Urartu () is a geographical region commonly used as the exonym
for the Iron Age
kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym
, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van
in the historic Armenian Highlands
, present-day eastern Anatolia
. The kingdom rose to power in the mid-9th century BCE, but went into gradual decline and was eventually conquered by the Iranian Medes
in the early 6th century BCE.
Names and etymology
Various names were given to the geographic region and the polity that emerged in the region.
* Urartu/Ararat The name ''Urartu'' ( hy|Ուրարտու; Assyrian
: '; Babylonian
: ''Urashtu''; he|אֲרָרָט ''Ararat'') comes from Assyrian sources. Shalmaneser I
(1263–1234 BCE) recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of "Uruatri". The Shalmaneser text uses the name Urartu to refer to a geographical region, not a kingdom, and names eight "lands" contained within Urartu (which at the time of the campaign were still disunited). The Assyrian ''Uruatri'' seems to correspond with the ''Azzi
'' of contemporaneous Hittite
texts. ''Urartu'' is cognate
with the Biblical ''Ararat'', Akkadian ''Urashtu'', and Armenian ''Ayrarat
[Lang, David Marshall. ''Armenia: Cradle of Civilization''. London: Allen and Unwin, 1970, p. 114. .] [Redgate, Anna Elizabeth. ''The Armenians''. Cornwall: Blackwell, 1998, pp. 16–19, 23, 25, 26 (map), 30–32, 38, 43 .]
In addition to referring to the famous Biblical highlands, ''Ararat'' also appears as the name of a kingdom in Jeremiah
51:27, mentioned together with Minni
. Mount Ararat
( tr|Ağrı Dağı) is located approximately north of the kingdom's former capital, though the identification of the biblical "mountains of Ararat
" with the Mt. Ararat is a modern identification based on postbiblical tradition.
* Van The name ''Kingdom of Van'' (Urartian
), is derived from the Urartian toponym
''Biainili'' (or ''Biaineli''), which was probably pronounced as ''Vanele'' (or ''Vanili''), and called ''Van''
() in Old Armenian, hence the names "Kingdom of Van" or "Vannic Kingdom".
*Nairi Boris Piotrovsky
wrote that the Urartians first appear in history in the 13th century BCE as a league of tribes or countries which did not yet constitute a unitary state. In the Assyrian annals the term Uruatri (Urartu) as a name for this league was superseded during a considerable period of years by the term "land of Nairi
". However, the exact relationship between Urartu and Nairi is unclear. While the early Urartian rulers referred to themselves as the kings of Nairi, some scholars have suggested that Urartu and Nairi were separate polities. The Assyrians seem to have continued to refer to Nairi as a distinct entity for decades after the establishment of Urartu until Nairi was totally absorbed by Assyria and Urartu in the 8th century BCE
*Khaldini Scholars such as Carl Ferdinand Friedrich Lehmann-Haupt
(1910) believed that the people of Urartu called themselves ''Khaldini'' after the god Ḫaldi
* Shupria ''Shupria
'' (Akkadian: ''Armani-Subartu'' from the 3rd millennium BCE) is believed to have originally been a Hurrian or Mitanni state that was subsequently annexed into the Urartian confederation. Shupria is often mentioned in conjunction with a district in the area called ''Arme'' (also referred to as ''Urme'' or ''Armani'') which some scholars have linked to the name of Armenia
* Shurili Linguists John Greppin and Igor M. Diakonoff
argued that the Urartians referred to themselves as ''Shurele'' (sometimes transliterated as ''Shurili'' or ''Šurili'', possibly pronounced as ''Surili''), a name mentioned within the royal titles of the kings of Urartu (e.g. "the king of ''Šuri''-lands”).
[Greppin, John A.C. and Igor Diakonoff ''Some Effects of the Hurro-Urartian People and Their Languages upon the Earliest Armenians'', Oct-Dec 1991, pp. 72]
[Zimansky, Paul ''Ecology and Empire: The Structure of the Urartian State'', 1985, pp. 6]
/ref> The word ''Šuri'' has been variously theorized as originally referring to chariots, swords, the region of ''Shupria'' (perhaps an attempt by the ruling dynasty to associate themselves with the Hurrians), or the entire world.
