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Norfluoxetine
SEPROXETINE, also known as (S)-NORFLUOXETINE, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is the most important active metabolite of the widely used antidepressant fluoxetine , but little is known about its pharmacological actions. Seproxetine
Seproxetine
was being investigated by Eli Lilly and Company
Eli Lilly and Company
as an antidepressant; however, a cardiac side effect was noted and development was discontinued. REFERENCES * ^ "Seproxetine". DrugBank. University of Alberta. Retrieved 10 August 2016
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Receptor Modulator
A RECEPTOR MODULATOR, or RECEPTOR LIGAND, is a type of drug which binds to and modulates receptors . They are ligands and include receptor agonists and receptor antagonists , as well as receptor partial agonists , inverse agonists , and allosteric modulators
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Citalopram
CITALOPRAM (brand names: CELEXA, CIPRAMIL and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It has U.S. Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
approval to treat major depression , which it received in 1998, and is prescribed off-label for other conditions. In Australia, the UK, Germany, Portugal, Poland, and most European countries, it is licensed for depressive episodes and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia . In Spain and Denmark it is also used for obsessive–compulsive disorder
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Reuptake Inhibitor
A REUPTAKE INHIBITOR (RI) is a type of reuptake modulator which inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter -mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron , leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotransmitter and therefore an increase in neurotransmission . Various drugs exert their psychological and physiological effects through reuptake inhibition, including many antidepressants and psychostimulants . Most known reuptake inhibitors affect the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin , norepinephrine (and epinephrine ), and dopamine . However, there are also a number of pharmaceuticals and research chemicals that act as reuptake inhibitors for other neurotransmitters such as glutamate , γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine , adenosine , choline (the precursor of acetylcholine ), and the endocannabinoids , among others
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Drug Development
DRUG DEVELOPMENT is the process of bringing a new pharmaceutical drug to the market once a lead compound has been identified through the process of drug discovery . It includes pre-clinical research on microorganisms and animals, filing for regulatory status, such as via the United States Food and Drug Administration
Food and Drug Administration
for an investigational new drug to initiate clinical trials on humans, and may include the step of obtaining regulatory approval with a new drug application to market the drug. CONTENTS* 1 New chemical entity development * 1.1 Pre-clinical * 1.2 Clinical phase * 2 Cost * 3 Valuation * 4 Success rate * 5 Novel initiatives to boost development * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links NEW CHEMICAL ENTITY DEVELOPMENTBroadly, the process of drug development can be divided into pre-clinical and clinical work
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Eli Lilly And Company
David A. Ricks, Chairman of the Board
Chairman of the Board
, President and CEO Derica W. Rice, CFO PRODUCTS Drugs REVENUE $21.221 billion (2016) OPERATING INCOME $2.79 billion (2016) NET INCOME $2.73 billion (2016) TOTAL ASSETS $38.8 billion (2016) TOTAL EQUITY $14.08 billion (2016) NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES 41,975, of which 23,115 were outside the USA (2016) WEBSITE Lilly.com Eli Lilly
Eli Lilly
and Company's global headquarters, in Indianapolis, Indiana ELI LILLY AND COMPANY is a global pharmaceutical company headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana
Indianapolis, Indiana
, with offices in 18 countries. Its products are sold in approximately 125 countries. The company was founded in 1876 by Col
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Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System
The ANATOMICAL THERAPEUTIC CHEMICAL (ATC) CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM is used for the classification of active ingredients of drugs according to the organ or system on which they act and their therapeutic , pharmacological and chemical properties. It is controlled by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drug
Drug
Statistics Methodology (WHOCC), and was first published in 1976. This pharmaceutical coding system divides drugs into different groups according to the organ or system on which they act or their therapeutic and chemical characteristics . Each bottom-level ATC code stands for a pharmaceutically used substance, or a combination of substances, in a single indication (or use). This means that one drug can have more than one code: acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), for example, has A01AD05 (WHO) as a drug for local oral treatment, B01AC06 (WHO) as a platelet inhibitor , and N02BA01 (WHO) as an analgesic and antipyretic
