Cyrenaica (/saɪrəˈneɪ.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Latin: Cyrenaica
(Provincia), Ancient Greek: Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία)
Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; Arabic:
برقة Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known
as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the
Roman province of
Crete and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya
Libya Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came
to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca.
Cyrenaica was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya
from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil
administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of
Libya from 1951 until 1963. In a wider sense, still in use, Cyrenaica
includes all of the eastern part of Libya, including the Kufra
Cyrenaica borders on
Tripolitania in the northwest and on
Fezzan in the southwest. The region that used to be Cyrenaica
officially until 1963 has formed several shabiyat, the administrative
divisions of Libya, since 1995.
2011 Libyan Civil War
2011 Libyan Civil War started in Cyrenaica, which came largely
under the control of the
National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council (headquartered
in Benghazi) for most of the war.
2.1 Berber people
2.2 Egyptian rule
2.3 Greek rule
2.4 Persian rule
2.5 Resumption of Greek rule
2.6 Roman province
2.7 Arab and Ottoman rule
2.8 Italian colonial rule
2.9 Emirate of Cyrenaica
2.10 Gaddafi's Arab republic
2.11 Post-Gaddafi federalism
4 Cities and towns of Cyrenaica
5 Episcopal sees
6 See also
8 Further reading
9 Sources and external links
Satellite image of
Cyrenaica on the right side, showing the
green Mediterranean coast in the north and the large desert in the
centre and south
Cyrenaica rests on a mass of
Miocene limestone that
tilts up steeply from the
Mediterranean Sea and falls inland with a
gradual descent to sea level again.
This mass is divided into two blocks. The Jebel Akhdar extends
parallel to the coast from the
Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra to the
Gulf of Bomba
Gulf of Bomba and
reaches an elevation of 872 meters. There is no continuous coastal
plain, the longest strip running from the recess of
Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra past
Benghazi to Tolmeita. Thereafter, except for deltaic patches at Susa
and Derna, the shore is all precipitous. A steep escarpment separates
the coastal plain from a relatively level plateau, known as the Marj
Plain, which lies at about 300 meters elevation. Above the Marj Plain
lies a dissected plateau at about 700 meters elevation, which contains
the highest peaks in the range.
The Jebel Akhdar and its adjacent coast are part of the Mediterranean
woodlands and forests ecoregion and have a
Mediterranean climate of
hot, dry summers and relatively mild and rainy winters. The plant
communities of this portion of
Cyrenaica include forest, woodland,
maquis, garrigue, steppe and oak savanna.
Garrigue shrublands occupy
the non-agricultural portions coastal plain and coastal escarpments,
with Sarcopoterium spinosum, along with
Asphodelus microcarpus and
Artemisia herba-alba, as the predominant species. Small areas
of maquis are found on north-facing slopes near the sea, becoming more
extensive on the lower plateau. Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia
Quercus coccifera and
Ceratonia siliqua are common tree and
large shrub species in the maquis. The upper plateau includes
areas of garrigue, two maquis communities, one dominated by Pistacia
lentiscus and the other a mixed maquis in which the endemic Arbutus
pavarii is prominent, and forests of Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus
phoenicea, Olea europaea, Quercus coccifera, Ceratonia siliqua, and
Areas of red soil are found on the Marj Plain, which has borne
abundant crops of wheat and barley from ancient times to the present
day. Plenty of springs issue on the highlands. Wild olive trees are
abundant, and large areas of oak savanna provide pasture to the flocks
and herds of the local Bedouins. Historically large areas of range
were covered in forest. The forested area of the Jebel Akhdar has been
shrinking in recent decades. A 1996 report to the UN Food and
Agriculture Organization estimated that the forested area was reduced
to 320,000 hectares from 500,000 hectares, mostly cleared to grow
crops. The Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority
estimates that the forested area decreased from 500,000 hectares in
1976 to 180,000 hectares in 2007.
