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v t e

Impact of a drop of water in water, a common analogy for Brahman
Brahman
and the Ātman

In Hinduism, Brahman
Brahman
connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality
Reality
in the universe.[1][2][3] In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.[2][4][5] It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes.[1][6][7] Brahman
Brahman
as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe.[1][8] Brahman
Brahman
is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world".[9] Brahman
Brahman
is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.[10] The Vedas
Vedas
conceptualize Brahman
Brahman
as the Cosmic Principle.[11] In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss)[12][13] and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality.[6][14][note 1][note 2] Brahman
Brahman
is discussed in Hindu
Hindu
texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self),[10][17] personal,[note 3] impersonal[note 4] or Para Brahman,[note 5] or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school.[18] In dualistic schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
such as the theistic Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta, Brahman
Brahman
is different from Atman (soul) in each being.[5][19][20] In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman
Brahman
is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.[7][21][22]

Contents

1 Etymology and related terms 2 History and literature

2.1 Vedic 2.2 Upanishads

3 Discussion

3.1 Brahman
Brahman
as a metaphysical concept 3.2 Brahman
Brahman
as an ontological concept 3.3 Brahman
Brahman
as an axiological concept 3.4 Brahman
Brahman
as a teleological concept 3.5 Brahman
Brahman
as a soteriological concept: Moksha

4 Schools of thought

4.1 Vedanta

4.1.1 Advaita Vedanta 4.1.2 Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta 4.1.3 Achintya Bheda Abheda

4.2 Vaishnavism 4.3 Bhakti
Bhakti
movement

5 Buddhist understanding of Brahman

5.1 Brahma
Brahma
as a surrogate for Brahman
Brahman
in Buddhist texts

6 Brahman
Brahman
in Sikhism 7 Brahman
Brahman
in Jainism 8 Comparison of Brahma, Brahman, Brahmin
Brahmin
and Brahmanas 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 External links

Etymology and related terms[edit] Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Brahman
Brahman
(an n-stem, nominative bráhmā) from a root bṛh- "to swell, expand, grow, enlarge" is a neutral noun to be distinguished from the masculine brahmán—denoting a person associated with Brahman, and from Brahmā, the creator God
God
in the Hindu
Hindu
Trinity, the Trimurti. Brahman
Brahman
is thus a gender-neutral concept that implies greater impersonality than masculine or feminine conceptions of the deity. Brahman
Brahman
is referred to as the supreme self. Puligandla states it as "the unchanging reality amidst and beyond the world",[23] while Sinar states Brahman
Brahman
is a concept that "cannot be exactly defined".[24] In Vedic Sanskrit:

Brahma
Brahma
(ब्रह्म) (nominative singular), brahman (ब्रह्मन्) (stem) (neuter[25] gender) from root bṛh-, means "to be or make firm, strong, solid, expand, promote".[26] Brahmana
Brahmana
(ब्रह्मन) (nominative singular, never plural), from stems brha (to make firm, strong, expand) + Sanskrit
Sanskrit
-man- from Indo-European root -men- which denotes some manifest form of "definite power, inherent firmness, supporting or fundamental principle".[26]

In later Sanskrit
Sanskrit
usage:

Brahma
Brahma
(ब्रह्म) (nominative singular), brahman (stem) (neuter[25] gender) means the concept of the transcendent and immanent ultimate reality, Supreme Cosmic Spirit in Hinduism. The concept is central to Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, especially Vedanta; this is discussed below. Brahm is another variant of Brahman. Brahmā
Brahmā
(ब्रह्मा) (nominative singlular), Brahman (ब्रह्मन्) (stem) (masculine gender), means the deity or deva Prajāpati Brahmā. He is one of the members of the Hindu trinity and associated with creation, but does not have a cult in present-day India. This is because Brahmā, the creator-god, is long-lived but not eternal i.e. Brahmā
Brahmā
gets absorbed back into Purusha at the end of an aeon, and is born again at the beginning of a new kalpa.

These are distinct from:

A brāhmaṇa (ब्राह्मण) (masculine, pronounced [ˈbraːhməɳə]), (which literally means "pertaining to prayer") is a prose commentary on the Vedic mantras—an integral part of the Vedic literature. A brāhmaṇa (ब्राह्मण) (masculine, same pronunciation as above), means priest; in this usage the word is usually rendered in English as "Brahmin". This usage is also found in the Atharva Veda. In neuter plural form, Brahmāṇi. See Vedic priest. Ishvara, (lit., Supreme Lord), in Advaita, is identified as a partial worldly manifestation (with limited attributes) of the ultimate reality, the attributeless Brahman. In Visishtadvaita
Visishtadvaita
and Dvaita, however, Ishvara
Ishvara
(the Supreme Controller) has infinite attributes and the source of the impersonal Brahman. Devas, the expansions of Brahman/ God
God
into various forms, each with a certain quality. In the Vedic religion, there were 33 devas, which later became exaggerated to 330 million devas. In fact, devas are themselves regarded as more mundane manifestations of the One and the Supreme Brahman
Brahman
(See Para Brahman). The Sanskrit
Sanskrit
word for "ten million" also means group, and 330 million devas originally meant 33 types of divine manifestations.

History and literature[edit] Vedic[edit] Brahman
Brahman
is a concept present in Vedic Samhitas, the oldest layer of the Vedas
Vedas
dated to the 2nd millennium BCE. For example,[27]

The Ṛcs are limited (parimita), The Samans are limited, And the Yajuses are limited, But of the Word Brahman, there is no end.

— Taittiriya Samhita
Samhita
VII.3.1.4, Translated by Barbara Holdrege[27]