* Armenia In the 6th century BCE, with the emergence of Satrapy of Armenia|Armenia in the region, the name of the region and its people were synonymously referred to as ''Armenia'' and ''Armenians'', in two of the three languages used in the Behistun inscription. The name ''Ararat'' was translated as ''Armenia'' in 1st century AD in historiographical works and very early Latin translations of the Bible, as well as the Books of Kings and Isaiah in the Septuagint. Some English language translations, including the King James Version follow the Septuagint translation of ''Ararat'' as ''Armenia''.
Assyrian inscriptions of Shalmaneser I (c. 1274 BCE) first mention ''Uruartri'' as one of the states of Nairi, a loose confederation of small kingdoms and tribal states in the Armenian Highlands in the thirteenth to eleventh centuries BCE which he conquered. Uruartri itself was in the region around Lake Van. The Nairi states were repeatedly subjected to further attacks and invasions by the Middle and Neo-Assyrian Empires, which lay to the south in Upper Mesopotamia ("the Jazirah") and northern Syria, especially under Tukulti-Ninurta I (c. 1240 BCE), Tiglath-Pileser I (c. 1100 BCE), Ashur-bel-kala (c. 1070 BCE), Adad-nirari II (c. 900 BCE), Tukulti-Ninurta II (c. 890 BCE), and Ashurnasirpal II (883–859 BCE).
Urartu reemerged in Assyrian language inscriptions in the ninth century BCE as a powerful northern rival to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Nairi states and tribes became unified kingdom under King Arame of Urartu (c. 860–843 BCE), whose capitals, first at Sugunia and then at Arzashkun, were captured by the Assyrians under the Neo-Assyrian emperor Shalmaneser III.
Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians, or at least their ruling family after Arame, may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital of Musasir.
[Zimansky, Paul ''Urartu and the Urartians'', pp. 557](_blank)
/ref> According to Zimansky, the Urartian ruling class were few in number and governed over an ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse population. Zimansky went so far as to suggest that the kings of Urartu might have come from various ethnic backgrounds themselves.
[Urartian Material Culture As State Assemblage: An Anomaly in the Archaeology of Empire, Paul Zimansky, Page 103 of 103-115]
Assyria fell into a period of temporary stagnation for decades during the first half of the 8th century BCE, which had aided Urartu's growth. Within a short time it became one of the largest and most powerful states in the Near East
Sarduri I (c. 832–820 BCE), the son of Lutipri, established a new dynasty and successfully resisted Assyrian attacks from the south led by Shalmaneser III, consolidated the military power of the state, and moved the capital to Tushpa (modern Van, Turkey on the shore of Lake Van). His son, Ispuini (c. 820–800 BCE) annexed the neighbouring state of Musasir, which became an important religious center of the Urartian Kingdom, and introduced the cult of Ḫaldi.
Ispuini was also the first Urartian king to write in the Urartian language (previous kings left records written in Akkadian). He made his son Sarduri II viceroy. After conquering Musasir, Ispuini was in turn attacked by Shamshi-Adad V. His co-regent and subsequent successor, Menua (c. 800–785 BCE) also enlarged the kingdom greatly and left inscriptions over a wide area. During Ispuini's and Menua's joint rule, they shifted from referring to their territory as Nairi, instead opting for ''Bianili''.
Urartu reached the highest point of its military might under Menua's son Argishti I (c. 785–760 BCE), becoming one of the most powerful kingdoms of ancient Near East. Argishti I added more territories along the Aras and Lake Sevan, and frustrated Shalmaneser IV's campaigns against him. Argishti also founded several new cities, most notably Erebuni Fortress in 782 BCE. 6600 captured slaves worked on the construction of the new city.
At its height, the Urartu kingdom stretched north beyond the Aras and Lake Sevan, encompassing present-day Armenia and even the southern part of present-day Georgia almost to the shores of the Black Sea; west to the sources of the Euphrates; east to present-day Tabriz, Lake Urmia, and beyond; and south to the sources of the Tigris.
Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria conquered Urartu in the first year of his reign (745 BCE). There the Assyrians found horsemen and horses, tamed as colts for riding, that were unequalled in the south, where they were harnessed to Assyrian war-chariots.
Decline and recuperation
In 714 BCE, the Urartian kingdom suffered heavily from Cimmerian raids and the campaigns of Sargon II. The main temple at Mushashir was sacked, and the Urartian king Rusa I was crushingly defeated by Sargon II at Lake Urmia. He subsequently committed suicide in shame.
Rusa's son Argishti II (714–685 BCE) restored Urartu's position against the Cimmerians, however it was no longer a threat to Assyria and peace was made with the new king of Assyria Sennacherib in 705 BC. This, in turn, helped Urartu enter a long period of development and prosperity, which continued through the reign of Argishti's son Rusa II (685–645 BCE).
After Rusa II, however, Urartu grew weaker under constant attacks from Cimmerian and Scythian invaders. As a result, it became dependent on Assyria, as evidenced by Rusa II's son Sarduri III (645–635 BCE) referring to the Assyrian king Ashurbanipal as his "father".
According to Urartian epigraphy, Sarduri III was followed by two kings—Rusa III (also known as Rusa Erimenahi) (620–609 BCE) and his son, Rusa IV (609–590 or 585 BCE). There is speculation that Rusa III's father, Erimena, may have been a king as well, possibly ruling from 635–620 BCE, but little is known about him. It is possible that Rusa III established a new dynasty and that his father, Erimena, had not been king.
Late during the 7th century BCE (during or after Sarduri III's reign), Urartu was invaded by Scythians and their allies—the Medes. In 612 BCE, the Median king Cyaxares the Great together with Nabopolassar of Babylon and the Scythians conquered Assyria after it had been irreversibly weakened by civil war. The Medes then took over the Urartian capital of Van in 590 BCE, effectively ending the sovereignty of Urartu.
Many Urartian ruins of the period show evidence of destruction by fire.
Appearance of Armenia
The Kingdom of Van was destroyed in 590 BCE and by the late 6th century, the Satrapy of Armenia had replaced it. Little is known of what happened to the region between the fall of the Kingdom of Van and the appearance of the Satrapy of Armenia. According to historian Touraj Daryaee, during the Armenian rebellion against the Persian king Darius I in 521 BCE, some of the personal and topographic names attested in connection with Armenia or Armenians were of Urartian origin, suggesting that Urartian elements persisted within Armenia after its fall.
[Daryaee, Touraj ''The Fall of Urartu and the Rise of Armenia'', 2018, pp. 3]
/ref> In the Behistun Inscription (c. 522 BCE) refer to ''Armenia'' and ''Armenians'' as synonyms of ''Urartu'' and ''Urartians''.
The toponym ''Urartu'' did not disappear, however, as the name of the province of ''Ayrarat'' in the center of the Kingdom of Armenia is believed to be its continuum. As the Armenian identity developed in the region, the memory of Urartu faded and disappeared. Parts of its history passed down as popular stories and were preserved in Armenia, as written by Movses Khorenatsi in the form of garbled legends in his 5th century book ''History of Armenia'', where he speaks of a first Armenian Kingdom in Van which fought wars against the Assyrians. Khorenatsi's stories of these wars with Assyria would help in the rediscovery of Urartu.
According to Herodotus, the ''Alarodians'' (''Alarodioi''), presumably a variation of the name ''Urartian''/''Araratian'', were part of the 18th Satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire and formed a special contingent in the grand army of Xerxes I. According to this theory, the Urartians of the 18th Satrapy were subsequently absorbed into the Armenian nation. Modern historians, however, have cast doubt on the Alarodian connection to the Urartians as the latter are never recorded as having applied an endonym related to "Ararat" to themselves. [Zimansky, Paul "Urartian and Urartians." ''The Oxford Handbook of Ancient Anatolia'' (2011): 55]
In a study published in 2017,
the complete Mitochondrial DNA|mitochondrial genomes of 4 ancient skeletons from Urartu were analyzed alongside other ancient populations found in modern-day Armenia and Artsakh spanning 7,800 years. The study shows that modern-day Armenians are the people who have the least genetic distance from those ancient skeletons. As well, some scholars asserted that the Urartians are the most easily identifiable ancestors of the Armenians.
