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Oxidative
Redox
Redox
(short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: /ˈrɛdɒks/ redoks or /ˈriːdɒks/ reedoks[1]) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed. Any such reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process, two key concepts involved with electron transfer processes.[2] Redox
Redox
reactions include all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation state changed; in general, redox reactions involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species. The chemical species from which the electron is stripped is said to have been oxidized, while the chemical species to which the electron is added is said to have been reduced
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Redox (other)
Redox
Redox
refers to the chemical reduction-oxidation reaction
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Acid–base Reaction
An acid–base reaction is a chemical reaction that occurs between an acid and a base. Several theoretical frameworks provide alternative conceptions of the reaction mechanisms and their application in solving related problems; these are called the acid–base theories, for example, Brønsted–Lowry acid–base theory. Their importance becomes apparent in analyzing acid–base reactions for gaseous or liquid species, or when acid or base character may be somewhat less apparent
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Dioxygen
There are several known allotropes of oxygen. The most familiar is molecular oxygen (O2), present at significant levels in Earth's atmosphere and also known as dioxygen or triplet oxygen. Another is the highly reactive ozone (O3). Others include:Atomic oxygen (O1, a free radical). Singlet oxygen
Singlet oxygen
(O2*), either of two metastable states of molecular oxygen. Tetraoxygen
Tetraoxygen
(O4), another metastable form. Solid oxygen, existing in six variously colored phases, of which one is O 8 and another one metallic.Contents1 Atomic oxygen 2 Dioxygen2.1 Singlet oxygen3 Ozone 4 Tetraoxygen 5 Phases of solid oxygen 6 References 7 Further readingAtomic oxygen[edit] Atomic oxygen, denoted O(3P), O(3P) or O((3)P),[1] is very reactive, as the single atoms of oxygen tend to quickly bond with nearby molecules
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Oxidizing Agent
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons. Common oxidizing agents are oxygen, hydrogen peroxide and the halogens. In one sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that undergoes a chemical reaction that removes one or more electrons from another atom. In that sense, it is one component in an oxidation–reduction (redox) reaction. In the second sense, an oxidizing agent is a chemical species that transfers electronegative atoms, usually oxygen, to a substrate
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Ore
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.[1] The ores are extracted from the earth through mining; they are then refined (often via smelting) to extract the valuable element, or elements. The grade or concentration of an ore mineral, or metal, as well as its form of occurrence, will directly affect the costs associated with mining the ore. The cost of extraction must thus be weighed against the metal value contained in the rock to determine what ore can be processed and what ore is of too low a grade to be worth mining. Metal ores are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals (such as native copper) that are not commonly concentrated in the Earth's crust, or noble metals (not usually forming compounds) such as gold. The ores must be processed to extract the elements of interest from the waste rock and from the ore minerals
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Metal Oxide
An oxide /ˈɒksaɪd/ is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom and one other element[1] in its chemical formula. "Oxide" itself is the dianion of oxygen, an O2– atom. Metal
Metal
oxides thus typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2. Most of the Earth's crust
Earth's crust
consists of solid oxides, the result of elements being oxidized by the oxygen in air or in water. Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon
combustion affords the two principal carbon oxides: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. Even materials considered pure elements often develop an oxide coating
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Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier
Antoine Lavoisier
after the French Revolution; French: [ɑ̃twan lɔʁɑ̃ də lavwazje]; 26 August 1743 – 8 May 1794)[1] was a French nobleman
French nobleman
and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.[2] He is widely considered in popular literature as the "father of modern chemistry".[3][4] It is generally accepted that Lavoisier's great accomplishments in chemistry largely stem from his changing the science from a qualitative to a quantitative one. Lavoisier is most noted for his discovery of the role oxygen plays in combustion. He recognized and named oxygen (1778) and hydrogen (1783) and opposed the phlogiston theory. Lavoisier helped construct the metric system, wrote the first extensive list of elements, and helped to reform chemical nomenclature
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John Bockris
