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Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(/saɪrəˈneɪ.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Latin: Cyrenaica (Provincia), Ancient Greek: Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقة‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca. Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963. In a wider sense, still in use, Cyrenaica includes all of the eastern part of Libya, including the Kufra District. Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
borders on Tripolitania
Tripolitania
in the northwest and on Fezzan
Fezzan
in the southwest. The region that used to be Cyrenaica officially until 1963 has formed several shabiyat, the administrative divisions of Libya, since 1995. The 2011 Libyan Civil War
2011 Libyan Civil War
started in Cyrenaica, which came largely under the control of the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
(headquartered in Benghazi) for most of the war.[7]

Contents

1 Geography 2 History

2.1 Berber people 2.2 Egyptian rule 2.3 Greek rule 2.4 Persian rule 2.5 Resumption of Greek rule 2.6 Roman province

2.6.1 Christianization

2.7 Arab and Ottoman rule 2.8 Italian colonial rule 2.9 Emirate of Cyrenaica 2.10 Gaddafi's Arab republic 2.11 Post-Gaddafi federalism

3 Population 4 Cities and towns of Cyrenaica 5 Episcopal sees 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 Sources and external links

Geography[edit]

Satellite image of Libya
Libya
with Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
on the right side, showing the green Mediterranean coast in the north and the large desert in the centre and south

