, University of Seoul, Ewha Womans University, and the Korea
Korea
Military Academy. (Top 11 universities list in order in Korea) Secondary education[edit] Compulsory education lasts from grade 1-9 (six years of elementary school and 3 years of middle school).[114] Students spend six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. Secondary schools generally require students wear uniforms. There is an exit exam for graduating from high school and many students proceeding to the university level are required to take the College Scholastic Ability Test that is held every November. Although there is a test for non-high school graduates, called school qualification exam, most Koreans take the test. Seoul
Seoul
is home to various specialized schools, including three science high schools (Hansung Science High School, Sejong Science High School and Seoul
Seoul
Science High School), and six foreign language High Schools (Daewon Foreign Language High School, Daeil Foreign Language High School, Ewha Girls' Foreign Language High School, Hanyoung Foreign Language High School, Myungduk Foreign Language High School and Seoul Foreign Language High School). Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Office of Education comprises 235 College-Preparatory High Schools, 80 Vocational Schools, 377 Middle Schools, and 33 Special
Special
Education Schools as of 2009[update]. International relations[edit] Seoul
Seoul
is a member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group. In addition, Seoul
Seoul
hosts many embassies of countries it has diplomatic ties with. List of diplomatic missions in South Korea
South Korea
Foreign relations of South Korea See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in South Korea Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Seoul's twin towns and sister cities around the world [115][116]

Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(1968)[115] Ankara, Turkey
Turkey
(1971)[115] Tehran, Iran
Iran
(1972)[115] Honolulu, United States
United States
(1973)[115] San Francisco, United States
United States
(1976)[115] São Paulo, Brazil
Brazil
(1977)[115][117][118] Baguio, Philippines[119] Bogotá, Colombia
Colombia
(1982)[115] Jakarta, Indonesia
Indonesia
(1984)[115] Tokyo, Japan
Japan
(1988)[115] Moscow, Russia
Russia
(1991)[115] New South Wales, Australia
Australia
(1991)[115] Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico
Mexico
(1992)[115] Beijing, China
China
(1993)[115] Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
Mongolia
(1995)[115] Hanoi, Vietnam
Vietnam
(1996)[115] Warsaw, Poland
Poland
(1996)[115] Cairo, Egypt
Egypt
(1997)[115] Rome, Italy
Italy
(2000)[115] Astana, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(2004)[115] Washington, D.C., United States
United States
(2006)[115] Tashkent, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
(2010)[115] Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Brunei
(2012)[115] New York City, United States
United States
(2013, partnership city)[115]

See also[edit]

Mayor of Seoul Geography of South Korea List of cities in South Korea List of most populous cities List of Korea-related topics

References[edit]

