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Osmometer
An osmometer is a device for measuring the osmotic strength of a solution, colloid, or compound. There are several different techniques employed in osmometry: Vapor pressure
Vapor pressure
depression osmometers determine the concentration of osmotically active particles that reduce the vapor pressure of a solution. Membrane osmometers
Membrane osmometers
measure the osmotic pressure of a solution separated from pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane. Freezing point
Freezing point
depression osmometer may also be used to determine the osmotic strength of a solution, as osmotically active compounds depress the freezing point of a solution.Osmometers are useful for determining the total concentration of dissolved salts and sugars in blood or urine samples
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Solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances. In such a mixture, a solute is a substance dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The mixing process of a solution happens at a scale where the effects of chemical polarity are involved, resulting in interactions that are specific to solvation. The solution assumes the phase of the solvent when the solvent is the larger fraction of the mixture, as is commonly the case
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Colloid
In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance. Sometimes the dispersed substance alone is called the colloid;[1] the term colloidal suspension refers unambiguously to the overall mixture (although a narrower sense of the word suspension is distinguished from colloids by larger particle size). Unlike a solution, whose solute and solvent constitute only one phase, a colloid has a dispersed phase (the suspended particles) and a continuous phase (the medium of suspension)
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Chemical Compound
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds. There are four types of compounds, depending on how the constituent atoms are held together:molecules held together by covalent bonds ionic compounds held together by ionic bonds intermetallic compounds held together by metallic bonds certain complexes held together by coordinate covalent bonds.Many chemical compounds have a unique numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service
Chemical Abstracts Service
(CAS): its CAS number. A chemical formula is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound, using the standard abbreviations for the chemical elements, and subscripts to indicate the number of atoms involved
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Osmotic Pressure
Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure
is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.[1] It is also defined as the measure of the tendency of a solution to take in pure solvent (which belongs to the solution under discussion) by osmosis. Potential osmotic pressure is the maximum osmotic pressure that could develop in a solution if it were separated from its pure solvent by a selectively permeable membrane
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Freezing Point
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance
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Salts
In chemistry, a salt is an ionic compound that can be formed by the neutralization reaction of an acid and a base.[1] Salts are composed of related numbers of cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negative ions) so that the product is electrically neutral (without a net charge). These component ions can be inorganic, such as chloride (Cl−), or organic, such as acetate (CH 3CO− 2); and can be monatomic, such as fluoride (F−), or polyatomic, such as sulfate (SO2− 4).Contents1 Kinds of salts 2 Properties2.1 Color 2.2 Taste 2.3 Odor 2.4 Solubility 2.5 Conductivity 2.6 Melting point3 Nomenclature 4 Formation 5 Strong salt 6 Weak salts 7 See also 8 ReferencesKinds of salts[edit] Salts can be classified in a variety of ways. Salts that produce hydroxide ions when dissolved in water are called alkali salts. Salts that produce acidic solutions are acidic salts. Neutral salts are those salts that are neither acidic nor basic
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Sugars
Sugar
Sugar
is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes) and is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
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Blood
Blood
Blood
is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.[1] In vertebrates, it is composed of blood cells suspended in blood plasma. Plasma, which constitutes 55% of blood fluid, is mostly water (92% by volume),[2] and contains dissipated proteins, glucose, mineral ions, hormones, carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation), and blood cells themselves. Albumin is the main protein in plasma, and it functions to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. The blood cells are mainly red blood cells (also called RBCs or erythrocytes), white blood cells (also called WBCs or leukocytes) and platelets (also called thrombocytes). The most abundant cells in vertebrate blood are red blood cells
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Urine
Urine
Urine
is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals. Urine
Urine
flows from the kidneys through the ureters to the urinary bladder. Urination
Urination
results in urine being excreted from the body through the urethra. The cellular metabolism generates many by-products which are rich in nitrogen and must be cleared from the bloodstream, such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine. These by-products are expelled from the body during urination, which is the primary method for excreting water-soluble chemicals from the body. A urinalysis can detect nitrogenous wastes of the mammalian body. Urine
Urine
has a role in the earth's nitrogen cycle. In balanced ecosystems urine fertilizes the soil and thus helps plants to grow. Therefore, urine can be used as a fertilizer. Some animals use it to mark their territories
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Molecular Weight
Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule. It is calculated as the sum of the atomic weights of each constituent element multiplied by the number of atoms of that element in the molecular formula. The molecular mass of small to medium size molecules, measured by mass spectrometry, determines stoichiometry. For large molecules such as proteins, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering can be used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic data are not available.Contents1 Definitions 2 Determination2.1 Mass spectrometry 2.2 Hydrodynamic methods 2.3 Static light scattering3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDefinitions[edit] Both atomic and molecular masses are usually obtained relative to the mass of the isotope 12C (carbon 12), which by definition[1] is equal to 12
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Osmotic Strength
Osmotic concentration, formerly known as osmolarity,[1] is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles (Osm) of solute per litre (L) of solution (osmol/L or Osm/L). The osmolarity of a solution is usually expressed as Osm/L (pronounced "osmolar"), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as "M" (pronounced "molar"). Whereas molarity measures the number of moles of solute per unit volume of solution, osmolarity measures the number of osmoles of solute particles per unit volume of solution.[2] This value allows the measurement of the osmotic pressure of a solution and the determination of how the solvent will diffuse across a semipermeable membrane (osmosis) separating two solutions of different osmotic concentration.Contents1 Unit 2 Types of solutes 3 Definition 4 Osmolarity vs. tonicity 5 Plasma osmolarity vs. osmolality 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksUnit[edit] The unit of osmotic concentration is the osmole
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Clifton Nanolitre Osmometer
A Clifton nanolitre osmometer is a device that allows the determination of the melting and freezing point of an aqueous solution using a sample size of only nanolitres. The device consists of a controller box, a cooling stage, and a sample holder. Additionally, various micrometer syringes, immersion oils and microscopes are required for its use. Cooling of the stage is achieved with the use of Peltier devices inside the cooling stage. The Clifton nanolitre osmometer is especially well suited for determining the antifreeze activity or thermal hysteresis of a solution, which is a difference in the melting and freezing point of a solution. This phenomenon arises when biological antifreeze proteins are present in a solution
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Membrane Osmometers
A membrane osmometer is a device used to indirectly measure the number average molecular weight ( M n displaystyle M_ n ) of a polymer sample. One chamber contains pure solvent and the other chamber contains a solution in which the solute is a polymer with an unknown M n displaystyle M_ n . The osmotic pressure of the solvent across the semipermeable membrane is measured by the membrane osmometer.[1] This osmotic pressure measurement is used to calculate M n displaystyle M_ n for the sample.Contents1 Basic operation 2 Virial equations 3 Different membrane osmometry devices3.1 Static membrane osmometry 3.2 Dynamic membrane osmometry4 Limitations of membrane osmometry 5 ReferencesBasic operation[edit] A low concentration solution is created by adding a small amount of polymer to a solvent. This solution is separated from pure solvent by a semipermeable membrane
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