The southward slopes of the Jebel Akhdar are occupied by the
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, a transitional ecoregion lying
Mediterranean climate regions of North Africa and the
The lower Jebel el-Akabah lies to the south and east of the Jebel
Akhdar. The two highlands are separated by a depression. This eastern
region, known in ancient times as Marmarica, is much drier than the
Jebel Akhdar and here the
Sahara extends to the coast. Historically,
salt-collecting and sponge fishing were more important than
agriculture. Bomba and
Tobruk have good harbors.
South of the coastal highlands of
Cyrenaica is a large east-west
running depression, extending eastward from the
Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra into
Egypt. This region of the
Sahara is known as the Libyan Desert, and
Great Sand Sea
Great Sand Sea and the Calanshio Sand Sea. The Libyan
Desert is home to a few oases, including
Awjila (ancient Augila) and
The Berber people were the earliest recorded
inhabitants of Cyrenaica, and most modern Cyrenaicans are considered
to be Berber in origin. Remnants of the ancient
Berber language spoken by their ancestors are still found in the
Berber language of the
Awjila oasis. The ancient Berbers
founded a number of cities and settlements, both on the coast and in
the inland oases.
Egyptian records mention that, during the
Ramesside period (thirteenth
century BC), the
Meshwesh tribes of
Cyrenaica made frequent
incursions into the New Kingdom of Egypt.
Cyrenaica was colonized by the Greeks beginning in the 7th century BC,
known as Kyrenaika. The first and most important colony was that of
Cyrene, established in about 631 BC by colonists from the Greek island
of Thera, which they had abandoned because of a severe famine.
Their commander, Aristoteles, took the Libyan name Battos. His
dynasty, the Battaid, persisted in spite of severe conflict with
Greeks in neighboring cities.
The eastern portion of the province, with no major population centers,
was called Marmarica; the more important western portion was known as
the Pentapolis, as it comprised five cities: Cyrene (near the modern
village of Shahat) with its port of Apollonia (Marsa Susa), Arsinoe or
Euesperides or Berenice (near modern Benghazi),
Balagrae (Bayda) and Barce (Marj) – of which the chief was the
eponymous Cyrene. The term "Pentapolis" continued to be used as a
synonym for Cyrenaica. In the south, the Pentapolis faded into the
Saharan tribal areas, including the pharaonic oracle of Ammonium.
The region produced barley, wheat, olive oil, wine, figs, apples,
wool, sheep, cattle and silphium, an herb that grew only in Cyrenaica
and was regarded as a medicinal cure and aphrodisiac. Cyrene
became one of the greatest intellectual and artistic centers of the
Greek world, famous for its medical school, learned academies and
architecture, which included some of the finest examples of the
Hellenistic style. The Cyrenaics, a school of thinkers who expounded a
doctrine of moral cheerfulness that defined happiness as the sum of
human pleasures, were founded by
Aristippus of Cyrene. Other
notable natives of Cyrene were the poet
Callimachus and the
mathematicians Theodorus and Eratosthenes.
In 525 BC, after conquering Egypt, the Achaemenid (Persian) army of
Cambyses II seized the Pentapolis, and established a satrapy
(Achaemenid Persian province) over parts of the region about the next
Resumption of Greek rule
The Persians were followed by
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great in 332 BC, who
received tribute from the cities after taking Egypt. The
Pentapolis was formally annexed by Ptolemy I Soter, and was passed to
the diadoch dynasty of the Lagids, better known as the Ptolemaic
dynasty. It briefly gained independence under Magas of Cyrene, stepson
of Ptolemy I, but was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic empire after his
death. It was separated from the main kingdom by
Ptolemy VIII and
given to his son Ptolemy Apion, who, dying without heirs in 96 BC,
bequeathed it to the Roman Republic.
Main articles: Creta et Cyrenaica,
Praetorian prefecture of the East,
Diocese of Egypt
Diocese of Egypt (Late Antiquity)
Creta et Cyrenaica
Creta et Cyrenaica within the
Roman Empire in the 2nd century
Marmarica in the Roman era (Samuel
The Latin name
Cyrenaica (or Kyrenika) dates to the 1st century BC.