^ a b Before 1972, Seoul
Seoul
was the "de jure" capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Korea
(North Korea) as stated in Article 103 of the 1948 constitution. ^ a b " Seoul
Seoul
Statistics (Land Area)". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 24 March 2010.  ^ http://rcps.egov.go.kr:8081/jsp/stat/ppl_stat_jf.jsp ^ "Color".  ^ "Seoul's symbols". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Archived from the original on 2016-08-19. Retrieved 2016-08-03.  ^ "논란 겪은 'I·SEOUL·U' 서울 공식브랜드로 확정".  ^ "wearetop10.com Top 10 Wealthiest Cities of the World by GDP".  ^ " Global city
Global city
GDP 2014". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 18 November 2014.  ^ This includes Incheon
Incheon
and Gyeonggi Province ^ 신행정수도의건설을위한특별조치법위헌확인, Constitutional Court of Korea ^ 법무부. "통계자료(글내용) < 자료실 < 법령/자료 < 법무부". www.moj.go.kr.  ^ "KOSIS". kosis.kr.  ^ "Lists: Republic of Korea". UNESCO.  ^ "서울 통계정보 시스템". stat.seoul.go.kr.  ^ MasterCard-Global Destination Cities index ^ At purchasing power parity, see List of cities by GDP. ^ solutions, EIU digital. "Worldwide Cost of Living 2017 - The Economist Intelligence Unit". www.eiu.com.  ^ " London
London
Escorts - #WOW The Hottest [VERIFIED] Escorts In London." www.sustainablecitiesindex.com.  ^ https://s3.amazonaws.com/arcadis-whitepaper/arcadis-sustainable-cities-index-report.pdf ^ "Tech capitals of the world – Technology". Melbourne: theage.com.au. 2009-06-15. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ " Samsung
Samsung
Electronics". Fortune.  ^ http://www.uia.be/sites/uia.be/files/documents/statistics/press/press12.pdf ^ "Seoul". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009. The city was popularly called Seoul
Seoul
in Korean during both the Chosŏn (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) and the period of Japanese rule (1910–45), although the official names in those periods were Hansŏng (Hanseong) and Kyŏngsŏng
Kyŏngsŏng
(Gyeongseong), respectively.  ^ "yahoo". Uk.holidaysguide.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on January 7, 2007.  ^ 서울특별시표기 首爾로...중국, 곧 정식 사용키로 :: 네이버 뉴스 (in Korean). News.naver.com. 2005-10-23. Retrieved 2012-02-10.  ^ "'Seoul' morphs into Chinese 'Shouer'". Chinadaily.com.cn. 2005-01-20. Retrieved 2012-02-10.  ^ "goodcharacters.com". goodcharacters.com.  ^ a b c d e f g h "Seoul". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ a b "Pungnap-toseong (Earthen Ramparts)". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ "Bugaksan Mountain". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ " Seoul
Seoul
City Wall". UNESCO. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ " Bosingak
Bosingak
Belfry". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ Nam Moon Hyon. "Early History of Electrical Engineering in Korea: Edison and First Electric Lighting in the Kingdom of Corea" (PDF). Promoting the History of EE Jan 23–26, 2000. Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Electronics
Engineers. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ Kyung Moon Hwang (2010). A History of Korea. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 142. ISBN 9780230364523.  ^ Young-Iob Chung (2006). Korea
Korea
under Siege, 1876–1945 : Capital Formation and Economic Transformation. Oxford University Press. p. 70. ISBN 9780198039662.  ^ Bruce Cumings
Bruce Cumings
(2005). Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393347531.  ^ a b Stephen Hamnett, Dean Forbes, ed. (2012). Planning Asian Cities: Risks and Resilience. Routledge. p. 159. ISBN 9781136639272.  ^ "Urban Planning of Seoul" (PDF). Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. 2009. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ "Facts about Korea". Korea.net. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ "GLOBAL 500". CNN
CNN
Money. 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ "Brief History of Hangang (River)". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2014-02-07.  ^ https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Sang_Hyun_Lee9/publication/226121380_Statistical_and_dynamical_characteristics_of_the_urban_heat_island_intensity_in_Seoul/links/55a23a0608aea54aa8145d54.pdf ^ Climate data in seoul, 1981 ~ 2010(in Korean), Korea
Korea
Meteorological Administration. ^ "기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최고기온 (℃) 최고순위, 서울(108)". Korea
Korea
Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2013-08-18.  ^ "기후자료 극값(최대값) 전체년도 일최저기온 (℃) 최고순위, 서울(108)". Korea
Korea
Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2013-08-18.  ^ "Climatological Normals of Korea" (PDF). Korea
Korea
Meteorological Administration. 2011. p. 499 and 649. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.  ^ " South Korea
South Korea
near bottom of world survey of air quality". The Korea Herald. May 16, 2016. South Korea
South Korea
ranked 173rd out of 180 countries in terms of air quality, the Environmental Performance Index 2016 rankings showed Monday. ... A report said that 1.3 billion people exposed to poor air quality lived in East Asian countries, with more than 50 percent of the populations in South Korea
South Korea
and China
China
exposed to dangerous levels of fine dust.  ^ " South Korea
South Korea
Environmental Performance Index - Development". epi.yale.edu. Archived from the original on 2017-05-07. Retrieved 2017-05-04.  ^ Lee, Hyun-jeong. " Korea
Korea
wrestles with growing health threat from fined dust". Korea
Korea
Herald. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2017. ^ a b Hu, Elise. "Korea's Air Is Dirty, But It's Not All Close-Neighbor China's Fault". NPR. 3 June 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. ^ a b Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. World Health Organization. May 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. ^ a b WHO Air Quality Guidelines. World Health Organization. September 2016. Retrieved 8 April 2017. ^ Air Quality Information. Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 8 April 2017. ^ "Changes in Seoul's Air Quality Control Policy". Seoul
Seoul
Solution. Last updated 7 February 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017. ^ 1st Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement Plan. Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea. Retrieved 21 April 2017. ^ Kim, Honghyok; Kim, Hyomi; Lee, Jong-Tae. (2015). "Effects of ambient air particles on mortality in Seoul: Have the effects changed over time?" Environmental Research, Vol. 140, 684-690. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2015.05.029 ^ 2nd Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Air Quality Improvement Plan. Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea. Retrieved 21 April 2017. ^ Chung, Anna. "Korea's policy towards pollution and fine particle: a sense of urgency". Korea
Korea
