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Nirvana
Nirvāṇa (/nɪərˈvɑːnə/ neer-VAH-nə, /-ˈvænə/ -VAN-ə, /nər-/ nər-;[1] Sanskrit: निर्वाण nirvāṇa [nirʋaːɳə]; Pali: निब्बान nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.[2] The term "nirvana" is most commonly associated with Buddhism, and represents its ultimate state of soteriological release and liberation from rebirths in saṃsāra.[3][web 1][4] In Indian religions, nirvana is synonymous with moksha and mukti.[note 1] All Indian religions
Indian religions
assert it to be a state of perfect
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Mahabharata
The Mahābhārata (US: /məhɑːˈbɑːrətə/,[1] UK: /ˌmɑːhəˈbɑːrətə/;[2] Sanskrit: महाभारतम्, Mahābhāratam, pronounced [mɐɦaːˈbʱaːɽɐtɐm]) is one of the two major Sanskrit
Sanskrit
epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.[3] It narrates the struggle between two groups of cousins in the Kurukshetra
Kurukshetra
War and the fates of the Kaurava
Kaurava
and the Pāṇḍava princes and their succession
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Mon Language
The Mon language (Mon: ဘာသာ မန်; Burmese: မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar
Myanmar
and Thailand. Mon, like the related Khmer language, but unlike most languages in mainland Southeast Asia, is not tonal. In recent years, usage of Mon has declined rapidly, especially among the younger generation.[4] Many ethnic Mon are monolingual in Burmese, and the language is classified as "vulnerable" by UNESCO. The current number of speakers is approximately 800,000 in 2007
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Retroflexion
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in Indology
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Veda
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Indian Religions
Indian religions
Indian religions
as a percentage of world population    Hinduism
Hinduism
(15%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(7.1%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.35%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.06%)   Other (77.49%)Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism
Buddhism
and Sikhism. [web 1][note 1] These religions are also all classified as Eastern religions
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Prakrit Language
The Prakrits (Sanskrit: प्राकृती prākṛta, Shauraseni: pāuda, Jain Prakrit: pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages.[2][3] The Ardhamagadhi (or simply Magadhi) Prakrit, which was used extensively to write the scriptures of Jainism, is often considered to be the definitive form of Prakrit, while others are considered variants thereof. Prakrit
Prakrit
grammarians would give the full grammar of Ardhamagadhi first, and then define the other grammars with relation to it
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Sanskrit Language
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Sādhanā
Sādhana (Sanskrit साधन; Tibetan: སྒྲུབ་ཐབས་, THL: druptap; Chinese: 修行), literally "a means of accomplishing something",[1] is a generic term coming from the yogic tradition and it refers to any spiritual exercise that is aimed at progressing the sādhaka towards the very ultimate expression of his or her life in this reality.[2] It includes a variety of disciplines in Hindu,[3] Buddhist,[4] Jain[5] and Sikh traditions that are followed in order to achieve various spiritual or ritual objectives. Sādhana can also refer to a tantric liturgy or liturgical manual, that is, the instructions to carry out a certain practice. A contemporary spiritual teacher and yogi Sadhguru
Sadhguru
defines sādhanā thusly:[6]Everything can be sadhana. The way you eat, the way you sit, the way you stand, the way you breathe, the way you conduct your body, mind and your energies and emotions – this is sadhana
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Vietnamese Language
Vietnamese /viˌɛtnəˈmiːz/ ( listen) (Tiếng Việt) is a Viet–Muong language that originated in the north of modern-day Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. It is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As the result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic. It is part of the Austroasiatic language family of which it has by far the most speakers (several times as many as the other Austroasiatic languages combined).[6] Vietnamese vocabulary has borrowings from Chinese, and it formerly used a modified set of Chinese characters called chữ nôm given vernacular pronunciation
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Royal Thai General System Of Transcription
The Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) is the official[1][2] system for rendering Thai words in the Latin alphabet. It was published by the Royal Institute of Thailand.[3][4] It is used in road signs[5] and government publications and is the closest thing to a standard of transcription for Thai, but its use, by even the government, is inconsistent
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Thai Language
Thai,[3] Central Thai,[4] or Siamese,[5] is the national and official language of Thailand
Thailand
and the first language of the Thai people
Thai people
and the vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Tai–Kadai language family. Over half of its words are borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon, and Old Khmer
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Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan[4] is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages. It is based on the speech of Lhasa, an Ü-Tsang (Central Tibetan) dialect. For this reason, Standard Tibetan
Standard Tibetan
is often called Lhasa
Lhasa
Tibetan.[5] Tibetan is an official[6] language of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China
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Sinhalese Language
Sinhalese (/ˌsɪn(h)əˈliːz, ˌsɪŋ(ɡ)ə-/), known natively as Sinhala (Sinhalese: සිංහල; siṁhala [ˈsiŋɦələ]),[3] is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.[4][5][6] Sinhalese is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million.[7] It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages.[5] Sinhalese is written using the Sinhalese script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script
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Mongolian Language
монгол хэл ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯ ᠬᠡᠯᠡPronunciation /mɔŋɢɔ̆ɮ xeɮ/Native to MongoliaRegion All of state Mongolia
Mongolia
and Inner Mongolia, parts of Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Xinjiang
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Shan Language
The Shan language
Shan language
(Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး, pronounced [lik táj] ( listen)), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး, pronounced [kwáːm táj] ( listen)), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး, pronounced [pʰàːsʰàː táj]; Burmese: ရှမ်းဘာသာ, pronounced [ʃáɴ bàðà]; Thai: ภาษาไทใหญ่, pronounced [pʰāː.sǎː.tʰāj.jàj]) is the native language of the Shan people
Shan people
and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State
Kachin State
in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis
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