Geologically, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
rests on a mass of Miocene
Miocene
limestone that tilts up steeply from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
and falls inland with a gradual descent to sea level again. This mass is divided into two blocks. The Jebel Akhdar extends parallel to the coast from the Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
to the Gulf of Bomba
Gulf of Bomba
and reaches an elevation of 872 meters. There is no continuous coastal plain, the longest strip running from the recess of Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
past Benghazi
Benghazi
to Tolmeita. Thereafter, except for deltaic patches at Susa and Derna, the shore is all precipitous. A steep escarpment separates the coastal plain from a relatively level plateau, known as the Marj Plain, which lies at about 300 meters elevation. Above the Marj Plain lies a dissected plateau at about 700 meters elevation, which contains the highest peaks in the range.[8] The Jebel Akhdar and its adjacent coast are part of the Mediterranean woodlands and forests ecoregion and have a Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
of hot, dry summers and relatively mild and rainy winters.[9] The plant communities of this portion of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
include forest, woodland, maquis, garrigue, steppe and oak savanna. Garrigue
Garrigue
shrublands occupy the non-agricultural portions coastal plain and coastal escarpments, with Sarcopoterium spinosum, along with Asphodelus microcarpus
Asphodelus microcarpus
and Artemisia herba-alba, as the predominant species.[8][10] Small areas of maquis are found on north-facing slopes near the sea, becoming more extensive on the lower plateau. Juniperus phoenicea, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera
Quercus coccifera
and Ceratonia siliqua
Ceratonia siliqua
are common tree and large shrub species in the maquis.[8][10] The upper plateau includes areas of garrigue, two maquis communities, one dominated by Pistacia lentiscus and the other a mixed maquis in which the endemic Arbutus pavarii is prominent, and forests of Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus phoenicea, Olea europaea, Quercus coccifera, Ceratonia siliqua, and Pinus halepensis.[8] Areas of red soil are found on the Marj Plain, which has borne abundant crops of wheat and barley from ancient times to the present day. Plenty of springs issue on the highlands. Wild olive trees are abundant, and large areas of oak savanna provide pasture to the flocks and herds of the local Bedouins.[11] Historically large areas of range were covered in forest. The forested area of the Jebel Akhdar has been shrinking in recent decades. A 1996 report to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimated that the forested area was reduced to 320,000 hectares from 500,000 hectares, mostly cleared to grow crops.[10] The Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority estimates that the forested area decreased from 500,000 hectares in 1976 to 180,000 hectares in 2007.[12] The southward slopes of the Jebel Akhdar are occupied by the Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe, a transitional ecoregion lying between the Mediterranean climate
Mediterranean climate
regions of North Africa and the hyper-arid Sahara
Sahara
Desert.[13] The lower Jebel el-Akabah lies to the south and east of the Jebel Akhdar. The two highlands are separated by a depression. This eastern region, known in ancient times as Marmarica, is much drier than the Jebel Akhdar and here the Sahara
Sahara
extends to the coast. Historically, salt-collecting and sponge fishing were more important than agriculture. Bomba and Tobruk
Tobruk
have good harbors.[11] South of the coastal highlands of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
is a large east-west running depression, extending eastward from the Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
into Egypt. This region of the Sahara
Sahara
is known as the Libyan Desert, and includes the Great Sand Sea
Great Sand Sea
and the Calanshio Sand Sea. The Libyan Desert is home to a few oases, including Awjila
Awjila
(ancient Augila) and Jaghbub. History[edit] Berber people[edit] The Berber people[citation needed] were the earliest recorded inhabitants of Cyrenaica, and most modern Cyrenaicans are considered to be Berber in origin.[citation needed] Remnants of the ancient Berber language
Berber language
spoken by their ancestors are still found in the Awjila- Berber language
Berber language
of the Awjila
Awjila
oasis. The ancient Berbers founded a number of cities and settlements, both on the coast and in the inland oases. Egyptian rule[edit] Egyptian records mention that, during the Ramesside period
Ramesside period
(thirteenth century BC), the Libu
Libu
and Meshwesh
Meshwesh
tribes of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
made frequent incursions into the New Kingdom of Egypt. Greek rule[edit] Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was colonized by the Greeks beginning in the 7th century BC, known as Kyrenaika. The first and most important colony was that of Cyrene, established in about 631 BC by colonists from the Greek island of Thera, which they had abandoned because of a severe famine.[14] Their commander, Aristoteles, took the Libyan name Battos.[15] His dynasty, the Battaid, persisted in spite of severe conflict with Greeks in neighboring cities. The eastern portion of the province, with no major population centers, was called Marmarica; the more important western portion was known as the Pentapolis, as it comprised five cities: Cyrene (near the modern village of Shahat) with its port of Apollonia (Marsa Susa), Arsinoe or Taucheira
Taucheira
(Tocra), Euesperides
Euesperides
or Berenice (near modern Benghazi), Balagrae
Balagrae
(Bayda) and Barce (Marj) – of which the chief was the eponymous Cyrene.[14] The term "Pentapolis" continued to be used as a synonym for Cyrenaica. In the south, the Pentapolis faded into the Saharan tribal areas, including the pharaonic oracle of Ammonium. The region produced barley, wheat, olive oil, wine, figs, apples, wool, sheep, cattle and silphium, an herb that grew only in Cyrenaica and was regarded as a medicinal cure and aphrodisiac.[16] Cyrene became one of the greatest intellectual and artistic centers of the Greek world, famous for its medical school, learned academies and architecture, which included some of the finest examples of the Hellenistic style. The Cyrenaics, a school of thinkers who expounded a doctrine of moral cheerfulness that defined happiness as the sum of human pleasures, were founded by Aristippus
Aristippus
of Cyrene.[17] Other notable natives of Cyrene were the poet Callimachus
Callimachus
and the mathematicians Theodorus and Eratosthenes.[16] Persian rule[edit] In 525 BC, after conquering Egypt, the Achaemenid (Persian) army of Cambyses II
Cambyses II
seized the Pentapolis, and established a satrapy (Achaemenid Persian province) over parts of the region about the next two centuries. Resumption of Greek rule[edit] The Persians were followed by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
in 332 BC, who received tribute from the cities after taking Egypt.[14] The Pentapolis was formally annexed by Ptolemy I Soter, and was passed to the diadoch dynasty of the Lagids, better known as the Ptolemaic dynasty. It briefly gained independence under Magas of Cyrene, stepson of Ptolemy I, but was reabsorbed into the Ptolemaic empire after his death. It was separated from the main kingdom by Ptolemy VIII
Ptolemy VIII
and given to his son Ptolemy Apion, who, dying without heirs in 96 BC, bequeathed it to the Roman Republic. Roman province[edit] Main articles: Creta et Cyrenaica, Praetorian prefecture
Praetorian prefecture
of the East, and Diocese of Egypt
Diocese of Egypt
(Late Antiquity)

Creta et Cyrenaica
Creta et Cyrenaica
within the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 2nd century

Map of       Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and       Marmarica
Marmarica
in the Roman era (Samuel Butler, 1907)

The Latin name Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(or Kyrenika) dates to the 1st century BC. Although some confusion exists as to the exact territory Rome inherited, by 78 BC it was organized as one administrative province together with Crete. It became a senatorial province in 20 BC, like its far more prominent western neighbor Africa proconsularis, and unlike Egypt itself, which became an imperial domain sui generis (under a special governor styled praefectus augustalis) in 30 BC.