Analysis. v2. June 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2017. ^ Zastrow, Mark. "NASA jet gets a sniff of pollution over South Korea". Nature. 9 May 2016. doi:10.1038/nature.2016.19875 ^ a b "Administrative Districts". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2014-02-08. [permanent dead link] ^ "Regional population density: Asia and Oceania, 2012: Inhabitants per square kilometre, TL3 regions". OECD
OECD
Regions at a Glance 2013. OECD
OECD
Publishing. 2013. doi:10.1787/reg_glance-2013-graph37-en. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ a b "Seoul's Population Drops Below 10 Million for First Time in 25 Years". Chosun Ilbo. 2014-02-14. Retrieved 2014-02-16.  ^ " Seoul
Seoul
Statistics (Population)". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 3 March 2013.  ^ "1.76 million foreigners live in South Korea; 3.4% of population". 17 November 2017.  ^ "Korean Chinese account for nearly 70% of foreigners in Seoul". The Korea
Korea
Times. September 11, 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ "South Korean mega-churches. For God and country". Economist. 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ Yim, Seok-hui. "Geographical Features of Social Polarization in Seoul, South Korea" (PDF). In Mizuuchi, Toshio. Representing Local Places and Raising Voices from Below. Osaka
Osaka
City University. p. 34.  ^ Industrial Policy and Territorial Development: Lessons from Korea. OECD
OECD
Development Center. p. 58.  ^ " Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index™" (PDF). MasterCard. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "The Global Financial Centres Index 12" (PDF). Z/Yen Group. 2012. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ "Hot Spots 2025: Benchmarking the Future Competitiveness of Cities" (PDF). The Economist Intelligence Unit. 2013. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ a b c "Seoul: Economy". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "The primacy of Seoul
Seoul
and the capital region". United Nations University. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ "It's official: Jinro
Jinro
soju is the world's best-selling liquor". CNN Travel. 2012-06-12. Retrieved 2013-04-29.  ^ "Fiery food, boring beer". The Economist. 2012-11-24. Retrieved 2013-04-24.  ^ "Global : Cities". CNN.  ^ "Neon shines brightly during the bustle on Yeouido
Yeouido
stock street". Korea
Korea
JoongAng Daily. 2010-01-05. Retrieved 2014-02-13.  ^ " Dongdaemun
Dongdaemun
Market". Visit Seoul. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ "Myeong-dong". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ https://www.visitseoul.net/en/m/article/article.do?_method=view&p=02&art_id=67.  Missing or empty title= (help)[dead link] ^ "Insa-dong". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-11.  ^ "Hwanghak-dong Flea Market". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ "Antique Markets". Seoul
Seoul
Matropolitan Government. Retrieved 2014-02-12. [permanent dead link] ^ a b "Itaewon: Going Gangnam Style?". The Korea
Korea
Times. 2013-02-14. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ "Yongsan Electronics
Electronics
Market, Asia's largest IT shopping mall". KBS World. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ "Largest Permanent 35mm Cinema Screen". Guinnessworldrecords.com. 2009-08-18. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ "Seoul's Cheonggyecheon
Cheonggyecheon
Stream symbolizes Korea's past, present and tomorrow". Korea.net. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ Vinayak Bharne, ed. (2013). The Emerging Asian City: Concomitant Urbanities and Urbanisms. Routledge. p. 59. ISBN 9780415525978.  ^ Andrei Lankov (2010-06-24). " Jongno
Jongno
walk". The Korea
Korea
Times. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ " Amsa-dong
Amsa-dong
Prehistoric Settlement Site". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ "About the Palace". Gyeongbokgung
Gyeongbokgung
Palace. Archived from the original on 2008-06-14. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ " Sungnyemun
Sungnyemun
to open to great fanfare after more than five years of renovation". The Korea
Korea
Herald. 30 April 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.  ^ "The Seoul
Seoul
of World Design". Bloomberg Businessweek. 2008-02-27. Retrieved 2014-02-12.  ^ "50 reasons why Seoul
Seoul
is world's greatest city". 12 July 2017.  ^ PricewaterhouseCoopers. "Cities of Opportunity" (PDF).  ^ "KOREA: Future is now for Korean info-tech". AsiaMedia. Regents of the University of California. 14 June 2005. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008.  ^ "Tech capitals of the world – Technology". The Age. Melbourne, Australia. 18 June 2007.  ^ akamai’s [state of the internet] Q4 2016 report (PDF) (Report). Akamai Technologies.  ^ "Hi Seoul, SOUL OF ASIA – Seoul
Seoul
Located In the Center of Asian Metropolises". English.seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on 2012-07-10. Retrieved 2013-08-07.  ^ Wifi in All Public Areas Archived June 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "CJ헬로비전-에러페이지".  ^ "Status of Museum". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ "Seoul's best museums". CNN. 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2013-06-02.  ^ "National Folk Museum of Korea". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ "Namsangol Hanok
Hanok
Village". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ "Bukchon Hanok
Hanok
Village". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ "Seoul: 10 Things to Do". Time magazine. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ "The War Memorial of Korea". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ " Seodaemun Prison
Seodaemun Prison
History Museum". Korea
Korea
Tourism Organization. Retrieved 2014-09-18.  ^ "ABU TV and Radio Song Festivals 2012". ESCKAZ.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012.  ^ "ABU GA Seoul
Seoul
2012". Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union. Retrieved 17 August 2012.  ^ "Ultra Korea
Korea
- June 8, 9, 10 2018". Ultra Korea.  ^ 2016 프로야구와 프로축구는 모두‘서울의 봄’ (in Korean). Medeaus Ilbo. 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ "의무교육(무상의무교육)".  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x " Seoul
Seoul
– Sister Cities [via WayBackMachine]". Seoul Metropolitan Government
Seoul Metropolitan Government
(archived 2012-04-25). Archived from the original on 2012-03-25. Retrieved 2013-08-23.  ^ "International Cooperation: Sister Cities". Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government. www.seoul.go.kr. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. Retrieved 26 January 2008.  ^ "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.  ^ Lei Municipal de São Paulo
São Paulo
14471 de 2007 WikiSource (in Portuguese) ^ "20 sister cities pledge to fortify ties with Baguio". Baguio Midland Courier. 