Although some confusion exists as to the exact territory Rome
inherited, by 78 BC it was organized as one administrative province
together with Crete. It became a senatorial province in 20 BC, like
its far more prominent western neighbor Africa proconsularis, and
unlike Egypt itself, which became an imperial domain sui generis
(under a special governor styled praefectus augustalis) in 30 BC.
Roman ruins of Ptolemais, Cyrenaica
Tetrarchy reforms of 296 altered Cyrenaica's
administrative structure. It was split into two provinces: Libya
Libya Pentapolis, comprising the above-mentioned
Pentapolis, with Cyrene as capital, and
Libya Inferior or
the Marmarica, which had by then gained a significant city, the port
Paraetonium. Each came under a governor holding the modest rank of
praeses. Both belonged to the Diocese of the Orient, with its capital
at Antioch in Syria, and from 370, to the Diocese of Egypt, within the
praetorian prefecture of Oriens. Its western neighbor Tripolitania,
the largest split-off from Africa proconsularis, became part of the
Diocese of Africa, subordinate to the prefecture of Italia et Africa.
Crete earthquake of 365, the capital was moved to
Ptolemais. After the Empire's division,
Cyrenaica became part of the
Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire), bordering Tripolitania. It was
briefly part of the
Vandal Kingdom to the west, until its reconquest
by Belisarius in 533.
Tabula Peutingeriana shows Pentapolites to the east of Syrtes
Maiores, indicating the cities of Bernice, Hadrianopolis, Tauchira,
Ptolomaide, Callis, Cenopolis, Balacris and Cyrene.
See also: Early centers of Christianity § Cyrene, and Diocese of
Egypt (Late Antiquity)
According to the Synoptic Gospels,
Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene carried the cross
of Jesus Christ to the crucifixion.
According to one tradition, Saint
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist was born in the
Pentapolis, and later returned after preaching with Saint Paul in
Colosse (Col 4:10) and
Rome (Phil 24; 2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he
made his way to Alexandria.
Early Christianity spread to Pentapolis from Egypt; Synesius of Cyrene
(370–414), bishop of Ptolemais, received his instruction at
Alexandria in both the Catechetical School and the Museion, and he
entertained a great deal of reverence and affection for Hypatia, the
last pagan Neoplatonist, whose classes he had attended. Synesius was
raised to the episcopate by Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, in AD
410. Since the
First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea in AD 325,
Cyrenaica had been
recognized as an ecclesiastical province of the See of Alexandria, in
accordance with the ruling of the Nicaean Fathers.The patriarch of the
Coptic Church to this day includes the Pentapolis in his title as an
area within his jurisdiction.
The Eparchy of the Western Pentapolis was part of the Coptic Orthodox
Church of Alexandria, as the Pope of
Alexandria was the Pope of
Africa. The most senior position in The Holy Synod of the Coptic
Orthodox Church after the Pope was the Metropolitan of Western
Pentapolis, although, since its demise as a major Archiepiscopal
Metropolis in the days of Pope John VI of Alexandria, it was held as a
Titular See attached to another Diocese.
After being repeatedly destroyed and restored during the Roman period
Pentapolis became a mere borough, but was nevertheless the site of a
diocese. Its bishop, Zopyrus, was present at the First Council of
Nicaea in 325. The subscriptions at
Ephesus (431) and
give the names of two other bishops, Zenobius and Theodorus.
Although it retained the title "Pentapolis", the ecclesiastic province
actually included all of the Cyrenaica, not just the five cities.
Pentapolis is still included in the title of Popes of the Coptic
Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
Arab and Ottoman rule
Main articles: History of Islamic
Cyrenaica was conquered by Muslim Arabs during the tenure of the
second caliph, Omer Bin Khattab, in 643/44, and became known as
Barqah after its provincial capital, the ancient city of Barce. After
the breakdown of the
Ummayad caliphate it was essentially annexed to
Egypt, although still under the same name, first under the Fatimid
caliphs and later under the
Mamluk sultanates. Ultimately,
it was annexed by the Turkish
Ottoman Empire in 1517. It was part of
Tripolitania Vilayet. Its main cities became
Benghazi and Derna.