Urartu comprised an area of approximately , extending from the Euphrates in the West to Lake Urmia in the East and from the Caucasus Mountains south towards the Zagros Mountains in northern Iraq. It was centered around Lake Van, which is located in present-day eastern Anatolia.
At its apogee, Urartu stretched from the borders of northern Mesopotamia to the southern Caucasus, including present-day Turkey, Nakhchivan, Armenia and southern Georgia (up to the river Kura). Archaeological sites within its boundaries include Altintepe, Toprakkale, Patnos and Haykaberd. Urartu fortresses included Erebuni Fortress (present-day Yerevan), Van Fortress, Argishtihinili, Anzaf, Haykaberd, and Başkale, as well as Teishebaini (Karmir Blur, Red Mound) and others.
Inspired by the writings of the medieval Armenian historian Movses Khorenatsi (who had described Urartian works in Van and attributed them to the legendary Ara the Beautiful and Queen Semiramis), the French scholar Jean Saint-Martin suggested that his government send Friedrich Eduard Schulz, a German professor, to the Van area in 1827 on behalf of the French Oriental Society. Schulz discovered and copied numerous cuneiform inscriptions, partly in Assyrian and partly in a hitherto unknown language. Schulz also discovered the ''Kelishin stele'', bearing an Assyrian-Urartian bilingual inscription, located on the Kelishin pass on the current Iraqi-Iranian border. A summary account of his initial discoveries was published in 1828. Schulz and four of his servants were murdered by Kurds in 1829 near . His notes were later recovered and published in Paris in 1840. In 1828, the British Assyriologist Henry Creswicke Rawlinson had attempted to copy the inscription on the Kelishin stele, but failed because of the ice on the stele's front side. The German scholar R. Rosch made a similar attempt a few years later, but he and his party were attacked and killed.
In the late 1840s Sir Austen Henry Layard examined and described the Urartian rock-cut tombs of Van Castle, including the Argishti chamber. From the 1870s, local residents began to plunder the Toprakkale ruins, selling its artefacts to European collections. In the 1880s this site underwent a poorly executed excavation organised by Hormuzd Rassam on behalf of the British Museum. Almost nothing was properly documented.
The first systematic collection of Urartian inscriptions, and thus the beginning of Urartology as a specialized field dates to the 1870s, with the campaign of Sir Archibald Henry Sayce. The German engineer Karl Sester, discoverer of Mount Nemrut, collected more inscriptions in 1890/1.
Waldemar Belck visited the area in 1891, discovering the Rusa stele. A further expedition planned for 1893 was prevented by Turkish-Armenian hostilities. Belck together with Lehmann-Haupt visited the area again in 1898/9, excavating Toprakkale. On this expedition, Belck reached the Kelishin stele, but he was attacked by Kurds and barely escaped with his life. Belck and Lehmann-Haupt reached the stele again in a second attempt, but were again prevented from copying the inscription by weather conditions. After another assault on Belck provoked the diplomatic intervention of Wilhelm II, Sultan Abdul Hamid II agreed to pay Belck a sum of 80,000 gold marks in reparation. During World War I, the Lake Van region briefly fell under Russian control. In 1916, the Russian scholars Nikolay Yakovlevich Marr and Iosif Abgarovich Orbeli, excavating at the Van fortress, uncovered a four-faced stele carrying the annals of Sarduri II. In 1939 Boris Borisovich Piotrovsky excavated Karmir-Blur, discovering Teišebai, the city of the god of war, Teišeba. Excavations by the American scholars Kirsopp and Silva Lake during 1938-40 were cut short by World War II, and most of their finds and field records were lost when a German submarine torpedoed their ship, the . Their surviving documents were published by Manfred Korfmann in 1977.
A new phase of excavations began after the war. Excavations were at first restricted to Soviet Armenia. The fortress of Karmir Blur, dating from the reign of Rusa II, was excavated by a team headed by Boris Piotrovsky, and for the first time the excavators of a Urartian site published their findings systematically. Beginning in 1956 Charles A. Burney identified and sketch-surveyed many Urartian sites in the Lake Van area and, from 1959, a Turkish expedition under Tahsin Özgüç excavated Altintepe and Arif Erzen.