The concept Brahman
Brahman
is referred to in hundreds of hymns in the Vedas.[28] For example, it is found in Rig veda
Rig veda
hymns such as 2.2.10,[29] 6.21.8,[30] 10.72.2[31] and in Atharva veda hymns such as 6.122.5, 10.1.12, and 14.1.131.[28] The concept is found in various layers of the Vedic literature; for example:[28] Aitareya Brahmana 1.18.3, Kausitaki Brahmana
Brahmana
6.12, Satapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
13.5.2.5, Taittiriya Brahmana
Brahmana
2.8.8.10, Jaiminiya Brahmana
Brahmana
1.129, Taittiriya Aranyaka
Aranyaka
4.4.1 through 5.4.1, Vajasaneyi Samhita
Samhita
22.4 through 23.25, Maitrayani Samhita
Samhita
3.12.1:16.2 through 4.9.2:122.15. The concept is extensively discussed in the Upanishads
Upanishads
embedded in the Vedas
Vedas
(see next section), and also mentioned in the vedāṅga (the limbs of Vedas) such as the Srauta sutra 1.12.12 and Paraskara Gryhasutra 3.2.10 through 3.4.5.[28] Jan Gonda states that the diverse reference of Brahman
Brahman
in the Vedic literature, starting with Rigveda
Rigveda
Samhitas, convey "different senses or different shades of meaning".[32] There is no one single word in modern Western languages that can render the various shades of meaning of the word Brahman
Brahman
in the Vedic literature, according to Jan Gonda.[32] In verses considered as the most ancient, the Vedic idea of Brahman
Brahman
is the "power immanent in the sound, words, verses and formulas of Vedas". However, states Gonda, the verses suggest that this ancient meaning was never the only meaning, and the concept evolved and expanded in ancient India.[33] Barbara Holdrege states that the concept Brahman
Brahman
is discussed in the Vedas
Vedas
along four major themes: as the Word or verses (Sabdabrahman),[34] as Knowledge embodied in Creator Principle, as Creation itself, and a Corpus of traditions.[35] Hananya Goodman states that the Vedas
Vedas
conceptualize Brahman
Brahman
as the Cosmic Principles underlying all that exists.[11] Gavin Flood states that the Vedic era witnessed a process of abstraction, where the concept of Brahman evolved and expanded from the power of sound, words and rituals to the "essence of the universe", the "deeper foundation of all phenomena", the "essence of the self (Atman, soul)", and the deeper "truth of a person beyond apparent difference".[36] Upanishads[edit]

Swan (Hansa, हंस) is the symbol for Brahman-Atman in Hindu iconography.[37][38]

The primary focus on the early Upanishads
Upanishads
is Brahmavidya and Atmavidya, that is the knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
and the knowledge of Atman (self, soul), what it is and how it is understood.[39] The texts do not present a single unified theory, rather they present a variety of themes with multiple possible interpretations, which flowered in post-Vedic era as premises for the diverse schools of Hinduism.[10] Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
states that the concept of Brahman
Brahman
in the Upanishads expands to metaphysical, ontological and soteriological themes, such as it being the "primordial reality that creates, maintains and withdraws within it the universe",[40] the "principle of the world",[40] the "absolute",[41] the "general, universal",[42] the "cosmic principle",[43] the "ultimate that is the cause of everything including all gods",[44] the "divine being, Lord, distinct God, or God within oneself",[45] the "knowledge",[46] the "soul, sense of self of each human being that is fearless, luminuous, exalted and blissful",[47] the "essence of liberation, of spiritual freedom",[48] the "universe within each living being and the universe outside",[47] the "essence and everything innate in all that exists inside, outside and everywhere".[49] Gavin Flood summarizes the concept of Brahman
Brahman
in the Upanishads
Upanishads
to be the "essence, the smallest particle of the cosmos and the infinite universe", the "essence of all things which cannot be seen, though it can be experienced", the "self, soul within each person, each being", the "truth", the "reality", the "absolute", the "bliss" (ananda).[36] According to Radhakrishnan, the sages of the Upanishads
Upanishads
teach Brahman as the ultimate essence of material phenomena that cannot be seen or heard, but whose nature can be known through the development of self-knowledge (atma jnana).[50] The Upanishads
Upanishads
contain several mahā-vākyas or "Great Sayings" on the concept of Brahman:[51]

Text Upanishad Translation Reference

अहं ब्रह्म अस्मि aham brahmāsmi Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
1.4.10 "I am Brahman" [52]

अयम् आत्मा ब्रह्म ayam ātmā brahma Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
4.4.5 "The Self is Brahman" [53]

सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्म sarvam khalvidam brahma Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.1 "All this is Brahman" [54]

एकमेवाद्वितीयम् ekam evadvitiyam Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
6.2.1 "That [Brahman] is one, without a second" [55]

तत्त्वमसि tat tvam asi Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
6.8.7 et seq. "Thou art that" ("You are Brahman") [56][57]

प्रज्ञानं ब्रह्म prajnānam brahma Aitareya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.3.7 "Wisdom is Brahman" [58]

The Upanishad
Upanishad
discuss the metaphysical concept of Brahman
Brahman
in many ways, such as the Śāṇḍilya doctrine in Chapter 3 of the Chandogya Upanishad, among of the oldest Upanishadic texts.[59] The Śāṇḍilya doctrine on Brahman
Brahman
is not unique to Chandogya Upanishad, but found in other ancient texts such as the Satapatha Brahmana
Brahmana
in section 10.6.3. It asserts that Atman (Soul, Self inside man) exists, the Brahman
Brahman
is identical with Atman, that the Brahman
Brahman
is inside man—thematic quotations that are frequently cited by later schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
and modern studies on Indian philosophies.[59][60][61]

This whole universe is Brahman. In tranquility, let one worship It, as Tajjalan
Tajjalan
(that from which he came forth, as that into which he will be dissolved, as that in which he breathes). — Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.1[59][62]

Man is a creature of his Kratumaya (क्रतुमयः, will, purpose). Let him therefore have for himself this will, this purpose: The intelligent, whose body is imbued with life-principle, whose form is light, whose thoughts are driven by truth, whose self is like space (invisible but ever present), from whom all works, all desires, all sensory feelings encompassing this whole world, the silent, the unconcerned, this is me, my Self, my Soul within my heart. — Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.1 – 3.14.3[59][63]

This is my Soul in the innermost heart, greater than the earth, greater than the aerial space, greater than these worlds. This Soul, this Self of mine is that Brahman. — Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.3 – 3.14.4[62][63]

Paul Deussen
Paul Deussen
notes that teachings similar to above on Brahman, re-appeared centuries later in the words of the 3rd century CE Neoplatonic Roman philosopher Plotinus
Plotinus
in Enneades 5.1.2.[62] Discussion[edit] The concept Brahman
Brahman
has a lot undertones of meaning and is difficult to understand. It has relevance in :

Metaphysics Ontology Axiology ( Ethics
Ethics
& Aesthetics) Teleology Soteriology