Roman ruins of Ptolemais, Cyrenaica

Diocletian's Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
reforms of 296 altered Cyrenaica's administrative structure. It was split into two provinces: Libya Superior or Libya
Libya
Pentapolis, comprising the above-mentioned Pentapolis, with Cyrene as capital, and Libya
Libya
Inferior or Libya
Libya
sicca, the Marmarica, which had by then gained a significant city, the port Paraetonium. Each came under a governor holding the modest rank of praeses. Both belonged to the Diocese of the Orient, with its capital at Antioch in Syria, and from 370, to the Diocese of Egypt, within the praetorian prefecture of Oriens. Its western neighbor Tripolitania, the largest split-off from Africa proconsularis, became part of the Diocese of Africa, subordinate to the prefecture of Italia et Africa. Following the Crete
Crete
earthquake of 365, the capital was moved to Ptolemais. After the Empire's division, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
became part of the East Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Byzantine Empire), bordering Tripolitania. It was briefly part of the Vandal Kingdom
Vandal Kingdom
to the west, until its reconquest by Belisarius in 533. The Tabula Peutingeriana
Tabula Peutingeriana
shows Pentapolites to the east of Syrtes Maiores, indicating the cities of Bernice, Hadrianopolis, Tauchira, Ptolomaide, Callis, Cenopolis, Balacris and Cyrene.[18] Christianization[edit] See also: Early centers of Christianity § Cyrene, and Diocese of Egypt (Late Antiquity) According to the Synoptic Gospels, Simon of Cyrene
Simon of Cyrene
carried the cross of Jesus Christ to the crucifixion. According to one tradition, Saint Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
was born in the Pentapolis, and later returned after preaching with Saint Paul in Colosse (Col 4:10) and Rome
Rome
(Phil 24; 2 Tim 4:11); from Pentapolis he made his way to Alexandria.[19] Early Christianity
Early Christianity
spread to Pentapolis from Egypt; Synesius of Cyrene (370–414), bishop of Ptolemais, received his instruction at Alexandria
Alexandria
in both the Catechetical School and the Museion, and he entertained a great deal of reverence and affection for Hypatia, the last pagan Neoplatonist, whose classes he had attended. Synesius was raised to the episcopate by Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, in AD 410. Since the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in AD 325, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
had been recognized as an ecclesiastical province of the See of Alexandria, in accordance with the ruling of the Nicaean Fathers.The patriarch of the Coptic Church to this day includes the Pentapolis in his title as an area within his jurisdiction.[20] The Eparchy of the Western Pentapolis was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, as the Pope of Alexandria
Alexandria
was the Pope of Africa. The most senior position in The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church after the Pope was the Metropolitan of Western Pentapolis, although, since its demise as a major Archiepiscopal Metropolis in the days of Pope John VI of Alexandria, it was held as a Titular See attached to another Diocese. After being repeatedly destroyed and restored during the Roman period Pentapolis became a mere borough, but was nevertheless the site of a diocese. Its bishop, Zopyrus, was present at the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The subscriptions at Ephesus
Ephesus
(431) and Chalcedon
Chalcedon
(451) give the names of two other bishops, Zenobius and Theodorus. Although it retained the title "Pentapolis", the ecclesiastic province actually included all of the Cyrenaica, not just the five cities. Pentapolis is still included in the title of Popes of the Coptic Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Arab and Ottoman rule[edit] Main articles: History of Islamic Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Ottoman Tripolitania Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was conquered by Muslim Arabs during the tenure of the second caliph, Omer Bin Khattab, in 643/44,[21] and became known as Barqah after its provincial capital, the ancient city of Barce. After the breakdown of the Ummayad caliphate
Ummayad caliphate
it was essentially annexed to Egypt, although still under the same name, first under the Fatimid caliphs and later under the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
and Mamluk
Mamluk
sultanates. Ultimately, it was annexed by the Turkish Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in 1517. It was part of the Tripolitania
Tripolitania
Vilayet. Its main cities became Benghazi
Benghazi
and Derna. Italian colonial rule[edit]

Emir
Emir
Idris as- Senussi
Senussi
(left), and behind him (from left) Hussein Maziq, Muhammad Sakizli
Muhammad Sakizli
and Mustafa Ben Halim, formed the government of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in late 1940s

Flag of the short-lived emirate of Cyrenaica, 1949–1951.

