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Operation Crusader
 United Kingdom India Australia  New Zealand  South Africa Poland Czechoslovakia[1]  Germany  ItalyCommanders and leaders Claude Auchinleck Neil Ritchie Willoughby Norrie Reade Godwin-Austen Ettore Bastico Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Gastone Gambara Enea NavariniStrength118,000 men[2] 738 tanks[note 1] 724 aircraft (616 serviceable)[note 2] 119,000 men[note 3] 390[note 4]–414 tanks[note 5] 536 aircraft (342 serviceable)[note 6]Casualties and losses17,700 casualties[note 7] ~800 tanks destroyed, damaged, or broken down[6][note 8] ~300 aircraft[8] 38,300 casualties[note 9] 340 tanks destroyed or damaged[note 10] at least 332 aircraft lost[note 11]v t eWestern Desert CampaignInvasion of Egypt CompassNibeiwa Sidi Barrani Bardia MechiliBeda FommKufra GiarabubSonnenblume TobrukBardia raid Twin PimplesBrevity Skorpion Battleaxe
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Nazi Germany
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Union Of South Africa
The Union of South Africa (Dutch: Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Afrikaans: Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of four previously separate British colonies: the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River colonies. It included the territories formerly part of the Boer republics annexed in 1902, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State. Following the First World War, the Union of South Africa was granted the administration of South West Africa (formerly a German colony and today the sovereign state of Namibia) as a League of Nations mandate, which became treated in most respects as if it were another province of the Union, but never was formally annexed. The Union of South Africa was a self-governing autonomous dominion of the British Empire. Its independence from Britain was confirmed in the Balfour Declaration 1926 and the Statute of Westminster 1931
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Ludwig Crüwell
World War IWorld War II North African CampaignAwards Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
with Oak Leaves Ludwig Crüwell (20 March 1892 – 25 September 1958), was a general in the Afrika Korps
Afrika Korps
of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II
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Neil Ritchie
General Sir Neil Methuen Ritchie, GBE, KCB, DSO, MC, KStJ (29 July 1897 – 11 December 1983) was a British Army
British Army
officer who saw service during both the world wars
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Gastone Gambara
Gastone Gambara
Gastone Gambara
(10 November 1890 – 27 February 1962) was an Italian General who participated in the First World War
First World War
and the Second World War. He excelled during the Italian intervention in favor of the nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. During the Second World War, he had an outstanding role during the North African Campaign
North African Campaign
and the repression of partisans in the Yugoslavian Campaign. Born at Imola, he fought in the I World War. Later he was the chief of staff to Bastico
Bastico
in Ethiopia. In November 1938 he was appointed commander of the Corpo Truppe Volontarie, the Italian Corps that fought in the Spanish Civil War.[1] He was commander-in-chief of the Cuerpo de Ejercito Legionario during the Catalonia Offensive,[2] and the final offensive of the Spanish Civil War
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Kingdom Of Italy
The Kingdom of Italy
Italy
(Italian: Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II
King Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy
Italy
under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state. Italy
Italy
declared war on Austria in alliance with Prussia in 1866 and received the region of Veneto
Veneto
following their victory. Italian troops entered Rome
Rome
in 1870, ending more than one thousand years of Papal temporal power
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Czechoslovak Government-in-exile
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition. The name came to be used by other World War II
World War II
Allies as they subsequently recognised it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, France, in October 1939.[1] Unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940
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Polish Armed Forces In The West
The Polish Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
in the West refers to the Polish military formations formed to fight alongside the Western Allies against Nazi Germany
Germany
and its allies during World War II. (Other Polish forces were raised within Soviet territories; the Polish Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
in the East). The formations, loyal to the Polish government-in-exile, were first formed in France
France
and its Middle East
Middle East
territories following the defeat and occupation of Poland by Germany
Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in September 1939. After the fall of France, in June 1940, the formations were recreated in the United Kingdom. Making a large contribution to the war effort, the Polish Armed Forces
Polish Armed Forces
in the West was composed of army, air and naval forces
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Dominion Of New Zealand
The Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand
New Zealand
was the historical successor to the Colony of New Zealand. It was a constitutional monarchy with a high level of self-government within the British Empire. New Zealand
New Zealand
became a separate British Crown colony in 1841 and received responsible government with the Constitution Act in 1852. New Zealand chose not to take part in Australian Federation
Australian Federation
and became the Dominion
Dominion
of New Zealand
New Zealand
on 26 September 1907, Dominion
Dominion
Day, by proclamation of King Edward VII
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Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico
(9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II, as well as the commandant of the Jado concentration camp, in Libya, during the Holocaust. In addition to being a general of the Royal Italian Army, he was also a senator and governor. He held high commands during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War
Second Italo-Abyssinian War
(Ethiopia), the Spanish Civil War, and the North African Campaign.Contents1 Biography 2 Honours 3 Works 4 See also 5 References5.1 Citations 5.2 Bibliography6 External linksBiography[edit]Marshal Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico
with German Field Marshal Erwin Rommel Ettore Bastico
Ettore Bastico
in North AfricaBastico was born in Bologna, Italy. When he came of age, Bastico joined the Italian Army
Italian Army
and fought in World War I
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Australia
Coordinates: 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133Commonwealth of AustraliaFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Advance Australia
Australia
Fair"[N 1]Capital Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444Largest city SydneyNational language English[N 2]DemonymAustralian Aussie (colloquial)[3][4]Gover
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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Libya
Libya
Libya
(/ˈlɪbiə/ ( listen); Arabic: ليبيا‎),[6][7] officially the State of Libya
Libya
(Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎ Dawlat Lībyā),[citation needed][dubious – discuss] is a sovereign state in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger
Niger
to the south, and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west. The country is made of three historical regions, Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica
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Egypt
Coordinates: 26°N 30°E / 26°N 30°E / 26; 30Arab Republic
Republic
of Egyptجمهورية مصر العربيةArabic: Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʿArabīyahEgyptian: Gomhoreyet Maṣr El ʿArabeyahFlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" "بلادي، بلادي، بلادي" "My country, my country, my country"Capital and largest city Cairo 30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217Official languages Arabic[a]National language Egyptian ArabicReligion90% Islam 9% Orthodox Christian 1% Other Christian[1]Demonym EgyptianGovernment Unitary semi-presidential republic• PresidentAbdel Fattah el-Sisi• Prime MinisterSherif IsmailLegislature House of RepresentativesEstablishment• Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt[2][3][b]c
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