Brahman
Brahman
as a metaphysical concept[edit] Brahman
Brahman
is the key metaphysical concept in various schools of Hindu philosophy. It is the theme in its diverse discussions to the two central questions of metaphysics: what is ultimately real, and are there principles applying to everything that is real?[64] Brahman
Brahman
is the ultimate "eternally, constant" reality, while the observed universe is a different kind of reality but one which is "temporary, changing" Maya in various orthodox Hindu
Hindu
schools. Maya pre-exists and co-exists with Brahman—the Ultimate Reality, The Highest Universal, the Cosmic Principles.[65] In addition to the concept of Brahman, Hindu
Hindu
metaphysics includes the concept of Atman—or soul, self—which is also considered ultimately real.[65] The various schools of Hinduism, particularly the dual and non-dual schools, differ on the nature of Atman, whether it is distinct from Brahman, or same as Brahman. Those that consider Brahman and Atman as distinct are theistic, and Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
and later Nyaya schools illustrate this premise.[66] Those that consider Brahman
Brahman
and Atman as same are monist or pantheistic, and Advaita Vedanta, later Samkhya[67] and Yoga
Yoga
schools illustrate this metaphysical premise.[68][69][70] In schools that equate Brahman
Brahman
with Atman, Brahman
Brahman
is the sole, ultimate reality.[71] The predominant teaching in the Upanishads
Upanishads
is the spiritual identity of soul within each human being, with the soul of every other human being and living being, as well as with the supreme, ultimate reality Brahman.[72][73] In the metaphysics of the major schools of Hinduism, Maya is perceived reality, one that does not reveal the hidden principles, the true reality—the Brahman. Maya is unconscious, Brahman-Atman is conscious. Maya is the literal and the effect, Brahman
Brahman
is the figurative Upādāna—the principle and the cause.[65] Maya is born, changes, evolves, dies with time, from circumstances, due to invisible principles of nature. Atman- Brahman
Brahman
is eternal, unchanging, invisible principle, unaffected absolute and resplendent consciousness. Maya concept, states Archibald Gough, is "the indifferent aggregate of all the possibilities of emanatory or derived existences, pre-existing with Brahman", just like the possibility of a future tree pre-exists in the seed of the tree.[65] While Hinduism
Hinduism
sub-schools such as Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
emphasize the complete equivalence of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman, they also expound on Brahman
Brahman
as saguna Brahman—the Brahman
Brahman
with attributes, and nirguna Brahman—the Brahman
Brahman
without attributes.[74] The nirguna Brahman
Brahman
is the Brahman
Brahman
as it really is, however, the saguna Brahman
Brahman
is posited as a means to realizing nirguna Brahman, but the Hinduism
Hinduism
schools declare saguna Brahman
Brahman
to be a part of the ultimate njrguna Brahman[75] The concept of the saguna Brahman, such as in the form of avatars, is considered in these schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
to be a useful symbolism, path and tool for those who are still on their spiritual journey, but the concept is finally cast aside by the fully enlightened.[76] Brahman
Brahman
as an ontological concept[edit] Brahman, along with Soul/Self (Atman) are part of the ontological[77] premises of Indian philosophy.[78][79] Different schools of Indian philosophy have held widely dissimilar ontologies. Buddhism
Buddhism
and Carvaka school of Hinduism
Hinduism
deny that there exists anything called "a soul, a self" (individual Atman or Brahman
Brahman
in the cosmic sense), while the orthodox schools of Hinduism, Jainism
Jainism
and Ajivikas hold that there exists "a soul, a self".[80][81] Brahman
Brahman
as well the Atman in every human being (and living being) is considered equivalent and the sole reality, the eternal, self-born, unlimited, innately free, blissful Absolute in schools of Hinduism such as the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
and Yoga.[82][83][84] Knowing one's own self is knowing the God
God
inside oneself, and this is held as the path to knowing the ontological nature of Brahman
Brahman
(universal Self) as it is identical to the Atman (individual Self). The nature of Atman-Brahman is held in these schools, states Barbara Holdrege, to be as a pure being (sat), consciousness (cit) and full of bliss (ananda), and it is formless, distinctionless, nonchanging and unbounded.[82] In theistic schools, in contrast, such as Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta, the nature of Brahman
Brahman
is held as eternal, unlimited, innately free, blissful Absolute, while each individual's soul is held as distinct and limited which can at best come close in eternal blissful love of the Brahman (therein viewed as the Godhead).[85] Other schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
have their own ontological premises relating to Brahman, reality and nature of existence. Vaisheshika school of Hinduism, for example, holds a substantial, realist ontology.[86] The Carvaka school denied Brahman
Brahman
and Atman, and held a materialist ontology.[87] Brahman
Brahman
as an axiological concept[edit] Brahman
Brahman
and Atman are key concepts to Hindu
Hindu
theories of axiology: ethics and aesthetics.[88][89] Ananda (bliss), state Michael Myers and other scholars, has axiological importance to the concept of Brahman, as the universal inner harmony.[90][91] Some scholars equate Brahman with the highest value, in an axiological sense.[92] The axiological concepts of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman is central to Hindu theory of values.[93] A statement such as ‘I am Brahman’, states Shaw, means ‘I am related to everything,’ and this is the underlying premise for compassion for others in Hinduism, for each individual's welfare, peace, or happiness depends on others, including other beings and nature at large, and vice versa.[94] Tietge states that even in non-dual schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
where Brahman
Brahman
and Atman are treated ontologically equivalent, the theory of values emphasizes individual agent and ethics. In these schools of Hinduism, states Tietge, the theory of action are derived from and centered in compassion for the other, and not egotistical concern for the self.[95] The axiological theory of values emerges implicitly from the concepts of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman, states Bauer.[96] The aesthetics of human experience and ethics are one consequence of self-knowledge in Hinduism, one resulting from the perfect, timeless unification of one's soul with the Brahman, the soul of everyone, everything and all eternity, wherein the pinnacle of human experience is not dependent on an afterlife, but pure consciousness in the present life itself.[96] It does not assume that an individual is weak nor does it presume that he is inherently evil, but the opposite: human soul and its nature is held as fundamentally unqualified, faultless, beautiful, blissful, ethical, compassionate and good.[96][97] Ignorance is to assume it evil, liberation is to know its eternal, expansive, pristine, happy and good nature.[96] The axiological premises in the Hindu
Hindu
thought and Indian philosophies in general, states Nikam, is to elevate the individual, exalting the innate potential of man, where the reality of his being is the objective reality of the universe.[98] The Upanishads of Hinduism, summarizes Nikam, hold that the individual has the same essence and reality as the objective universe, and this essence is the finest essence; the individual soul is the universal soul, and Atman is the same reality and the same aesthetics as the Brahman.[98] Brahman
Brahman
as a teleological concept[edit] Brahman
Brahman
and Atman are very important teleological concepts. Teleology deals with the apparent purpose principle or goal of something. In the first chapter of the Shvetashvatara Upanishad, these questions are dealt with. It says :

"People who make inquiries about brahman say:

What is the cause of Brahman? Why were we born? By what do we live? On what are we established? Governed by whom, O you who know Brahman, do we live in pleasure and in pain, each in our respective situation?