External links[edit]

Look up Seoul
Seoul
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Official sites[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Seoul
Seoul
(category)

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Seoul.

Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Government Seoul
Seoul
Information & Communication Plaza

Tourism and living information[edit]

i Tour Seoul – The Official Seoul
Seoul
Tourism Guide Site VisitSeoul – The Official Seoul
Seoul
Tourism Guide YouTube Channel Seoul
Seoul
Travel Guide – Travel information for visitors to Seoul

Maps[edit]

Seoul
Seoul
Map Browser (from Seoul Metropolitan Government
Seoul Metropolitan Government
web site) Seoul
Seoul
subway map

Photos[edit]

Pictures of Seoul Seoul
Seoul
Street Art & Graffiti Seoul
Seoul
Street Art & Graffiti Assistant Secretary Russel Addresses Reporters After Meeting With South Korean Officials in Seoul

Preceded by Capital of Baekje 18 BC–475 AD Succeeded by Ungjin

Preceded by Gaegyeong Capital of Korea 1394–present Succeeded by Incumbent

Preceded by New creation Capital of South Korea 1948–present Succeeded by Incumbent

Articles related to Seoul

v t e

Districts of Seoul

North of Han River

Dobong Dongdaemun Eunpyeong Gangbuk Gwangjin Jongno Jung Jungnang Mapo Nowon Seodaemun Seongbuk Seongdong Yongsan