Italian colonial rule
Emir Idris as-
Senussi (left), and behind him (from left) Hussein
Muhammad Sakizli and Mustafa Ben Halim, formed the government
Cyrenaica in late 1940s
Flag of the short-lived emirate of Cyrenaica, 1949–1951.
Littorio Palace in
Benghazi was the seat of the Cyrenaican assembly
The Italians occupied
Cyrenaica during the
Italo-Turkish War in 1911
and declared it an Italian protectorate on 15 October 1912. Three days
Ottoman Empire officially ceded the province to the Kingdom
of Italy. On 17 May 1919,
Cyrenaica was established as an Italian
colony, and, on 25 October 1920, the Italian government recognized
Sheikh Sidi Idriss as the leader of the Senussi, who was granted the
princely rank of
Emir until 1929. In that year, Italy withdrew
recognition of him and the Senussi. On 1 January 1934, Tripolitania,
Fezzan were united as the Italian colony of Libya.
The Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch as a form of an
imperial triumphal arch at the border between
Tripolitani near the coast.
There was heavy fighting in
World War II
World War II between the
Allies and the
Italian Army and the
Nazi German Afrika Korps. In late
1942, the armed forces of the
British Empire overran
Cyrenaica and the
United Kingdom administered all of
Libya through 1951, when the
Libya was established and granted independence.
Emirate of Cyrenaica
Main article: Emirate of Cyrenaica
In 1949, Idris as-Senussi, with British backing, proclaimed Cyrenaica
an independent emirate, called the Emirate of Cyrenaica. This emirate
became part of the Kingdom of
Libya when it was established, and an
independent kingdom on 24 December 1951, with Idris as-Senussi
King Idris I.
Gaddafi's Arab republic
See also: Modern history of
Since 1 September 1969, when the
Senussi dynasty was overthrown by
Colonel Muammar Gaddafi,
Cyrenaica occasionally experienced
nationalist activity against Gaddafi's military dictatorship,
including a military rebellion at
Tobruk in 1980.
In 2007, the Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority,
headed by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, announced a regional plan for
Cyrenaica, developed by the firm Foster and Partners. The plan, known
as The Cyrene Declaration, aimed to revive Cyrenaica's agriculture,
create a national park and develop the region as a cultural- and
eco-tourism destination. The announced pilot projects included plans
for three hotels, including the Cyrene Grand Hotel near the ruins of
For much of the Libyan civil war,
Cyrenaica was largely under the
control of the
National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council while
Fezzan remained under Gaddafi's government control. Some proposed a
"two-state solution" to the conflict, with
Cyrenaica becoming an
independent state, but this concept was strongly rejected by both
sides, and the three regions were united again in October 2011, as
rebel forces took
Fezzan and the government
Although a historical region,
Cyrenaica has not had an official
central government of its own for decades. Its individual provinces
have reported directly to the central government in Tripoli.
On 20 July 2011, The First National Conference for Federalism offered
proposals for ways to quickly achieve stability in the country after
the fall of the Gaddafi government. Dr. Abubakr Mustafa Buera, head of
the preparatory committee, was then elected first president for the
National Federal Block, the first political group to call for
On 6 March 2012, a relative of King Idris, Ahmed al-Senussi, was
appointed leader of the self-declared
Cyrenaica Transitional Council,
a meeting of tribal and military leaders. According to the
Cyrenaica extended from the central coastal city of
the Egyptian border. In October 2013, "transitional" was dropped
and the Council was renamed as "Council of
Cyrenaica in Libya" (CCL).
According to CCL, there would be further announcements relating to the
organization of a local parliament and a Shura Council. Struggle for a
federal system, to take place purely through legal means, was also
On 2 November 2012, talks on the federal approach were on the verge of
collapse after serious conflicts between the self-declared Cyrenaica
Transitional Council (led by Ahmed al-Senussi) and the National
Transitional Council; however, a new initiative by pro-Cyrenaican
youth leaders resurrected the movement with a successful rally.