In the late 1960s, Urartian sites in northwest Iran were excavated. In 1976, an Italian team led by Mirjo Salvini finally reached the Kelishin stele, accompanied by a heavy military escort. The Gulf War then closed these sites to archaeological research. Oktay Belli resumed excavation of Urartian sites on Turkish territory: in 1989 Ayanis, a 7th-century BC fortress built by Rusas II of Urartu, was discovered 35 km north of Van. In spite of excavations, only a third to a half of the 300 known Urartian sites in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Armenia have been examined by archaeologists (Wartke 1993). Without protection, many sites have been plundered by local residents searching for treasure and other saleable antiquities.
On 12 November 2017, it was announced that archaeologists in Turkey's eastern Van Province had discovered the ruins of a 3,000-year-old Urartu castle during underwater excavations around Lake Van led by Van Yüzüncü Yıl University and the Governorship of Turkey's eastern Bitlis Province, and that revealed these underwater ruins are from the Iron Age Urartu civilization and are thought to date back to the eighth to seventh centuries BCE.
The discovery of Urartu has also come to play a significant role in 19th to 21st-century Armenian nationalism.
Economy and politics
The economic structure of Urartu was similar to other states of the ancient world, especially Assyria. The state was heavily dependent on agriculture, which required centralized irrigation. These works were managed by kings, but implemented by free inhabitants and possibly slave labour provided by prisoners. Royal governors, influential people and, perhaps, free peoples had their own allotments. Individual territories within the state had to pay taxes the central government: grain, horses, bulls, etc. In peacetime, Urartu probably led an active trade with Assyria, providing cattle, horses, iron and wine.
According to archaeological data, farming on the territory of Urartu developed from the Neolithic, even in the 3rd millennium BC. In the Urartian age, agriculture was well developed and closely related to Assyrian methods on the selection of cultures and methods of processing. From cuneiform sources, it is known that in Urartu grew wheat, barley, sesame, millet, and emmer, and cultivated gardens and vineyards. Many regions of the Urartu state required artificial irrigation, which has successfully been organized by the rulers of Urartu in the heyday of the state. In several regions remain ancient irrigation canals, constructed by Urartu, mainly during the Argishti I and Menua period, some of which are still used for irrigation.
Art and architecture
There is a number of remains of sturdy stone architecture, as well as some mud brick, especially when it has been burnt, which helps survival. Stone remains are mainly fortresses and walls, with temples and mausolea, and many rock-cut tombs. The style, which developed regional variations, shows a distinct character, partly because of the greater use of stone compared to neighbouring cultures. The typical temple was square, with stones walls as thick as the open internal area but using mud brick for the higher part. These were placed at the highest point of a citadel and from surviving depictions were high, perhaps with gabled roofs; their emphasis on verticality has been claimed as an influence of later Christian Armenian architecture.
[C. A. Burney, "Urartian". Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online. Oxford University Press, accessed December 30, 2012]
online, subscription required
The art of Urartu is especially notable for fine lost-wax bronze objects: weapons, figurines, vessels including grand cauldrons that were used for sacrifices, fittings for furniture, and helmets. There are also remains of ivory and bone carvings, frescos, cylinder seals and of course pottery. In general their style is a somewhat less sophisticated blend of influences from neighbouring cultures. Archaeology has produced relatively few examples of the jewellery in precious metals that the Assyrians boasted of carrying off in great quantities from Musasir in 714 BCE.
Starting with the reign of Ishpuini, the Urartian pantheon was headed by a triad made up of Ḫaldi (the supreme god), Theispas (Teisheba, god of thunder and storms, as well as sometimes war), and Shivini (a solar god). Their king was also the chief-priest or envoy of Ḫaldi. Some temples to Ḫaldi were part of the royal palace complex, while others were independent structures.
With the expansion of Urartian territory, many of the gods worshipped by conquered peoples were incorporated into the Urartian pantheon as a means of confirming the annexation of territories and promoting political stability.