Littorio Palace in Benghazi
Benghazi
was the seat of the Cyrenaican assembly

The Italians occupied Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
during the Italo-Turkish War
Italo-Turkish War
in 1911 and declared it an Italian protectorate on 15 October 1912. Three days later, the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
officially ceded the province to the Kingdom of Italy. On 17 May 1919, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was established as an Italian colony, and, on 25 October 1920, the Italian government recognized Sheikh Sidi Idriss as the leader of the Senussi, who was granted the princely rank of Emir
Emir
until 1929. In that year, Italy withdrew recognition of him and the Senussi. On 1 January 1934, Tripolitania, Cyrenaica, and Fezzan
Fezzan
were united as the Italian colony of Libya. The Italian fascists constructed the Marble Arch as a form of an imperial triumphal arch at the border between Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and Tripolitani near the coast. There was heavy fighting in Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
during World War II
World War II
between the Allies and the Italian Army
Italian Army
and the Nazi German
Nazi German
Afrika Korps. In late 1942, the armed forces of the British Empire
British Empire
overran Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
administered all of Libya
Libya
through 1951, when the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
was established and granted independence.[22] Emirate of Cyrenaica[edit] Main article: Emirate of Cyrenaica In 1949, Idris as-Senussi, with British backing, proclaimed Cyrenaica an independent emirate, called the Emirate of Cyrenaica. This emirate became part of the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
when it was established, and an independent kingdom on 24 December 1951, with Idris as-Senussi becoming King Idris
King Idris
I. Gaddafi's Arab republic[edit] See also: Modern history of Libya
Libya
(other) Since 1 September 1969, when the Senussi
Senussi
dynasty was overthrown by Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
occasionally experienced nationalist activity against Gaddafi's military dictatorship, including a military rebellion at Tobruk
Tobruk
in 1980.[23] In 2007, the Green Mountain Conservation and Development Authority, headed by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, announced a regional plan for Cyrenaica, developed by the firm Foster and Partners. The plan, known as The Cyrene Declaration, aimed to revive Cyrenaica's agriculture, create a national park and develop the region as a cultural- and eco-tourism destination. The announced pilot projects included plans for three hotels, including the Cyrene Grand Hotel near the ruins of Cyrene.[24] For much of the Libyan civil war, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was largely under the control of the National Transitional Council
National Transitional Council
while Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Fezzan
Fezzan
remained under Gaddafi's government control. Some proposed a "two-state solution" to the conflict, with Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
becoming an independent state,[25] but this concept was strongly rejected by both sides, and the three regions were united again in October 2011, as rebel forces took Tripolitania
Tripolitania
and Fezzan
Fezzan
and the government collapsed. Post-Gaddafi federalism[edit] Although a historical region, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
has not had an official central government of its own for decades. Its individual provinces have reported directly to the central government in Tripoli. On 20 July 2011, The First National Conference for Federalism offered proposals for ways to quickly achieve stability in the country after the fall of the Gaddafi government. Dr. Abubakr Mustafa Buera, head of the preparatory committee, was then elected first president for the National Federal Block, the first political group to call for federalism.[citation needed]

On 6 March 2012, a relative of King Idris, Ahmed al-Senussi, was appointed leader of the self-declared Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Transitional Council, a meeting of tribal and military leaders.[26][27][28] According to the Council, Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
extended from the central coastal city of Sirte
Sirte
to the Egyptian border.[29] In October 2013, "transitional" was dropped and the Council was renamed as "Council of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in Libya" (CCL). According to CCL, there would be further announcements relating to the organization of a local parliament and a Shura Council. Struggle for a federal system, to take place purely through legal means, was also emphasized.[30] On 2 November 2012, talks on the federal approach were on the verge of collapse after serious conflicts between the self-declared Cyrenaica Transitional Council (led by Ahmed al-Senussi) and the National Transitional Council; however, a new initiative by pro-Cyrenaican youth leaders resurrected the movement with a successful rally. Muheddine Mansury, Osama Buera and Salem Bujazia, the founders of the Movement for Federal Libya, organized numerous rallies and campaigns, in addition to distributing thousands of flags to remind the Cyrenaican people of their identity's symbol. In a competing event, Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi was appointed head of the "Government of Cyrenaica" on 6 November 2013, supported by a local military leader, Ibrahim Jathran, who was also acting without the consent of the central government.[31] Based on the appointed posts at the PBC, the government of al-Barassi planned to cover all functions except for foreign affairs and defense.[32] On 11 November 2013, PBC announced formation of its own oil company, further straining relations with the Tripoli government.[33] The CCL stated that it had attempted to present a united front with Jadhran, but that he had proved inflexible and intent on pursuing his own agenda.[34] Population[edit] Cyrenaica's population growth over the years has been consistent with overall growth in Libya's population.