Muheddine Mansury, Osama Buera and Salem Bujazia, the founders of the
Movement for Federal Libya, organized numerous rallies and campaigns,
in addition to distributing thousands of flags to remind the
Cyrenaican people of their identity's symbol.
In a competing event,
Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi was appointed head of the
"Government of Cyrenaica" on 6 November 2013, supported by a local
military leader, Ibrahim Jathran, who was also acting without the
consent of the central government. Based on the appointed posts at
the PBC, the government of al-Barassi planned to cover all functions
except for foreign affairs and defense. On 11 November 2013, PBC
announced formation of its own oil company, further straining
relations with the Tripoli government.
The CCL stated that it had attempted to present a united front with
Jadhran, but that he had proved inflexible and intent on pursuing his
Cyrenaica's population growth over the years has been consistent with
overall growth in Libya's population.
Cities and towns of Cyrenaica
The city of
Benghazi was traditionally the centre of Cyrenaica
Ancient episcopal sees of the
Roman province of
Libya Superior or
Libya Pentapolitana listed in the
Annuario Pontificio as titular
Ptolemais in Libya
Sozusa in Libya
For the ancient sees of
Libya Inferior see Marmarica.
For those of Creta see Byzantine Crete.
1950 postage due stamps of independent Cyrenaica
Cyrenaics philosophical school
List of Kings of Cyrene
List of Catholic dioceses in Libya
List of colonial heads of Cyrenaica
Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe
Postage stamps and postal history of Cyrenaica
History of Libya
Christianity in Libya
Islam in Libya
Libya declares self-government". aljazeera.com.
^ a b "Eastern Libyan leaders declare semi-autonomy". CNN. 7 March
^ "Alarabiya". alarabiya.net.
^ The battle for federalism in Libya's east Al Jazeera, 3 July 2012
^ Abdel Aziz Tarih Sharaf, "Jughrafia Libia", Munsha'at al Ma'arif,
Alexandria, 2nd ed., 1971, pp.232-233.
^ 2006 census, based on the sum of population of districts Al Wahat,
Kufra, Benghazi, Al Marj, Jebel Akhdar, Derna, Al Butnan
^ "Endgame in Tripoli". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 1
^ a b c d Gimingham, C. H. and K. Walton (1954). "Environment and the
Structure of Scrub Communities on the
Limestone Plateaux of Northern
Cyrenaica." Journal of Ecology, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul., 1954
^ "Mediterranean woodlands and forests". WWF Scientific Report .
Accessed March 27, 2011
^ a b c El-Darier, S. M. and F.M. El-Mogaspi (2009). "Ethnobotany and
Relative Importance of Some Endemic Plant Species at El-Jabal
El-Akhdar Region (Libya)". World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5
(3): 353-360, 2009, pp 353-360.
^ a b "Cyrenaica", from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition,
^ The Report:
Libya 2008, p. 134. Oxford Business Group.
^ "North Saharan steppe and woodlands" WWF Scientific Report .
Accessed March 27, 2011.
^ a b c Ring, Trudy et al. (1996) "Cyrene (Gebel Akhdar, Libya)"
International Dictionary of Historic Places: Volume 4: Middle East and
Africa Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, p. 194,
^ Details of the founding are contained in Book IV of Histories, by
Herodotus of Halicarnassus
^ a b Ring, Trudy, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda (1996). "Cyrene
(Gebel Akhdar, Libya)" in International Dictionary of Historic Places,
Volume 4: Middle East and Africa. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago
Cyrenaica and the Greeks" from The Library of Congress Country
Studies: Libya. 2001. . Accessed March 27, 2011.
^ Agricole Joseph F.X.P.E.S.P.A. Fortia d'Urban (marq. de), Bénigne
Emmanuel C. Miller, Recueil des itinéraires anciens, comprenant
l'itinéraire d'Antonin, la table de Peutinger, et un choix des
périples grecs, 1845, p. 286
^ "St. Mark the Apostle, the Founder of the Coptic Church", Coptic
Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States, accessed 19 May 2009
^ "Atiya, Aziz S. "The Copts and Christian Civilization Coptic.net
^ "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to
Crusades". Tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010.