Some main gods and goddesses of the Urartian pantheon include:
On the Gate of Mehr (Mehri-Dur), overlooking modern Van, an inscription lists a total of 79 deities, and what type of sacrificial offerings should be made to each; goats, sheep, cattle, and other animals served as the sacrificial offerings. Urartians did not practice human sacrifice.
Ḫaldi was not a native Urartian god but apparently an obscure Akkadian deity (which explains the location of the main temple of worship for Ḫaldi in Musasir, believed to be near modern Rawandiz, Iraq).
Ḫaldi was not initially worshiped by the Urartians as their chief god. His cult does not appear to have been introduced until the reign of Ishpuini. [
Theispas was a version of the Hurrian god, Teshub.
According to Diakonoff and Vyacheslav Ivanov, Shivini (likely pronounced ''Shiwini'' or ''Siwini'') was likely borrowed from the Hittites.
Other incorporated deities include Ara (or Arwaa) (mentioned on the Gate of Mehr), and the goddess Selardi, both of which are believed to be of Armenian origins.
Urartologist Paul Zimansky speculated that the Urartians (or at least the ruling family) may have emigrated northwest into the Lake Van region from their religious capital Musasir (Ardini).
According to Zimansky, the Urartian ruling class were few in number and governed over an ethnically, culturally, and linguistically diverse population. Zimansky went so far as to suggest that the kings of Urartu might have come from various ethnic backgrounds themselves.
The written language that the kingdom's political elite used is retroactively referred to as ''Urartian'', which is attested in numerous cuneiform inscriptions throughout Armenia and eastern Turkey. It is unknown what languages were spoken by the peoples of Urartu at the time of the existence of the Kingdom of Van, in addition to Urartian, but there is evidence of linguistic contact between the proto-Armenian language and the Urartian language at an early date (sometime between the 3rd—2nd millennium BCE), occurring prior to the formation of the kingdom.
[Róna-Tas, András.''Hungarians and Europe in the Early Middle Ages: An Introduction to Early Hungarian History''. Budapest: Central European University Press, 1999 p. 76 .]
"Urartian language" is the name retroactively applied by historians and linguists to the extinct language used in the cuneiform inscriptions of the Kingdom of Urartu. Other names used to refer to the language are "Khaldian" ("Ḫaldian"), or "neo-Hurrian". The latter term is considered problematic, however, as it is now thought that Urartian and Hurrian share a common ancestor rather than the previously held belief that Urartian developed directly from, or was a dialect of, Hurrian.
In fact, according to Paul Zimansky:
The Urartian language is an ergative-agglutinative language, which belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European language families, but to the Hurro-Urartian language family, which is not known to be related to any other language or language family, despite repeated attempts to find genetic links.
Examples of the Urartian language have survived in many inscriptions, written in the Assyrian cuneiform script, found throughout the area of the Kingdom of Urartu. Although, the bulk of the cuneiform inscriptions within Urartu were written in the Urartian language, a minority of them were also written in Akkadian (the official language of Assyria).
There are also claims of autochthonous Urartian hieroglyphs, but this remains uncertain. Unlike the cuneiform inscriptions, Urartian hieroglyphic have not been successfully deciphered. As a result, scholars disagree as to what language is used, or whether they even constitute writing at all. The Urartians originally would have used these locally developed hieroglyphs, but later adapted the Assyrian cuneiform script for most purposes. After the 8th century BC, the hieroglyphic script would have been restricted to religious and accounting purposes.
The Kingdom of Urartu, during its dominance, had united disparate tribes, each of which had its own culture and traditions. Thus, when the political structure was destroyed, little remained that could be identified as one unified Urartian culture. According to Zimansky:
Ultimately, little is known of what was truly spoken in the geopolitical region until the creation of the Armenian alphabet in the 4th century CE. Some scholars believe that the ethnonym "Armina" itself and all other names attested with reference to the rebellions against Darius in the Satrapy of Armenia (the proper names ''Araxa'', ''Haldita'', and ''Dādṛšiš'', the toponyms ''Zūzahya'', ''Tigra'', and ''Uyamā'', and the district name ''Autiyāra'') are not connected with Armenian linguistic and onomastic material attested later in native Armenian sources, nor are they Iranian, but seem related to Urartian. However, others suggest that some of these names have Armenian or Iranian etymologies.