Year Population Percent of Libya's population

1954 291,236 27

1964 450,954 29

1973 661,351 29

1984 1,033,534 28

1995 1,261,331 26

2006 1,613,749 29

Cities and towns of Cyrenaica[edit]

The city of Benghazi
Benghazi
was traditionally the centre of Cyrenaica

Benghazi Bayda Tobruk Derna Ajdabiya Marj

Episcopal sees[edit] Ancient episcopal sees of the Roman province
Roman province
of Libya
Libya
Superior or Libya
Libya
Pentapolitana listed in the Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
as titular sees:[35]

Barca Berenice (Benghazi) Boreum (Tabibbi) Cyrene Dystis Erythrum
Erythrum
(Uaili-Et-Trun) Olbia Ptolemais in Libya Sozusa in Libya

For the ancient sees of Libya
Libya
Inferior see Marmarica. For those of Creta see Byzantine Crete. See also[edit]

1950 postage due stamps of independent Cyrenaica

Cyrenaics
Cyrenaics
philosophical school List of Kings of Cyrene List of Catholic dioceses in Libya List of colonial heads of Cyrenaica Mediterranean dry woodlands and steppe Postage stamps and postal history of Cyrenaica History of Libya Christianity in Libya Islam in Libya

References[edit]

^ "East Libya
Libya
declares self-government". aljazeera.com.  ^ a b "Eastern Libyan leaders declare semi-autonomy". CNN. 7 March 2012.  ^ "Alarabiya". alarabiya.net.  ^ The battle for federalism in Libya's east Al Jazeera, 3 July 2012 ^ Abdel Aziz Tarih Sharaf, "Jughrafia Libia", Munsha'at al Ma'arif, Alexandria, 2nd ed., 1971, pp.232-233. ^ 2006 census, based on the sum of population of districts Al Wahat, Kufra, Benghazi, Al Marj, Jebel Akhdar, Derna, Al Butnan ^ "Endgame in Tripoli". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 1 March 2011. ^ a b c d Gimingham, C. H. and K. Walton (1954). "Environment and the Structure of Scrub Communities on the Limestone
Limestone
Plateaux of Northern Cyrenaica." Journal of Ecology, Vol. 42, No. 2, Jul., 1954 ^ "Mediterranean woodlands and forests". WWF Scientific Report [1]. Accessed March 27, 2011 ^ a b c El-Darier, S. M. and F.M. El-Mogaspi (2009). "Ethnobotany and Relative Importance of Some Endemic Plant Species at El-Jabal El-Akhdar Region (Libya)". World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (3): 353-360, 2009, pp 353-360. ^ a b "Cyrenaica", from Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, 1911 ^ The Report: Libya
Libya
2008, p. 134. Oxford Business Group. ^ "North Saharan steppe and woodlands" WWF Scientific Report [2]. Accessed March 27, 2011. ^ a b c Ring, Trudy et al. (1996) "Cyrene (Gebel Akhdar, Libya)" International Dictionary of Historic Places: Volume 4: Middle East and Africa Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago, p. 194, ISBN 1-884964-03-6 ^ Details of the founding are contained in Book IV of Histories, by Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halicarnassus ^ a b Ring, Trudy, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda (1996). "Cyrene (Gebel Akhdar, Libya)" in International Dictionary of Historic Places, Volume 4: Middle East and Africa. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers, Chicago and London. ^ " Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
and the Greeks" from The Library of Congress Country Studies: Libya. 2001. [3]. Accessed March 27, 2011. ^ Agricole Joseph F.X.P.E.S.P.A. Fortia d'Urban (marq. de), Bénigne Emmanuel C. Miller, Recueil des itinéraires anciens, comprenant l'itinéraire d'Antonin, la table de Peutinger, et un choix des périples grecs, 1845, p. 286 ^ "St. Mark the Apostle, the Founder of the Coptic Church", Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Southern United States, accessed 19 May 2009 ^ "Atiya, Aziz S. "The Copts and Christian Civilization Coptic.net ^ "Early Medieval and Byzantine Civilization: Constantine to Crusades". Tulane.edu. Archived from the original on 16 December 2010. Retrieved 24 February 2011.  ^ Stewart, John (1996) "Cyrenaica" The British Empire: an encyclopedia of the Crown's holdings, 1493 through 1995 McFarland & Co., Jefferson, North Carolina, p. 125, ISBN 0-7864-0177-X ^ Associated Press, 'Libyan Opposition to Khadafy Growing but Fragmented Says Expert,' 17 April 1986. ^ Rose, Steve. "Gadafy's green vision". The Guardian
