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Oroshigane
OROSHIGANE (おろし金 or 下ろし金, "grating metal"), also known as OROSHIKI (下ろし器) are graters used in Japanese cooking . These oroshigane differ significantly from Western -style graters, as they produce a much finer grating. Traditionally, these graters were tin-coated copper plates with many small spikes gouged out of the metal, but no actual perforations through the metal. These graters are still considered the best and are used by professional chefs . For preparing wasabi and yamaimo , graters with the surface made from shark skin were exclusively used. These have an even finer grating surface than a metal one; much closer to a sanding paper. However, nowadays non-professional cooks usually use much less expensive graters made from other metals, plastic , or ceramics . A modern variation of these graters also has perforations and may come with a matching box so that the grated material drops through the grater into the box
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Ginger
GINGER ( Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome , GINGER ROOT or simply GINGER, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine . It is a herbaceous perennial which grows annual stems about a meter tall bearing narrow green leaves and yellow flowers. Ginger
Ginger
is in the family Zingiberaceae , to which also belong turmeric (Curcuma longa), cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), and galangal . Ginger
Ginger
originated in the tropical rainforest in Southern Asia. Although ginger no longer grows wild, it is thought to have originated on the Indian subcontinent because the ginger plants grown in India
India
show the largest amount of genetic variation. Ginger
Ginger
was exported to Europe
Europe
via India in the first century AD as a result of the lucrative spice trade and was used extensively by the Romans
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Daikon
DAIKON (大根, literally "big root"), also known by many other names depending on context , is a mild-flavored winter radish (Raphanus sativus) usually characterized by fast-growing leaves and a long, white, napiform root. Originally native to Southeast or continental East Asia , daikon is harvested and consumed throughout the region (as well as in South Asia ). CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Varieties * 3 Agricultural use * 4 Cultivation * 5 Culinary use * 6 Nutritional information * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links NAMESIn culinary contexts, "daikon" or "daikon radish" (from its Japanese name) is the most common in all forms of English, although historical ties to South Asia permit mooli (from its Hindi name and also in Urdu ) as a general synonym in British English . The generic terms white radish, winter radish , Oriental radish, long white radish, and other terms are also used
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Ceramic
A CERAMIC is an inorganic compound , non-metallic, solid material comprising metal , non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science . The crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline, vitrified , and often completely amorphous (e.g., glasses ). Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware , stoneware , and porcelain . Varying crystallinity and electron consumption in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators (extensively researched in ceramic engineering ). With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic (e.g
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Dermal Denticle
The skin of most fishes are covered with scales , which, in many cases, are animal reflectors or produce animal coloration . Scales vary enormously in size, shape, structure, and extent, ranging from strong and rigid armour plates in fishes such as shrimpfishes and boxfishes , to microscopic or absent in fishes such as eels and anglerfishes . The morphology of a scale can be used to identify the species of fish it came from. Cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays ) are covered with placoid scales. Most bony fishes are covered with the cycloid scales of salmon and carp , or the ctenoid scales of perch , or the ganoid scales of sturgeons and gars . Some species are covered instead by scutes , and others have no outer covering on the skin. Fish scales are part of the fish's integumentary system , and are produced from the mesoderm layer of the dermis , which distinguishes them from reptile scales
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Sandpaper
SANDPAPER or GLASSPAPER are names used for a type of coated abrasive that consists of sheets of paper or cloth with abrasive material glued to one face. Despite the use of the names neither sand nor glass are now used in the manufacture of these products as they have been replaced by other abrasives such as aluminium oxide or silicon carbide. Sandpaper
Sandpaper
is produced in a range of grit sizes and is used to remove material from surfaces, either to make them smoother (for example, in painting and wood finishing ), to remove a layer of material (such as old paint ), or sometimes to make the surface rougher (for example, as a preparation for gluing ). It is common to use the name of the abrasive when describing the paper, e.g. "aluminium oxide paper", or "silicon carbide paper". The grit size of sandpaper is usually stated as a number that is inversely related to the particle size
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Cook (profession)