South of Han River

Dongjak Gangdong Gangnam Gangseo Geumcheon Guro Gwanak Songpa Seocho Yangcheon Yeongdeungpo

v t e

Neighbourhoods of Seoul

Apgujeong-dong Bukchon Hanok
Hanok
Village Cheongdam-dong COEX Mall Daehangno Dongdaemun Gangnam Garosu-gil Hongdae Idae Insa-dong Itaewon Jongno Munjeong-dong Rodeo Street Namdaemun Seochon Seorae Village Sillim Sincheon Sinchon Yeouido

v t e

Regions and administrative divisions of South Korea

Regions

Sudogwon (Capital area) Gwandong

Yeongdong Yeongseo

Hoseo

Daejeon-Sejong-Chungnam Chungbuk

Honam Yeongnam

Daegu-Gyeongbuk Busan-Ulsan-Gyeongnam Southeastern MIR

Jeju

Provinces

North Chungcheong South Chungcheong Gangwon Gyeonggi North Gyeongsang South Gyeongsang North Jeolla South Jeolla

Special
Special
self-governing province

Jeju

Special
Special
city

Seoul

Special
Special
self-governing city

Sejong

Metropolitan cities

Busan Daegu Daejeon Gwangju Incheon Ulsan

The Committee for the Five Northern Korean Provinces

North Hamgyeong South Hamgyeong Hwanghae North Pyeongan South Pyeongan

v t e

Public transport in the Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Area

Railways

High-speed rail
High-speed rail
(KTX, SRT)

Gyeongbu Line Honam
Honam
Line Suseo Line

Metropolitan Subway Lines

Line 1 Line 2 Line 3 Line 4 Line 5 Line 6 Line 7 Line 8 Line 9 Gyeongui–Jungang (K1, K3) Gyeongchun (P1) Bundang (K2) Suin (K2) Gyeonggang (K4) Shinbundang AREX Incheon
Incheon
1 (I1) Incheon
Incheon
2 (I2) Everline U Line Ui LRT

Under construction

Gimpo Goldline
Gimpo Goldline
(2018) Seohae Line (2018) Sillim (2021)

Planned

Indeogwon– Suwon
Suwon
(2021) Sinansan (2023) Dongbuk Line (2024) Wolgot–Pangyo (2027) Seoul
Seoul
LRT lines GTX Incheon
Incheon
3

Expressways

#1 #15 #35 #37 #50 #60 #100 #110 #120 #130

Buses

Seoul Gyeonggi-do Incheon Seoul
Seoul
Express Bus Terminal Central City Dongseoul Bus Terminal Sangbong Intercity Bus Terminal Seoul
Seoul
Nambu Bus Terminal

Airports

Incheon
Incheon
International Gimpo
Gimpo
International Seoul
Seoul
Airfield

Maglev and Monorail

Incheon
Incheon
Airport Maglev Wolmi Monorail

Related topics

T-money Upass Mybi KTX
KTX
Family Card hi-pass CashBee

v t e

Cities in South Korea

Special
Special
city

Seoul

Metropolitan city

Busan Daegu Daejeon Gwangju Incheon Ulsan

Metropolitan autonomous city

Sejong

Provincial capital

Andong ChangwonB CheongjuB Chuncheon HongseongC JeonjuB JejuD MuanC SuwonB

Specific city

Ansan Anyang BucheonE Cheonan GimhaeE Goyang HwaseongE NamyangjuE Pohang Seongnam Yongin

Municipal city

Anseong Asan Boryeong Chungju Dangjin Dongducheon Donghae Gangneung Geoje Gimcheon Gimje Gimpo Gongju Gumi Gunpo Guri Gunsan Gwacheon Gwangju Gwangmyeong Gwangyang Gyeongju Gyeongsan Gyeryong Hanam Icheon Iksan Jecheon Jeongeup Jinju Miryang Mokpo Mungyeong Namwon Naju Nonsan Osan Paju Pocheon Pyeongtaek Sacheon Samcheok Sangju Seosan Siheung Sokcho Suncheon Taebaek Tongyeong Uijeongbu Uiwang Wonju Yangju Yangsan Yeoju Yeongcheon Yeongju Yeosu

Administrative city

Seogwipo

Note: A also a provincial capital; B also designated as a special-status city; C a county, not a city; D also designated as an administrative city; and E does not have gus

v t e

World's twenty most populous metropolitan areas

   