Bernhardt Patrick John O’Mara Bockris (5 January 1923 [1] – 7 July 2013) was a professor in the physical sciences, chiefly electrochemistry. Among wide-ranging contributions to physical chemistry, Bockris is best known for his creation of physical electrochemistry, taking an old and decayed subject into modern times (1950 to 1970); for the introduction of a hydrogen economy (1971 to present); and for the first claimed nuclear reactions to be carried out in aqueous solutions (1989 to 1997).[2][3] Two of the areas (out of 23) which he chose to study have provoked controversy, namely cold fusion[4] and transmutation.[5][6] His interests in these areas brought harsh criticism.[7] Dr. Bockris was exonerated of fraud or scientific misconduct by his university after three investigations in 1995.[8][9][10][11] Bockris authored and/or co-authored more than 712 papers and more than 24 books
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Electrode
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air)
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Protonation
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.[1] Some examples includethe protonation of water by sulfuric acid:H2SO4 + H2O ⇌ H3O+ + HSO− 4the protonation of isobutene in the formation of a carbocation:(CH3)2C=CH2 + HBF4 ⇌ (CH3)3C+ + BF− 4the protonation of ammonia in the formation of ammonium chloride from ammonia and hydrogen chloride:NH3(g) + HCl(g) → NH4Cl(s) Protonation is a fundamental chemical reaction and is a step in many stoichiometric and catalytic processes. Some ions and molecules can undergo more than one protonation and are labeled polybasic, which is true of many biological macromolecules. Protonation and deprotonation (removal of a proton) occur in most acid-base reactions; they are the core of most acid-base reaction theories
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Deprotonation
Deprotonation
Deprotonation
is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Bronsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction. The species formed is the conjugate base of that acid. The complementary process, when a proton is added (transferred) to a Bronsted–Lowry base, is protonation. The species formed is the conjugate acid of that base. A species that can either accept or donate a proton is referred to as amphiprotic. An example is the H2O (water) molecule, which can gain a proton to form the hydronium ion, H3O+, or lose a proton, leaving the hydroxide ion, OH−. The relative ability of a molecule to give up a proton is measured by its pKa value. A low pKa value indicates that the compound is acidic and will easily give up its proton to a base. The pKa of a compound is determined by many things, but the most significant is the stability of the conjugate base
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Half-reaction
A half reaction is either the oxidation or reduction reaction component of a redox reaction. A half reaction is obtained by considering the change in oxidation states of individual substances involved in the redox reaction.[1] Often, the concept of half-reactions is used to describe what occurs in an electrochemical cell, such as a Galvanic cell
Galvanic cell
battery. Half-reactions can be written to describe both the metal undergoing oxidation (known as the anode) and the metal undergoing reduction (known as the cathode). Half-reactions are often used as a method of balancing redox reactions. For oxidation-reduction reactions in acidic conditions, after balancing the atoms and oxidation numbers, one will need to add H+ ions to balance the hydrogen ions in the half reaction
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Rust
Rust
Rust
is an iron oxide, a usually red oxide formed by the redox reaction of iron and oxygen in the presence of water or air moisture. Several forms of rust are distinguishable both visually and by spectroscopy, and form under different circumstances.[1] Rust
Rust
consists of hydrated iron(III) oxides Fe2O3·nH2O and iron(III) oxide-hydroxide (FeO(OH), Fe(OH)3). Given sufficient time, oxygen, and water, any iron mass will eventually convert entirely to rust and disintegrate. Surface rust is flaky and friable, and it provides no protection to the underlying iron, unlike the formation of patina on copper surfaces. Rusting is the common term for corrosion of iron and its alloys, such as steel. Many other metals undergo similar corrosion, but the resulting oxides are not commonly called rust.[citation needed] Other forms of rust exist, like the result of reactions between iron and chloride in an environment deprived of oxygen
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Balanced Reaction
A chemical equation is the symbolic representation of a chemical reaction in the form of symbols and formulae, wherein the reactant entities are given on the left-hand side and the product entities on the right-hand side.[1] The coefficients next to the symbols and formulae of entities are the absolute values of the stoichiometric numbers. The first chemical equation was diagrammed by Jean Beguin
Jean Beguin
in 1615.[2]Contents1 Formation of chemical reaction 2 Common symbols 3 Balancing chemical equations3.1 Matrix Method4 Ionic equations 5 ReferencesFormation of chemical reaction A chemical equation consists of the chemical formulas of the reactants (the starting substances) and the chemical formula of the products (substances formed in the chemical reaction)
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Covalent
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
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