Retrieved 24 February 2011.
^ Stewart, John (1996) "Cyrenaica" The British Empire: an encyclopedia
of the Crown's holdings, 1493 through 1995 McFarland & Co.,
Jefferson, North Carolina, p. 125, ISBN 0-7864-0177-X
^ Associated Press, 'Libyan Opposition to Khadafy Growing but
Fragmented Says Expert,' 17 April 1986.
^ Rose, Steve. "Gadafy's green vision".
The Guardian 12 September
2007. Accessed April 2, 2011.
^ "Two-state solution for Libya?". BBC Today programme. 25 March 2011.
Retrieved 24 December 2011.
^ Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation". trust.org.
Archived from the original on 11 June 2012.
Libya declares autonomy". Russia Today. 6 March 2012.
Retrieved 6 March 2012.
Libya declares semiautonomous region". The Associated
Press. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
^ "Libya: Semi-autonomy declared by leaders in east". BBC. 6 March
2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
^ Federalist head distances himself from Jadhran, announces new
Council of Cyrenaica. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
Libya movement launches government, challenges Tripoli.
^ Eastern Libyans Declare Autonomous Government. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
^ Jadhran launches new Cyrenaican oil company, mocks Zeidan’s
ten-day deadline. Retrieved 2013-11-19.
^ Jadhran swears in his new Cyrenaican “cabinet”. Retrieved
Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013
ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013
Westermann Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German).
Cyrenaica in Antiquity (Society for Libyan Studies Occasional Papers).
Graeme Barker, John Lloyd, Joyce Reynolds ISBN 0-86054-303-X
Sandro Lorenzatti, Note archeologiche e topografiche sull’itinerario
da Derna a Cirene seguito da Claude Le Maire (1706), in "L'Africa
romana XX", Roma 2015, vol. 2, pp. 955–970.
Sources and external links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyrenaica.
Cyrenaica Archaeological Project.
Inscriptions of Roman Cyrenaica
Lexiorient.com's article on Cyrenaica.
Dynamic map of
Cyrenaica on Google Maps.
Worldstatesmen.org's History and list of rulers of Tripolitania,
Hostkingdom.net's History and list of rulers of Cyrenaica.
Zum.de's History of Cyrenaica.
31°00′N 22°30′E / 31.000°N 22.500°E / 31.000;
22.500Coordinates: 31°00′N 22°30′E / 31.000°N
22.500°E / 31.000; 22.500
Historical regions of Libya
Provinces of the early
Roman Empire (117 AD)
Bithynia and Pontus
Corsica and Sardinia
Crete and Cyrenaica
Lycia et Pamphylia
† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a
special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.
Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)
As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed
and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent
praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I.
Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and
Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the
7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme
system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of
Greece they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.
Western Empire (395–476)
Diocese of Gaul
Alpes Poeninae et Graiae
Diocese of Vienne1
Diocese of Spain
Diocese of the Britains
Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy
Apulia et Calabria
Lucania et Bruttii
Tuscia et Umbria
Diocese of Annonarian Italy
Liguria et Aemilia
Venetia et Istria
Diocese of Africa2
Africa proconsularis (Zeugitana)
Diocese of Pannonia3
Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)
Diocese of Dacia
Diocese of Macedonia
Macedonia II Salutaris
of the East
Diocese of Thrace5
Diocese of Asia5
Diocese of Pontus5
Armenia III (536)
Armenia IV (536)
Galatia II Salutaris5
Diocese of the East5
Palaestina III Salutaris
Phoenice II Libanensis
Syria II Salutaris
Diocese of Egypt5
Quaestura exercitus (536)
1 Later the Septem Provinciae
2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as
the separate Prefecture of Africa
3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum
4 Placed under the
Quaestura exercitus in 536
5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by
Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536