The presence of a population who spoke Proto-Armenian in Urartu prior to its demise is subject to speculation, but the existence of Urartian words in the Armenian language and Armenian loanwords into Urartian suggests early contact between the two languages and long periods of bilingualism.
The presence of toponyms and tribal names of probable Proto-Armenian etymologies which are attested in records left by Urartian kings, such as Uelikuni, Uduri-Etiuni, and the personal name Diasuni, further supports the presence of an Armenian speaking population in at least the northern regions of Urartu. [Sargis Petrosyan (2019). ''Light Worship in Etiuni Lands''. http://shirak.asj-oa.am/663/1/5%2D19.pdf]
Until recently, it was generally assumed that Proto-Armenian speakers entered Anatolia around 1200 BCE, during the Bronze Age Collapse, which was three to four centuries before the emergence of the Kingdom of Van. However, recent genetic research suggests that the Armenian ethnogenesis was completed by 1200 BCE, making the arrival of an Armenian-speaking population as late as the Bronze Age Collapse unlikely. Regardless, the Urartian confederation united the disparate peoples of the highlands, which began a process of intermingling of the peoples and cultures (probably including Armenian tribes) and languages (probably including Proto-Armenian) within the highlands. This intermixing would ultimately culminate in the emergence of the Armenian language as the dominant language within the region.
A theory, supported by the official historiography of Armenia and experts in Assyrian and Urartian studies such as Igor M. Diakonoff, Giorgi Melikishvili, Mikhail Nikolsky, and Ivan Mestchaninov, suggests that Urartian was solely the formal written language of the state, while its inhabitants, including the royal family, spoke Proto-Armenian. This theory primarily hinges on the fact that the Urartian language used in the cuneiform inscriptions were very repetitive and scant in vocabulary (having as little as 350–400 roots). Furthermore, over 250 years of usage, it shows no development, which is taken to indicate that the language had ceased to be spoken before the time of the inscriptions or was used only for official purposes.
A complementary theory, suggested by Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov in 1984, places the Proto-Indo-European homeland (the location where Indo-European would have emerged from) in the Armenian Highlands, which would entail the presence of proto-Armenians in the area during the entire lifetime of the Urartian state. Although this theory has less support than the more popular Kurgan hypothesis, the Armenian hypothesis would support the theory that the Urartian language was not spoken, but simply written, and postulates that the Armenian language was an ''in situ'' development of a 3rd millennium BC Proto-Indo-European language.
* Hurro-Urartian languages
* Economy of Urartu
* List of kings of Urartu
* Orontid Armenia
* Ashkharbek Kalantar, ''Materials on Armenian and Urartian History'' (with a contribution by Mirjo Salvini), Civilisations du Proche-Orient: Series 4 – Hors Série, Neuchâtel, Paris, 2004;
*Boris B. Piotrovsky, ''The Ancient Civilization of Urartu'' (translated from Russian by James Hogarth), New York:Cowles Book Company, 1969.
* M. Salvini, ''Geschichte und Kultur der Urartäer'', Darmstadt 1995.
* R. B. Wartke, ''Urartu — Das Reich am Ararat'' In: Kulturgeschichte der Antiken Welt, Bd. 59, Mainz 1993.
* P. E. Zimansky, ''Ecology and Empire: The Structure of the Urartian State'', tudies in Ancient Oriental Civilization Chicago: Oriental Institute, 1985.
* P. E. Zimansky, ''Ancient Ararat. A Handbook of Urartian Studies'', New York 1998.
Livius History of Urartu/Armenia
– article by Paul Zimansky, ''Biblical Archaeologist''
Capital and Periphery in the Kingdom of Urartu
Yehuda Dagan, Israel Antiquities Authority
Category:9th-century BC establishments
Category:6th-century BC disestablishments
Category:States and territories established in the 9th century BC
Category:States and territories disestablished in the 6th century BC
Category:Ancient history of Iran
Category:Archaeology of Armenia
Category:Bronze Age Asia
Category:Iron Age Anatolia
Category:Ancient Near East