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Orontid Dynasty
The Orontid dynasty, also known by their native name Eruandid or Yervanduni, was a hereditary Armenian[1] dynasty and the rulers of the successor state to the Iron Age kingdom of Urartu (Ararat).[2][3] The Orontids established their supremacy over Armenia around the time of the Scythian and Median invasion in the 6th century BC. Members of the Orontid dynasty ruled Armenia intermittently during the period spanning the 6th century BC to at least the 2nd century BC, first as client kings or satraps of the Median and Achaemenid empires who established an independent kingdom after the collapse of the Achaemenid empire, and later as kings of Sophene and Commagene who eventually succumbed to the Roman Empire
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Shupria
Shupria or Shubria Armenian: Շուպրիա; Akkadian was a Hurrian kingdom, known from Assyrian sources from the 13th century BC onward, in what is the Armenian Highlands, to the south-west of Lake Van, bordering Urartu. The capital was Ubbumu.[1] The name Shupria is often regarded as derived from, or even synonymous with, the earlier kingdom of Subartu (Sumerian: Shubur), mentioned in Mesopotamian records as early as the 3rd millennium BC
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Diauehi
Diauehi or Daiaeni[1] (Urartian Diauekhi, Assyrian Diaeni, Greek Taochoi, Armenian Tayk, Georgian Tao) was a tribal union of possibly proto-Armenian,[2][3] Hurrian[4][5][6][7][8] or proto-Kartvelian[9][10][11][12][13][14] groups, located in northeastern Anatolia, that was formed in the 12th century BC in the post-Hittite period. It is mentioned in the Urartian inscriptions.[13] It is usually (though not always) identified with the Yonjalu inscription of the Assyria king Tiglath-Pileser I's third year (1118 BC)
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Mushki
The Mushki (sometimes transliterated as Muški) were an Iron Age people of Anatolia who appear in sources from Assyria but not from the Hittites.[1] Several authors have connected them with the Moschoi (Μόσχοι) of Greek sources and the Georgian tribe of the Meskhi. Josephus Flavius identified the Moschoi with the Biblical Meshech. Two different groups are called Muški in Assyrian sources (Diakonoff 1984:115), one from the 12th to the 9th centuries BCE near the confluence of the Arsanias and the Euphrates ("Eastern Mushki") and the other from the 8th to the 7th centuries BCE in Cappadocia and Cilicia ("Western Mushki")
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Nairi
Nairi (Armenian: Նայիրի in TAO or Նաիրի in RAO) was the Assyrian name (KUR.KUR Na-i-ri, also Na-'i-ru) for a confederation of tribes in the Armenian Highlands,[1] roughly corresponding to the modern Van and Hakkâri provinces of modern Turkey. The word is also used to describe the Armenian tribes who lived there.[2] Nairi has sometimes been equated with Nihriya, known from Mesopotamian, Hittite, and Urartian sources.[3] However, its co-occurrence with Nihriya within a single text may argue against this.[4] Prior to the Bronze Age collapse, the Nairi tribes were considered a force strong enough to contend with both Assyria and Hatti. The Battle of Nihriya, the culminating point of the hostilities between Hittites and Assyrians for control over the remnants of the former kingdom of Indo-European Mitanni, took place there, c
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Trialeti Culture
The Trialeti culture, also known as the Trialeti-Vanadzor [Kirovakan] culture, is named after the Trialeti region of Georgia and the city of Vanadzor, Armenia. It is attributed to the late 3rd and early 2nd millennium BC.[1] Trialeti culture emerged in the areas of the preceding Kura-Araxes culture.[2] Some scholars speculate that it was an Indo-European culture.[3][4][5] The earliest Shulaveri-Shomu culture existed in the area from 6000 to 4000 BC.[6] The Kura-Araxes culture followed after. The flourishing stage of the Trialeti culture began near the end of the third millennium BC.[7] During the final phase of the Middle Bronze Age (c.1700–1500 BC), in addition to the Trialeti-Vanadzor period culture, three other geographically overlapping material culture horizons predominate in the South Caucasus (Transcaucasia) and eastern Anatolia: Karmir-Berd (a.k.a
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Roman Armenia
Roman Armenia refers to the rule of parts of Greater Armenia by the Roman Empire, from the 1st century AD to the end of Late Antiquity. While Armenia Minor had become a client state and incorporated into the Roman Empire proper during the 1st century AD, Greater Armenia remained an independent kingdom under the Arsacid dynasty. Throughout this period, Armenia remained a bone of contention between Rome and the Parthian Empire, as well as the Sasanian Empire that succeeded the latter, and the casus belli for several of the Roman–Persian Wars. Only in 114–118 was Emperor Trajan able to conquer and incorporate it as a short-lived province. In the late 4th century, Armenia was divided between Rome and the Sasanians, who took control of the larger part of the Armenian Kingdom and in the mid-5th century abolished the Armenian monarchy
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Marzpanate Armenia
Sasanian Armenia, also known as Persian Armenia and Persarmenia (Armenian: ՊարսկահայաստանParskahayastan), may either refer to the periods where Armenia (Middle Persian: 𐭠𐭫𐭬𐭭𐭩‎ – Armin) was under the suzerainty of the Sasanian Empire, or specifically to the parts of Armenia under its control such as after the partition of 387 when parts of western Armenia were incorporated into the Roman Empire while the rest of Armenia came under Sasanian suzerainty whilst maintaining its existing kingdom until 428. In 428, Armenian nobles petitioned Bahram V to depose Artaxias IV (r. 422);[2] Bahram V (r
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