— Svetashvatara Upanishad, Hymns 1.1[99][100]

The main purpose of the Brahman
Brahman
and why it exists is a subjective question according to the Upanishads. One can only find out its true purpose when one becomes the Brahman
Brahman
as the 'Brahman' is all the knowledge one can know itself. Hence, complete answers for anything in life can only be determined or obtained when the Brahman
Brahman
is realized as the Brahman
Brahman
is all the complete knowledge itself. This is said in the Aitareya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.3 and Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
4.4.17 and many other Upanishads.

Knowledge is the eye of all that, and on knowledge it is founded. Knowledge is the eye of the world, and knowledge, the foundation. Brahman
Brahman
is knowing.

— Aitereya Upanishad, Hymns 3.3[101][102]

One of the reasons to why the Brahman
Brahman
should be realized according to the Upanishads
Upanishads
is because it removes suffering from a persons life. This is because the person has the ability and knowledge to discriminate between the unchanging (Atman and Brahman) and the ever-changing (Prakrit) and so the person is not attached to the transient. Hence, the person is only content with the self and not his body or anything other than the self. In Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
3.9.26 it mentions that the atman 'neither trembles in fear nor suffers injury' and in the Isha Upanishad
Upanishad
6-7 it too talks about suffering as non existent when one becomes the Brahman as they see the self in all beings and all beings in the self. Therefore, the apparent purpose of Brahman
Brahman
is in discussion in the Upanishads
Upanishads
but the Brahman
Brahman
itself is the only self-contained purpose and true goal according to the Upanishads, so posing the question is redundant. The Upanishads
Upanishads
consider the Brahman
Brahman
the only actual worthwhile goal in life and ultimately one should aim to become it as it is the means and an end in and of itself to ultimate knowledge, immortality, etc. So the question of what is the ultimate purpose of everything including the Brahman
Brahman
is answered by realizing or attaining the Brahman
Brahman
as the Brahman
Brahman
itself is ultimate knowledge. Hence, the Brahman
Brahman
is a teleological concept as it is the ultimate purpose and goal of everything possible and permeates everything and is in everything. Brahman
Brahman
as a soteriological concept: Moksha[edit] Main article: Moksha The orthodox schools of Hinduism, particularly Vedanta, Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
schools, focus on the concept of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman in their discussion of moksha. The Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
holds there is no being/non-being distinction between Atman and Brahman. The knowledge of Atman (Self-knowledge) is synonymous to the knowledge of Brahman inside the person and outside the person. Furthermore, the knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
leads to sense of oneness with all existence, self-realization, indescribable joy, and moksha (freedom, bliss),[103] because Brahman-Atman is the origin and end of all things, the universal principle behind and at source of everything that exists, consciousness that pervades everything and everyone.[104] The theistic sub-school such as Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
of Hinduism, starts with the same premises, but adds the premise that individual souls and Brahman
Brahman
are distinct, and thereby reaches entirely different conclusions where Brahman
Brahman
is conceptualized in a manner similar to God in other major world religions.[19] The theistic schools assert that moksha is the loving, eternal union or nearness of one's soul with the distinct and separate Brahman
Brahman
(Vishnu, Shiva
Shiva
or equivalent henotheism). Brahman, in these sub-schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
is considered the highest perfection of existence, which every soul journeys towards in its own way for moksha.[105] Schools of thought[edit] Vedanta[edit] The concept of Brahman, its nature and its relationship with Atman and the observed universe, is a major point of difference between the various sub-schools of the Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism. Advaita Vedanta[edit] Main article: Advaita Vedanta

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Teachers Classical Advaita Vedanta

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Modern Advaita Vedanta

Vijnanabhiksu Swami
Swami
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Swami
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Shaivism/Tantra/Nath

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Modern Advaita Vedanta

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Scholarship

Academic

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teachers

v t e

Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
espouses nondualism. Brahman
Brahman
is the sole unchanging reality,[71] there is no duality, no limited individual souls nor a separate unlimited cosmic soul, rather all souls, all of existence, across all space and time, is one and the same.[7][82][106] The universe and the soul inside each being is Brahman, and the universe and the soul outside each being is Brahman, according to Advaita Vedanta. Brahman
Brahman
is the origin and end of all things, material and spiritual. Brahman
Brahman
is the root source of everything that exists. He states that Brahman
Brahman
can neither be taught nor perceived (as an object of intellectual knowledge), but it can be learned and realized by all human beings.[21] The goal of Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
is to realize that one's Self (Atman) gets obscured by ignorance and false-identification ("Avidya"). When Avidya is removed, the Atman (Soul, Self inside a person) is realized as identical with Brahman.[74] The Brahman
Brahman
is not an outside, separate, dual entity, the Brahman
Brahman
is within each person, states Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism. Brahman
Brahman
is all that is eternal, unchanging and that which truly exists.[71] This view is stated in this school in many different forms, such as "Ekam sat" ("Truth is one"), and all is Brahman. The universe does not simply come from Brahman, it is Brahman. According to Adi Shankara, a proponent of Advaita Vedanta, the knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
that shruti provides cannot be obtained by any other means besides self inquiry.[107] In Advaita Vedanta, nirguna Brahman, that is the Brahman
Brahman
without attributes, is held to be the ultimate and sole reality.[71][76] Consciousness is not a property of Brahman
Brahman
but its very nature. In this respect, Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
differs from other Vedanta
Vedanta
schools.[108] Example verses from Bhagavad-Gita
Bhagavad-Gita
include:

The offering is Brahman; the oblation is Brahman; offered by Brahman
Brahman
into the fire of Brahman. Brahman
Brahman
will be attained by him, who always sees Brahman
Brahman
in action. – Hymn 4.24[109][110]

He who finds his happiness within, His delight within, And his light within, This yogin attains the bliss of Brahman, becoming Brahman. – Hymn 5.24[111]

— Bhagavad Gita

Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta[edit]

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Dashavatara

Matsya Kurma Varaha Narasimha Vamana Parasurama Rama Balarama Krishna Buddha Kalki

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Related

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(Dvaita, Acintyabhedabheda) Rudra
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(Shuddhadvaita) Nimbarka
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Philosophers–acharyas