The Guardian
12 September 2007. Accessed April 2, 2011.[4] ^ "Two-state solution for Libya?". BBC Today programme. 25 March 2011. Retrieved 24 December 2011.  ^ Thomson Reuters Foundation. "Thomson Reuters Foundation". trust.org. Archived from the original on 11 June 2012.  ^ "Eastern Libya
Libya
declares autonomy". Russia Today. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ "Eastern Libya
Libya
declares semiautonomous region". The Associated Press. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ "Libya: Semi-autonomy declared by leaders in east". BBC. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2012.  ^ Federalist head distances himself from Jadhran, announces new Council of Cyrenaica. Retrieved 2013-11-19. ^ East Libya
Libya
movement launches government, challenges Tripoli. Retrieved 2013-11-04. ^ Eastern Libyans Declare Autonomous Government. Retrieved 2013-11-04. ^ Jadhran launches new Cyrenaican oil company, mocks Zeidan’s ten-day deadline. Retrieved 2013-11-19. ^ Jadhran swears in his new Cyrenaican “cabinet”. Retrieved 2013-11-19. ^ Annuario Pontificio
Annuario Pontificio
2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), "Sedi titolari", pp. 819-1013

Westermann Grosser Atlas zur Weltgeschichte (in German).

Further reading[edit]

Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in Antiquity (Society for Libyan Studies Occasional Papers). Graeme Barker, John Lloyd, Joyce Reynolds ISBN 0-86054-303-X Sandro Lorenzatti, Note archeologiche e topografiche sull’itinerario da Derna a Cirene seguito da Claude Le Maire (1706), in "L'Africa romana XX", Roma 2015, vol. 2, pp. 955–970.

Sources and external links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cyrenaica.

Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Archaeological Project. Inscriptions of Roman Cyrenaica Lexiorient.com's article on Cyrenaica. Dynamic map of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
on Google Maps. Worldstatesmen.org's History and list of rulers of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica. Hostkingdom.net's History and list of rulers of Cyrenaica. Zum.de's History of Cyrenaica.

31°00′N 22°30′E / 31.000°N 22.500°E / 31.000; 22.500Coordinates: 31°00′N 22°30′E / 31.000°N 22.500°E / 31.000; 22.500

v t e

Historical regions of Libya

Cyrenaica Fezzan Tripolitania

Subdivisions Provinces Governorates Districts Municipalities

v t e

Provinces of the early Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(117 AD)

Achaea Aegyptus Africa proconsularis Alpes Cottiae Alpes Maritimae Alpes Poeninae Arabia Petraea Armenia Asia Assyria Bithynia
Bithynia
and Pontus Britannia Cappadocia Cilicia Corsica
Corsica
and Sardinia Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica Cyprus Dacia Dalmatia Epirus Galatia Gallia Aquitania Gallia Belgica Gallia Lugdunensis Gallia Narbonensis Germania Inferior Germania Superior Hispania Baetica Hispania Tarraconensis Italia † Iudaea Lusitania Lycia
Lycia
et Pamphylia Macedonia Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Tingitana Mesopotamia Moesia
Moesia
Inferior Moesia
Moesia
Superior Noricum Pannonia Inferior Pannonia Superior Raetia Sicilia Syria Thracia

† Italy was never constituted as a province, instead retaining a special juridical status until Diocletian's reforms.

v t e

Late Roman provinces (4th–7th centuries AD)

History

As found in the Notitia Dignitatum. Provincial administration reformed and dioceses established by Diocletian, c. 293. Permanent praetorian prefectures established after the death of Constantine I. Empire permanently partitioned after 395. Exarchates of Ravenna and Africa established after 584. After massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the remaining provinces were superseded by the theme system in c. 640–660, although in Asia Minor and parts of Greece
Greece
they survived under the themes until the early 9th century.