1 Tokyo-Yokohama 2 Shanghai 3 Jakarta 4 Delhi 5 Seoul-Incheon

  6 Karachi   7 Guangzhou   8 Beijing   9 Shenzhen   7 Mexico
Mexico
City

11 São Paulo 12 Lagos 13 Mumbai 14 Cairo 15 New York

16 Osaka 17 Moscow 18 Wuhan 19 Chengdu 20 Dhaka

v t e

World's fifty most-populous urban areas

Tokyo– Yokohama
Yokohama
(Keihin) Jakarta
Jakarta
(Jabodetabek) Delhi Manila
Manila
(Metro Manila) Seoul– Incheon
Incheon
(Sudogwon) Shanghai Karachi Beijing New York City Guangzhou– Foshan
Foshan
(Guangfo)

São Paulo Mexico
Mexico
City (Valley of Mexico) Mumbai Osaka–Kobe– Kyoto
Kyoto
(Keihanshin) Moscow Dhaka Greater Cairo Los Angeles Bangkok Kolkata

Greater Buenos Aires Tehran Istanbul Lagos Shenzhen Rio de Janeiro Kinshasa Tianjin Paris Lima

Chengdu Greater London Nagoya
Nagoya
(Chūkyō) Lahore Chennai Bangalore Chicago Bogotá Ho Chi Minh City Hyderabad

Dongguan Johannesburg Wuhan Taipei-Taoyuan Hangzhou Hong Kong Chongqing Ahmedabad Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
(Klang Valley) Quanzhou

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Summer Olympic Games
Summer Olympic Games
host cities

1896: Athens 1900: Paris 1904: St. Louis 1908: London 1912: Stockholm 1916: None[c1] 1920: Antwerp 1924: Paris 1928: Amsterdam 1932: Los Angeles 1936: Berlin 1940: None[c2] 1944: None[c2] 1948: London 1952: Helsinki 1956: Melbourne 1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Mexico
Mexico
City 1972: Munich 1976: Montreal 1980: Moscow 1984: Los Angeles 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona 1996: Atlanta 2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London 2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

[c1] Cancelled due to World War I; [c2] Cancelled due to World War II

v t e

Summer Paralympic Games
Summer Paralympic Games
host cities

1960: Rome 1964: Tokyo 1968: Tel Aviv 1972: Heidelberg 1976: Toronto

1980: Arnhem 1984: New York City
New York City
/ Stoke Mandeville 1988: Seoul 1992: Barcelona
Barcelona
/ Madrid 1996: Atlanta

2000: Sydney 2004: Athens 2008: Beijing 2012: London

2016: Rio de Janeiro 2020: Tokyo 2024: Paris 2028: Los Angeles

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

v t e

Seoul
Seoul
landmarks

Buildings & structures

Blue House Gyeongbokgung Changdeokgung N Seoul
Seoul
Tower COEX Mall Seoul
Seoul
Plaza Seoul
Seoul
Metropolitan Library 63 Building War Memorial of Korea Namdaemun Times Square D-Cube City

Precincts

Cheonggyecheon Hongdae area Insadong Itaewon Namdaemun
Namdaemun
Market Teheranno

Nature and parks

Bukhansan

Seoul
Seoul
Forest West Seoul
Seoul
Lake Park

Cultural institutions

Myeongdong
Myeongdong
Cathedral Jogyesa National Museum of Korea National Library of Korea War Memorial of Korea

Sport

Olympic Park, Seoul Seoul
Seoul
World Cup Stadium

Transportation

Seoul
Seoul
Station Gimpo
Gimpo
Airport Yongsan Station

Entertainment

Everland Lotte World

v t e

ABU Radio Song Festival

ABU Song Festivals

ABU International Dance Festival ABU TV Song Festival

Countries

Active

Brunei China India Indonesia Iran Malaysia Myanmar Pakistan Singapore South Korea Sri Lanka Thailand

Inactive

Australia Bhutan Kyrgyzstan Sudan Vanuatu Vietnam

Contests

2012 2014 2015 2016

Portal Project

v t e

ABU TV Song Festival

ABU Song Festivals

ABU International Dance Festival ABU Radio Song Festival

Countries

Active

Afghanistan China Hong Kong Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Macau Maldives South Korea Sri Lanka Thailand Tunisia Vietnam

Inactive

Australia Brunei India Iran Kyrgyzstan Malaysia Mongolia Singapore Turkey

Contests

2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 138220682 LCCN: n79066627 ISNI: 0000 0001 0943 2764 GND: 4122021-3 BNF: cb12351202g (data) NDL: 00628694 BNE: XX453082<

.