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portal

v t e

Brahman
Brahman
of Dvaita
Dvaita
is a concept similar to God
God
in major world religions.[19] Dvaita
Dvaita
holds that the individual soul is dependent on God, but distinct.[19] Dvaita
Dvaita
propounds Tattvavada
Tattvavada
which means understanding differences between Tattvas (significant properties) of entities within the universal substrate as follows:[citation needed]

Jîva-Îshvara-bheda — difference between the soul and Vishnu Jada-Îshvara-bheda — difference between the insentient and Vishnu Mitha-jîva-bheda — difference between any two souls Jada-jîva-bheda — difference between insentient and the soul Mitha-jada-bheda — difference between any two insentients

Achintya Bheda Abheda[edit] The Acintya Bheda Abheda philosophy is similar to Dvaitadvaita (differential monism). In this philosophy, Brahman
Brahman
is not just impersonal, but also personal.[citation needed] That Brahman
Brahman
is Supreme Personality of Godhead, though on first stage of realization (by process called jnana) of Absolute Truth, He is realized as impersonal Brahman, then as personal Brahman
Brahman
having eternal Vaikuntha abode (also known as Brahmalokah sanatana), then as Paramatma (by process of yoga–meditation on Supersoul, Vishnu- God
God
in heart)— Vishnu
Vishnu
(Narayana, also in everyone's heart) who has many abodes known as Vishnulokas (Vaikunthalokas), and finally (Absolute Truth is realized by bhakti) as Bhagavan, Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is source of both Paramatma and Brahman
Brahman
(personal, impersonal, or both).[citation needed] Vaishnavism[edit] Main article: Vaishnavism All Vaishnava
Vaishnava
schools are panentheistic and perceive the Advaita concept of identification of Atman with the impersonal Brahman
Brahman
as an intermediate step of self-realization, but not Mukti, or final liberation of complete God-realization through Bhakti
Bhakti
Yoga.[citation needed] Gaudiya Vaishnavism, a form of Achintya Bheda Abheda philosophy, also concludes that Brahman
Brahman
is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. According to them, Brahman
Brahman
is Lord Vishnu/Krishna; the universe and all other manifestations of the Supreme are extensions of Him.[citation needed] Bhakti
Bhakti
movement[edit] Main article: Bhakti
Bhakti
movement The Bhakti
Bhakti
movement of Hinduism
Hinduism
built its theosophy around two concepts of Brahman—Nirguna and Saguna.[112] Nirguna Brahman was the concept of the Ultimate Reality
Reality
as formless, without attributes or quality.[113] Saguna Brahman, in contrast, was envisioned and developed as with form, attributes and quality.[113] The two had parallels in the ancient pantheistic unmanifest and theistic manifest traditions, respectively, and traceable to Arjuna- Krishna
Krishna
dialogue in the Bhagavad Gita.[112][114] It is the same Brahman, but viewed from two perspectives, one from Nirguni knowledge-focus and other from Saguni love-focus, united as Krishna
Krishna
in the Gita.[114] Nirguna bhakta's poetry were Jnana-shrayi, or had roots in knowledge.[112] Saguna bhakta's poetry were Prema-shrayi, or with roots in love.[112] In Bhakti, the emphasis is reciprocal love and devotion, where the devotee loves God, and God
God
loves the devotee.[114] Jeaneane Fowler states that the concepts of Nirguna and Saguna Brahman, at the root of Bhakti
Bhakti
movement theosophy, underwent more profound development with the ideas of Vedanta
Vedanta
school of Hinduism, particularly those of Adi Shankara's Advaita Vedanta, Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta, and Madhvacharya's Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta.[113] Two 12th-century influential treatises on bhakti were Sandilya Bhakti Sutra—a treatise resonating with Nirguna-bhakti, and Narada
Narada
Bhakti Sutra—a treatise that leans towards Saguna-bhakti.[115] Nirguna and Saguna Brahman concepts of the Bhakti
Bhakti
movement has been a baffling one to scholars, particularly the Nirguni tradition because it offers, states David Lorenzen, "heart-felt devotion to a God without attributes, without even any definable personality".[116] Yet given the "mountains of Nirguni bhakti literature", adds Lorenzen, bhakti for Nirguna Brahman has been a part of the reality of the Hindu tradition along with the bhakti for Saguna Brahman.[116] These were two alternate ways of imagining God
God
during the bhakti movement.[112] Buddhist understanding of Brahman[edit] Buddhism
Buddhism
rejects the Upanishadic doctrine of Brahman
Brahman
and Atman (soul, permanent self, essence).[note 6] According to Damien Keown, "the Buddha
Buddha
said he could find no evidence for the existence of either the personal soul (atman) or its cosmic counterpart (brahman)".[117] The metaphysics of Buddhism
Buddhism
rejects Brahman
Brahman
(ultimate being), Brahman-like essence, soul and anything metaphysically equivalent through its Anatta
Anatta
doctrine.[118][119][120] According to Merv Fowler, some forms of Buddhism
Buddhism
have incorporated concepts that resemble that of Brahman.[note 7] As an example, Fowler cites the early Sarvastivada
Sarvastivada
school of Buddhism, which "had come to accept a very pantheistic religious philosophy, and are important because of the impetus they gave to the development of Mahayana Buddhism".[121] According to William Theodore De Bary, in the doctrines of the Yogacara
Yogacara
school of Mahayana Buddhism, "the Body of Essence, the Ultimate Buddha, who pervaded and underlay the whole universe [...] was in fact the World Soul, the Brahman
Brahman
of the Upanishads, in a new form".[122] According to Fowler, some scholars have identified the Buddhist nirvana, conceived of as the Ultimate Reality, with the Hindu
Hindu
Brahman/atman; Fowler claims that this view "has gained little support in Buddhist circles."[123] Fowler asserts that the authors of a number of Mahayana texts took pains to differentiate their ideas from the Upanishadic doctrine of Brahman.[note 8] Brahma
Brahma
as a surrogate for Brahman
Brahman
in Buddhist texts[edit] The spiritual concept of Brahman
Brahman
is far older in the Vedic literature, and some scholars suggest deity Brahma
Brahma
may have emerged as a personal conception and icon with form and attributes (saguna version) of the impersonal, nirguna (without attributes), formless universal principle called Brahman.[124] In the Hindu
Hindu
texts, one of the earliest mention of deity Brahma
Brahma
along with Vishnu
Vishnu
and Shiva
Shiva
is in the fifth Prapathaka (lesson) of the Maitrayaniya Upanishad, probably composed in late 1st millennium BCE, after the rise of Buddhism.[125][126][127] The early Buddhists attacked the concept of Brahma, states Gananath Obeyesekere, and thereby polemically attacked the Vedic and Upanishadic concept of gender neutral, abstract metaphysical Brahman.[128] This critique of Brahma
Brahma
in early Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
aim at ridiculing the Vedas, but the same texts simultaneously call metta (loving-kindness, compassion) as the state of union with Brahma. The early Buddhist approach to Brahma
Brahma
was to reject any creator aspect, while retaining the value system in the Vedic Brahmavihara
Brahmavihara
concepts, in the Buddhist value system.[128] According to Martin Wiltshire, the term " Brahma
Brahma
loka" in the Buddhist canon, instead of "Svarga loka", is likely a Buddhist attempt to choose and emphasize the "truth power" and knowledge focus of the Brahman
Brahman
concept in the Upanishads.[129] Simultaneously, by reformulating Brahman
Brahman
as Brahma
Brahma
and relegating it within its Devas and Samsara
Samsara
theories, early Buddhism
Buddhism
rejected the Atman- Brahman
Brahman
premise of the Vedas
Vedas
to present of its own Dhamma doctrines (anicca, dukkha and anatta).[130] Brahman
Brahman
in Sikhism[edit]