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Venlafaxine
VENLAFAXINE, sold under the brand name EFFEXOR among others, is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class. This means it increases the concentrations of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the body and the brain. First introduced by Wyeth in 1993, now marketed by Pfizer
Pfizer
, it is licensed for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder and social phobia . A comparative meta-analysis of 12 major antidepressants found that venlafaxine, mirtazapine , escitalopram , and sertraline were significantly more efficacious than duloxetine , fluoxetine , fluvoxamine , paroxetine , and reboxetine . A combination of venlafaxine and mirtazapine achieved remission rates (defined as a HAM-D score of 7 or less) of 58% in one controlled trial
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Nomifensine
NOMIFENSINE (MERITAL, ALIVAL) is a norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor , i.e. a drug that increases the amount of synaptic norepinephrine and dopamine available to receptors by blocking the dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. This is a mechanism of action shared by some recreational drugs like cocaine and the medication tametraline (see DRI ). Research showed that the (S)-isomer is responsible for activity. The drug was developed in the 1960s by Hoechst AG (now Sanofi-Aventis ), who then test marketed it in the United States
United States
. It was an effective antidepressant, without sedative effects. Nomifensine
Nomifensine
did not interact significantly with alcohol and lacked anticholinergic effects. No withdrawal symptoms were seen after 6 months treatment. The drug was however considered not suitable for agitated patients as it presumably made agitation worse
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Active Metabolite
An ACTIVE METABOLITE is an active form of a drug after it has been processed by the body. CONTENTS * 1 Metabolites of drugs * 2 Prodrugs * 3 References * 4 Further reading METABOLITES OF DRUGSAn active metabolite results when a drug is metabolized by the body into a modified form which continues to produce effects in the body. Usually these effects are similar to those of the parent drug but weaker, although they can still be significant (see e.g. 11-hydroxy-THC
11-hydroxy-THC
, morphine-6-glucuronide ). Certain drugs such as codeine and tramadol have metabolites (morphine and O-desmethyltramadol respectively) that are stronger than the parent drug and in these cases the metabolite may be responsible for much of the therapeutic action of the parent drug. Sometimes, however, metabolites may produce toxic effects and patients must be monitored carefully to ensure they do not build up in the body
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Paroxetine
PAROXETINE, also known by the trade names PAXIL and SEROXAT among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder , obsessive-compulsive disorder , social anxiety disorder , panic disorder , posttraumatic stress disorder , generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder . It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause . It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation . It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents
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Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor
SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRIS), also known as SEROTONIN-SPECIFIC REUPTAKE INHIBITORS or SEROTONERGIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS, are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders . The exact mechanism of SSRIs is unknown. SSRIs are believed to increase the extracellular level of the neurotransmitter serotonin by limiting its reabsorption into the presynaptic cell , increasing the level of serotonin in the synaptic cleft available to bind to the postsynaptic receptor . They have varying degrees of selectivity for the other monoamine transporters , with pure SSRIs having only weak affinity for the norepinephrine and dopamine transporters . SSRIs are the most widely prescribed antidepressants in many countries. The efficacy of SSRIs in mild or moderate cases of depression has been disputed, and may be outweighed by side effects
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DrugBank
The DRUGBANK database is a comprehensive, freely accessible, online database containing information on drugs and drug targets. As both a bioinformatics and a cheminformatics resource, DrugBank
DrugBank
combines detailed drug (i.e. chemical, pharmacological and pharmaceutical) data with comprehensive drug target (i.e. sequence, structure, and pathway) information. Because of its broad scope, comprehensive referencing and unusually detailed data descriptions, DrugBank
DrugBank
is more akin to a drug encyclopedia than a drug database. As a result, links to DrugBank are maintained for nearly all drugs listed in. DrugBank
DrugBank
is widely used by the drug industry, medicinal chemists, pharmacists , physicians , students and the general public. Its extensive drug and drug-target data has enabled the discovery and repurposing of a number of existing drugs to treat rare and newly identified illnesses
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