Western Empire (395–476)

Praetorian Prefecture of Gaul

Diocese of Gaul

Alpes Poeninae
Alpes Poeninae
et Graiae Belgica I Belgica II Germania I Germania II Lugdunensis I Lugdunensis II Lugdunensis III Lugdunensis IV Maxima Sequanorum

Diocese of Vienne1

Alpes Maritimae Aquitanica I Aquitanica II Narbonensis I Narbonensis II Novempopulania Viennensis

Diocese of Spain

Baetica Balearica Carthaginensis Gallaecia Lusitania Mauretania Tingitana Tarraconensis

Diocese of the Britains

Britannia I Britannia II Flavia Caesariensis Maxima Caesariensis Valentia (?)

Praetorian Prefecture of Italy

Diocese of Suburbicarian Italy

Apulia et Calabria Campania Corsica Lucania et Bruttii Picenum
Picenum
Suburbicarium Samnium Sardinia Sicilia Tuscia et Umbria Valeria

Diocese of Annonarian Italy

Alpes Cottiae Flaminia et Picenum
Picenum
Annonarium Liguria et Aemilia Raetia
Raetia
I Raetia
Raetia
II Venetia et Istria

Diocese of Africa2

Africa proconsularis
Africa proconsularis
(Zeugitana) Byzacena Mauretania Caesariensis Mauretania Sitifensis Numidia Cirtensis Numidia Militiana Tripolitania

Diocese of Pannonia3

Dalmatia Noricum
Noricum
mediterraneum Noricum
Noricum
ripense Pannonia I Pannonia II Savia Valeria ripensis

Eastern Empire (395–c. 640)

Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum

Diocese of Dacia

Dacia Mediterranea Dacia Ripensis Dardania Moesia
Moesia
I Praevalitana

Diocese of Macedonia

Achaea Creta Epirus
Epirus
Nova Epirus
Epirus
Vetus Macedonia Prima Macedonia II Salutaris Thessalia

Praetorian Prefecture of the East

Diocese of Thrace5

Europa Haemimontus Moesia
Moesia
II4 Rhodope Scythia4 Thracia

Diocese of Asia5

Asia Caria4 Hellespontus Insulae4 Lycaonia
Lycaonia
(370) Lycia Lydia Pamphylia Pisidia Phrygia Pacatiana Phrygia Salutaris

Diocese of Pontus5

Armenia I5 Armenia II5 Armenia Maior5 Armenian Satrapies5 Armenia III
Armenia III
(536) Armenia IV
Armenia IV
(536) Bithynia Cappadocia I5 Cappadocia II5 Galatia I5 Galatia II Salutaris5 Helenopontus5 Honorias5 Paphlagonia5 Pontus Polemoniacus5

Diocese of the East5

Arabia Cilicia I Cilicia II Cyprus4 Euphratensis Isauria Mesopotamia Osroene Palaestina I Palaestina II Palaestina III Salutaris Phoenice I Phoenice II Libanensis Syria I Syria II Salutaris Theodorias (528)

Diocese of Egypt5

Aegyptus I Aegyptus II Arcadia Augustamnica I Augustamnica II Libya
Libya
Superior Libya
Libya
Inferior Thebais Superior Thebais Inferior

Other territories

Taurica Quaestura exercitus (536) Spania
Spania
(552)

1 Later the Septem Provinciae 2 Re-established after reconquest by the Eastern Empire in 534 as the separate Prefecture of Africa 3 Later the Diocese of Illyricum 4 Placed under the Quaestura exercitus in 536 5 Affected (i.e. boundaries modified, abolished or renamed) by Justinian I's administrative reorganization in 534–536

Authority control

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