Ik Onkar
Ik Onkar
(left) is part of the Mul Mantar
Mul Mantar
in Sikhism, where it means "Onkar [God, Reality] is one".[131] The Onkar of Sikhism
Sikhism
is related to Om—also called Omkāra[132]—in Hinduism.[131][133] The ancient texts of Hinduism
Hinduism
state Om to be a symbolism for the Highest Reality, Brahman.[134][135]

The metaphysical concept of Brahman, particularly as nirguni Brahman—attributeless, formless, eternal Highest Reality—is at the foundation of Sikhism.[136] This belief is observed through nirguni Bhakti
Bhakti
by the Sikhs.[137][138] In Gauri, which is part of the Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, Brahman
Brahman
is declared as "One without a second", in Sri Rag "everything is born of Him, and is finally absorbed in Him", in Var Asa "whatever we see or hear is the manifestation of Brahman".[139] Nesbitt states that the first two words, Ik Onkar, in the twelve-word Mul Mantar
Mul Mantar
at the opening of the Sikh scripture Guru
Guru
Granth Sahib, has been translated in three different ways by scholars: "There is one god", "This being is one", and as "One reality is".[131] Similar emphasis on "One without a second" for metaphysical concept of Brahman, is found in ancient texts of Hinduism, such as the Chandogya Upanishad's chapter 6.2.[140][141] The ideas about God
God
and Highest Reality
Reality
in Sikhism
Sikhism
share themes found in the Saguna and Nirguna concepts of Brahman
Brahman
in Hinduism.[136][142] The concept of Ultimate Reality
Reality
(Brahman) is also referred in Sikhism as Nam, Sat-naam or Naam, and Ik Oankar like Hindu
Hindu
Om symbolizes this Reality.[143][144] Brahman
Brahman
in Jainism[edit] Scholars contest whether the concept of Brahman
Brahman
is rejected or accepted in Jainism. The concept of a theistic God
God
is rejected by Jainism, but Jiva
Jiva
or "Atman (soul) exists" is held to be a metaphysical truth and central to its theory of rebirths and Kevala Jnana.[145] Bissett states that Jainism
Jainism
accepts the "material world" and "Atman", but rejects Brahman—the metaphysical concept of Ultimate Reality
Reality
and Cosmic Principles found in the ancient texts of Hinduism.[146] Goswami, in contrast, states that the literature of Jainism
Jainism
has an undercurrent of monist theme, where the self who gains the knowledge of Brahman
Brahman
(Highest Reality, Supreme Knowledge) is identical to Brahman
Brahman
itself.[147] Jaini states that Jainism
Jainism
neither accepts nor rejects the premise of Ultimate Reality
Reality
(Brahman), instead Jain ontology adopts a many sided doctrine called Anekantavada. This doctrine holds that "reality is irreducibly complex" and no human view or description can represent the Absolute Truth.[148][149] Those who have understood and realized the Absolute Truth are the liberated ones and the Supreme Souls, with Kevala Jnana.[148] Comparison of Brahma, Brahman, Brahmin
Brahmin
and Brahmanas[edit] Brahma
Brahma
is distinct from Brahman.[150] Brahma
Brahma
is a male deity, in the post-Vedic Puranic literature,[151] who creates but neither preserves nor destroys anything. He is envisioned in some Hindu
Hindu
texts to have emerged from the metaphysical Brahman
Brahman
along with Vishnu
Vishnu
(preserver), Shiva
Shiva
(destroyer), all other gods, goddesses, matter and other beings.[152] In theistic schools of Hinduism
Hinduism
where deity Brahma
Brahma
is described as part of its cosmology, he is a mortal like all gods and goddesses, and dissolves into the abstract immortal Brahman
Brahman
when the universe ends, thereafter a new cosmic cycle (kalpa) restarts again.[151][153] Brahman
Brahman
is a metaphysical concept of Hinduism
Hinduism
referring to the ultimate unchanging reality,[150][154][155] that, states Doniger, is uncreated, eternal, infinite, transcendent, the cause, the foundation, the source and the goal of all existence.[152] It is envisioned as either the cause or that which transforms itself into everything that exists in the universe as well as all beings, that which existed before the present universe and time, which exists as current universe and time, and that which will absorb and exist after the present universe and time ends.[152] It is a gender neutral abstract concept.[152][156][157] The abstract Brahman
Brahman
concept is predominant in the Vedic texts, particularly the Upanishads;[158] while the deity Brahma
Brahma
finds minor mention in the Vedas
Vedas
and the Upanishads.[159] In the Puranic and the Epics literature, deity Brahma
Brahma
appears more often, but inconsistently. Some texts suggest that god Vishnu
Vishnu
created Brahma (Vaishnavism),[160] others suggest god Shiva
Shiva
created Brahma (Shaivism),[161] yet others suggest goddess Devi
Devi
created Brahma (Shaktism),[162] and these texts then go on to state that Brahma
Brahma
is a secondary creator of the world working respectively on their behalf.[162][163] Further, the medieval era texts of these major theistic traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
assert that the saguna[note 9] Brahman is Vishnu,[165] is Shiva,[166] or is Devi[167] respectively, they are different names or aspects of the Brahman, and that the Atman (soul, self) within every living being is same or part of this ultimate, eternal Brahman.[168] Brahmin
Brahmin
is a varna in Hinduism
Hinduism
specialising in theory as priests, preservers and transmitters of sacred literature across generations.[169][170] The Brahmanas are one of the four ancient layers of texts within the Vedas. They are primarily a digest incorporating myths, legends, the explanation of Vedic rituals and in some cases philosophy.[171][172] They are embedded within each of the four Vedas, and form a part of the Hindu
Hindu
śruti literature.[173] See also[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Brahman