A COOK is a person who prepares food for consumption. A cook is sometimes referred to as a chef , although in the professional kitchen, the terms are not interchangeable. A group of professional and aspiring cooks in a hotel kitchen (1990) CONTENTS * 1 Professional usage * 2 Domestic usage * 3 History * 4 See also * 5 References PROFESSIONAL USAGE This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (October 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )The term "cook" within a restaurant kitchen usually refers to a person with little to no creative influence on a menu and little to no command over others within the kitchen, such as a line cook. These are usually all members of a restaurant kitchen that are underneath the sous chef in the brigade de cuisine
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Plastic
Note 1: The use of this term instead of polymer is a source of confusion and thus is not recommended. Note 2: This term is used in polymer engineering for materials often compounded that can be processed by flow. PLASTIC is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers , this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often contain other substances. They are usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals , however, an array of variants are made from renewable materials such as polylactic acid from corn or cellulosics from cotton linters
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Western World
The WESTERN WORLD, or simply THE WEST, is a term usually referring to various nations, depending on the context , most often including at least part of Europe
Europe
. There are many accepted definitions based on commonalities. The Western world
Western world
is also known as THE OCCIDENT (from Latin
Latin
: occidens "sunset, West", as contrasted with Orient
Orient
). The concept of the Western part of the Earth has its roots in Greco-Roman world in Europe
Europe
, Judaism
Judaism
and the advent of Christianity in Ancient Israel
Ancient Israel

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Cuisine Of Japan
JAPANESE CUISINE encompasses the regional and traditional foods of Japan , which have developed through centuries of social and economic changes. The traditional cuisine of Japan (和食, washoku) is based on rice with miso soup and other dishes; there is an emphasis on seasonal ingredients. Side dishes often consist of fish, pickled vegetables, and vegetables cooked in broth. Seafood is common, often grilled, but also served raw as sashimi or in sushi . Seafood and vegetables are also deep-fried in a light batter, as tempura . Apart from rice, staples include noodles, such as soba and udon. Japan also has many simmered dishes such as fish products in broth called oden , or beef in sukiyaki and nikujaga
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Copper
COPPER is a chemical element with symbol CU (from Latin : cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity . A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material , and as a constituent of various metal alloys , such as sterling silver used in jewelry , cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins , and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals ) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Chef
A CHEF is a trained and skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine . The word "chef" is derived from the term chef de cuisine (French pronunciation: ​ ), the director or head of a kitchen . Chefs can receive both formal training from an institution, as well as through apprenticeship with an experienced chef. There are different terms that use the word chef in their titles, and deal with specific areas of food preparation, such as the Sous-chef, who acts as the second-in-command in a kitchen, or the Chef
Chef
de partie, who handles a specific area of production. The Brigade system is a system of hierarchy found in restaurants and hotels employing extensive staff, many of which use the word chef in their titles. Underneath the chefs are the kitchen assistants. A chef's standard uniform includes a hat called a toque, necktie, double-breasted jacket, apron and shoes with steel or plastic toe-caps
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Shark
Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes † Cladoselachiformes Hybodontiformes Symmoriida Xenacanthida (Xenacantiformes) † = extinct SYNONYMS Pleurotremata SHARKS are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton , five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head. Modern sharks are classified within the clade SELACHIMORPHA (or SELACHII) and are the sister group to the rays . However, the term "shark" has also been used for extinct members of the subclass Elasmobranchii outside the Selachimorpha, such as Cladoselache and Xenacanthus , as well as other Chondrichthyes such as the holocephalid eugenedontidans
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Yamaimo
DIOSCOREA JAPONICA, known as EAST ASIAN MOUNTAIN YAM, YAMAIMO, or JAPANESE MOUNTAIN YAM, is a type of yam (Dioscorea ) native to Japan (including Ryukyu and Bonin Islands ), Korea , China (including Taiwan), and Assam . Dioscorea japonica is used for food. Jinenjo, also called wild yam is related variety of Japanese yam that is used as an ingredient in soba noodles. Mugitoro Gohan CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Chemistry * 3 Varieties * 4 References NAMESIn Japanese, it is known as yamaimo (山芋) "mountain yam". Jinenjo (自然薯) "wild yam" is another kind of Dioscorea japonica, which is native to fields and mountains in Japan. In Chinese it is known as Rìběnshǔyù (literally Japanese Yam; 日本薯蓣 ) In Korean it is known as cham ma 참마, as well as dang ma 당마. CHEMISTRYDioscorea japonica contains the antimutagenic compounds eudesmol and paeonol . VARIETIESSeveral formal botanical varieties have been proposed
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