Acintya Aum Bardo Ginnungagap Jiva Mysticism Pure land Universal mind The All Yoga

Notes[edit]

^ "not sublatable",[14] the final element in a dialectical process which cannot be eliminated or annihilated (German: "aufheben"). ^ It is also defined as:

The unchanging, infinite, immanent, and transcendent reality which is the Divine Ground of all matter, energy, time, space, being, and everything beyond in this Universe; that is the one supreme, universal spirit.[15] The one supreme, all pervading Spirit that is the origin and support of the phenomenal universe.[16]

^ Saguna Brahman, with qualities ^ Nirguna Brahman, without qualities ^ Supreme ^ Merv Fowler, Zen
Zen
Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices (Brighton: Sussex Academic, 2005), p. 30: "Upanisadic thought is anything but consistent; nevertheless, there is a common focus on the acceptance of a totally transcendent Absolute, a trend which arose in the Vedic period. This indescribable Absolute is called Brahman
Brahman
[...] The true Self and Brahman
Brahman
are one and the same. Known as the Brahman-Atman synthesis, this theory, which is central to Upanisadic thought, is the cornerstone of Indian philosophy. The Brahman-Atman synthesis, which posits the theory of a permanent, unchanging self, was anathema to Buddhists, and it was as a reaction to the synthesis that Buddhism first drew breath. Merv Fowler p. 47: "For the Upanisadic sages, the real is the Self, is Atman, is Brahman. [...] To the Buddhist, however, any talk of an Atman or permanent, unchanging Self, the very kernel of Upanisadic thought, is anathema, a false notion of manifest proportion." ^ Merv Fowler, Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices (Brighton: Sussex Academic, 1999), p. 34: "It was inevitable that the non-theistic philosophy of orthodox Buddhism
Buddhism
should court the older Hindu
Hindu
practices and, in particular, infuse into its philosophy the belief in a totally transcendent Absolute of the nature of Brahman." ^ Merv Fowler, Buddhism: Beliefs and Practices (Brighton: Sussex Academic, 1999), p. 82: "The original writers of these Mahayana texts were not at all pleased that their writings were seen to contain the Brahman
Brahman
of the Upanisads in a new form. The authors of the Lankavatara strenuously denied that the womb of Tathagatahood, [...] was in any way equatable with the 'eternal self', the Brahmanical atman of Upanisadic thought. Similarly, the claim in the Nirvana
Nirvana
Sutra
Sutra
that the Buddha
Buddha
regarded Buddhahood as a 'great atman' caused the Yogacarins considerable distress." ^ representation with face and attributes)[164]

References[edit]

^ a b c Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism. 1. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 122. ISBN 978-0823931798.  ^ a b P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge, ISBN 978-1406732627, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII ^ Fowler 2002, pp. 49–55 (in Upanishads), 318–319 (in Vishistadvaita), 246–248 and 252–255 (in Advaita), 342–343 (in Dvaita), 175–176 (in Samkhya-Yoga). ^ Mariasusai Dhavamony (2002), Hindu-Christian Dialogue: Theological Soundings and Perspectives, Rodopi Press, ISBN 978-9042015104, pages 43–44 ^ a b For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu
Hindu
God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199738724, pages 51–58, 111–115; For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 ^ a b Fowler 2002, pp. 53–55. ^ a b c Brodd, Jeffrey (2009). World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery (3rd ed.). Saint Mary's Press. pp. 43–47. ISBN 978-0884899976.  ^ Fowler 2002, pp. 50–53. ^ Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814684, page 91 ^ a b c Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman
Brahman
to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415187077, pages 1–4 ^ a b Goodman, Hananya (1994). Between Jerusalem and Benares: Comparative Studies in Judaism and Hinduism. State University of New York Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0791417164.  ^ Raju 1992, p. 228. ^ Eliot Deutsch
Eliot Deutsch
(1980), Advaita Vedanta : A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, Chapter 1 ^ a b Potter 2008, pp. 6–7. ^ Brodd, Jefferey (2003). World Religions. Winona, Minnesota: Saint Mary's Press. ISBN 978-0-88489-725-5.  ^ John Bowker (ed.)(2012), The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press.[1] ^ Fowler 2002, pp. 49–53. ^ Klaus K. Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism, Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, Chapter 12: Atman and Brahman
Brahman
– Self and All ^ a b c d Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571, pages 124–127 ^ Thomas Padiyath (2014), The Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Becoming, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-3110342550, pages 155–157 ^ a b Arvind Sharma
Arvind Sharma
(2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86 ^ John E. Welshons (2009), One Soul, One Love, One Heart, New World Library, ISBN 978-1577315889, pages 17–18 ^ Puligandla 1997, p. 222. ^ Sinari 2000, p. 384. ^ a b Not Masculine
Masculine
or Feminine (see Grammatical gender). ^ a b Jan Gonda (1962), Some Notes on the Study of Ancient-Indian Religious Terminology, History of Religions, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1962), pages 268–269 ^ a b Barbara Holdrege (1995), Veda
Veda
and Torah: Transcending the Textuality of Scripture, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791416402, page 29 ^ a b c d Maurice Bloomfield, A Vedic Concordance, Harvard University Press, pages 656-662 ^ Original: वयमग्ने अर्वता वा सुवीर्यं ब्रह्मणा वा चितयेमा जनाँ अति । अस्माकं द्युम्नमधि पञ्च कृष्टिषूच्चा स्वर्ण शुशुचीत दुष्टरम् ॥१०॥ Source: ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं २.२ Wikisource ^ Original: स तु श्रुधीन्द्र नूतनस्य ब्रह्मण्यतो वीर कारुधायः । त्वं ह्यापिः प्रदिवि पितॄणां शश्वद्बभूथ सुहव एष्टौ ॥८॥ ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं ६.२१ Wikisource ^ Original: ब्रह्मणस्पतिरेता सं कर्मार इवाधमत् । देवानां पूर्व्ये युगेऽसतः सदजायत ॥२॥ ऋग्वेद: सूक्तं १०.७२ Wikisource ^ a b Jan Gonda (1962), Some Notes on the Study of Ancient-Indian Religious Terminology, History of Religions, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1962), pages 269–271 ^ Jan Gonda (1962), Some Notes on the Study of Ancient-Indian Religious Terminology, History of Religions, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Winter, 1962), pages 271–272 ^ See Rigveda
Rigveda
Chapter 1.164; Karl Potter and Harold Coward, The Philosophy
Philosophy
of the Grammarians, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Volume 5, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-8120804265, pages 34–35 ^ Barbara Holdrege (1995), Veda
Veda
and Torah: Transcending the Textuality of Scripture, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791416402, page 24 ^ a b Gavin Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521438780, pages 84–85 ^ Lindsay Jones (2005), Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 13, Macmillan Reference, ISBN 978-0028657332, page 8894, Quote: "In Hindu iconography the swan personifies Brahman-Atman, the transcendent yet immanent ground of being, the Self." ^ Denise Cush (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415556231, page 697 ^ R. Prasad and P. D. Chattopadhyaya (2008), A Conceptual-analytic Study of Classical Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
of Morals, Concept, ISBN 978-8180695445, page 56 ^ a b Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 243, 325–344, 363, 581 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 358, 371 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 305, 476 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 110, 315–316, 495, 838–851 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 211, 741–742 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 308–311, 497–499 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 181, 237, 444, 506–544, 570–571, 707, 847–850 ^ a b Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 52, 110, 425, 454, 585–586, 838–851 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 173–174, 188–198, 308–317, 322–324, 367, 447, 496, 629–637, 658, 707–708 ^ Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
Upanishads
of the Veda, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814677, pages 600, 619–620, 647, 777 ^ Radhakrishnan, S., The Principal Upanisads, HarperCollins India, 1994, page 77 ^ Jones, Constance (2007). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. New York: Infobase Publishing. p. 270. ISBN 0816073368.  ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English Translation: S. Madhavananda, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
1.4.10, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
– Shankara Bhashya, page 145 ^ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and English Translation: S. Madhavananda, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
4.4.5, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
Upanishad
– Shankara Bhashya, pages 711–712 ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.१ ॥तृतीयॊऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.1 Oxford University Press, page 48; Max Muller, The Upanisads at Google Books, Routledge, pages xviii–xix ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.२ ॥षष्ठोऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Max Muller, Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
6.2.1 Oxford University Press, page 93; Max Muller, The Upanisads at Google Books, Routledge, pages xviii–xix ^ Sanskrit: छान्दोग्योपनिषद् १.२ ॥षष्ठोऽध्यायः॥ Wikisource English Translation:Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
6.8, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 246–250 ^ A. S. Gupta, The Meanings of "That Thou Art", Philosophy
Philosophy
East and West, Vol. 12, No. 2, pages 125–134 ^ Sanskrit: ऐतरेयोपनिषद् Wikisource English Translation:Max Muller, Aitareya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.3.7, also known as Aitareya Aranyaka
Aranyaka
2.6.1.7 Oxford University Press, page 246 ^ a b c d Robert Hume, Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
3.14.1 – 3.14.4, The Thirteen Principal Upanishads, Oxford University Press, pages 209–210 ^ Chandogya Upanishad
Upanishad
with Shankara Bhashya Ganganath Jha (Translator), pages 150–157 ^ For modern era cites:

Anthony Warder (2009), A Course in Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812444, pages 25–28; D. D. Meyer (2012), Consciousness, Theatre, Literature and the Arts, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, ISBN 978-1443834919, page 250; Joel Brereton (1995), Eastern Canons: Approaches to the Asian Classics (Editors: William Theodore De Bary, Irene Bloom), Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231070058, page 130; S. Radhakrishnan
Radhakrishnan
(1914), "The Vedanta
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^ a b c Paul Deussen, Sixty Upanishads
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World (Editors: S. Mittal and G. Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0415215277, pages 22–23 ^ Laurie Patton (2004), The Hindu
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World (Editors: S. Mittal and G. Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0415215277, pages 45–50 ^ J. D. Fowler (1996), Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex University Press, ISBN 978-1898723608, pages 135–137 ^ a b c d AC Das (1952), Brahman
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Ayyar (2011) ^ a b Anantanand Rambachan
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Yoga
seeks liberation through the realization that Atman equals Brahman; it involves a cosmogonic dualism: purusha an absolute consciousness, and prakriti original and primeval matter." ^ Francis Clooney and Tony Stewart (2004), The Hindu
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Bibliography[edit]

Fowler, Jeaneane D. (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy
Philosophy
of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-898723-93-6.  Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2010). "Chapter 12". A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition. State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-8011-3.  Michaels, Axel (2004). Hinduism. Past and present. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.  Potter, Karl H. (2008), The Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta Up to Śaṃkara and His Pupils, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Puligandla, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
(1997), Fundamentals of Indian Philosophy, New Delhi: D. K. Printworld (P) Ltd.  Raju, P. T. (1992), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited  Sinari, Ramakant (2000), Advaita and Contemporary Indian Philosophy. In: Chattopadhyana (gen.ed.), "History of Science, Philosophy
Philosophy
and Culture in Indian Civilization. Volume II Part 2: Advaita Vedanta", Delhi: Centre for Studies in Civilizations 

External links[edit]

The Concept of Brahman
Brahman
in Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy, Haridas Chaudhuri (1954), Philosophy
Philosophy
East and West, Vol. 4, No. 1, pages 47–66 The Idea of God
God
in Hinduism, A. S. Woodburne (1925), The Journal of Religion, Vol. 5, No. 1, pages 52–66 The Western View of Hinduism: An Age-old Mistake (Brahman), J. M. De Mora (1997), Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Vol. 78, No. 1/4, pages 1–12 Concepts of God
God
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, (Compares Brahman
Brahman
with concepts of God
God
found in other religions) Detailed essays on Brahman
Brahman
at Hinduwebsite.com

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Names of God

In Christianity  • In Hinduism
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 • In Chinese religion

Adonai Ahura Mazda The All Allah Brahman Cao Đài El

Elohim El Elyon El Shaddai

God Great Spirit Haneullim Hu Hyang I Am that I Am Ik Onkar Ishvara Jah Khuda Ngai Olodumare The One Parvardigar Shangdi Svayam Bhagavan Tenri-Ō-no-Mikoto Tian Tianzhu Waheguru YHWH

.