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Nietzsche
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
Nietzsche
(/ˈniːtʃə/[6] or /ˈniːtʃi/;[7] German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈvɪlhɛlm ˈniːtʃə] ( listen); 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist, and Latin
Latin
and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.[8][9][10][11] He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy
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Fact–value Distinction
The fact–value distinction is the modern label for an ancient belief that rational human knowledge is bipolar—split in two. Human groups must have collective knowledge of means to achieve their ends, and knowledge of ends to meet their needs. Fact is the generic label for means. it is instrumental knowledge of tools that "work"--like science and technology. It stands for the idea of truth. Value is the generic label for ends. It is moral knowledge of rules of "right and wrong"--like "Honesty is the best policy." It stands for the idea of justice. Belief that collective knowledge is bipolar grew out of philosophers' attempts to understand how humans correlate group behavior to maintain social life. Bipolar knowledge is produced by bipolar reasoning. Thinkers imputed factual instrumental knowledge to heads or minds or brains. They imputed emotional moral knowledge to hearts or guts or souls
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Province Of Saxony
The Province of Saxony (German: Provinz Sachsen), also known as Prussian Saxony (Preußische Sachsen) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1945. Its capital was Magdeburg. It was formed by the merging of territories, which were formerly the northern part of the Kingdom of Saxony and were ceded to Prussia in 1815, with the duchy of Magdeburg, the Altmark, the Principality of Halberstadt, the formerly-French Principality of Erfurt and other districts, which had been comprised in Prussia from an earlier date. The province was bounded by Hesse-Nassau, Hanover and Brunswick to the west, Hanover and Brandenburg to the north, Brandenburg and Silesia to the east, and the remnant kingdom of Saxony and small Thuringian states to the south
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
(German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic.[3] It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918.[3] Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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German Confederation
The German Confederation
Confederation
(German: Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.[1] Most historians have judged the Confederation
Confederation
to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state.[2] The Confederation
Confederation
collapsed due to the rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire, warfare in the several European revolutions of 1848, the 1848–1849 German revolution, and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were a failed attempt to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention
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Grand Duchy Of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach
Saxe-Weimar- Eisenach
Eisenach
(German: Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach) was created as a duchy in 1809 by the merger of the Ernestine duchies
Ernestine duchies
of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Eisenach, which had been in personal union since 1741. It was raised to a Grand duchy
Grand duchy
in 1815 by resolution of the Vienna Congress. In 1903, it officially changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Saxony (German: Großherzogtum Sachsen), but this name was rarely used. The Grand Duchy came to an end in the German Revolution of 1918–19
German Revolution of 1918–19
with the other monarchies of the German Empire
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German Empire
The German Empire
German Empire
(German: Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),[5][6][7][8] also known as Imperial Germany,[9] was the German nation state[10] that existed from the Unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when the south German states joined the North German Confederation. On January 1st, the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I, King of Prussia
King of Prussia
from the Hohenzollern dynasty.[11] Berlin
Berlin
remained its capital. Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
remained Chancellor, the head of government
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Poetry
Poetry
Poetry
(the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic[1][2][3] qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry
Poetry
has a long history, dating back to the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh. Early poems evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, and the Homeric epics, the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey. Ancient attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama, song and comedy
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Value Theory
Value theory is a range of approaches to understanding how, why, and to what degree persons value things; whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else. This investigation began in ancient philosophy, where it is called axiology or ethics. Early philosophical investigations sought to understand good and evil and the concept of "the good". Today, much of value theory aspires to the scientifically empirical, recording what people do value and attempting to understand why they value it in the context of psychology, sociology, and economics.[1] At the general level, there is a difference between moral and natural goods. Moral goods are those that have to do with the conduct of persons, usually leading to praise or blame. Natural goods, on the other hand, have to do with objects, not persons
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Philosophy Of History
Philosophy
Philosophy
of history is the philosophical study of history and the past.Contents1 Types 2 Pre-modern history 3 Cyclical and linear history 4 Sustainable history 5 The Enlightenment's ideal of progress5.1 Social evolutionism 5.2 The validity of the "Great man theory" in historical studies6 Is history predetermined? 7 Does history have a teleological sense?7.1 Historical accounts of writing history 7.2 Michel Foucault's analysis of historical and political discourse 7.3
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Voluntarism (philosophy)
Voluntarism is "any metaphysical or psychological system that assigns to the will (Latin: voluntas) a more predominant role than that attributed to the intellect",[1] or, equivalently, "the doctrine that will is the basic factor, both in the universe and in human conduct".[2] This description has been applied to various points of view, from different cultural eras, in the areas of metaphysics, psychology, political philosophy, and theology. The term "voluntarism" was introduced by Ferdinand Tönnies
Ferdinand Tönnies
into the philo
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Psychology
Psychology
Psychology
is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as thought. It is an academic discipline of immense scope and diverse interests that, when taken together, seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, and all the variety of epiphenomena they manifest. As a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases.[1][2] In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist
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German Idealism
German idealism
German idealism
(also known as post-Kantian idealism, post-Kantian philosophy, or simply post-Kantianism)[1] was a philosophical movement that emerged in Germany
Germany
in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. It began as a reaction to Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason. German idealism was closely linked with both Romanticism
Romanticism
and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment
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Basel
Basel
Basel
(/ˈbɑːzəl/; also Basle /bɑːl/; German: Basel
Basel
[ˈbaːzl̩]; French: Bâle [bɑːl]; Italian: Basilea [baziˈlɛːa]) is a city in northwestern Switzerland
Switzerland
on the river Rhine. Basel
Basel
is Switzerland's third-most-populous city (after Zürich
Zürich
and Geneva) with about 175,000 inhabitants.[3] Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel
Basel
also has suburbs in France
France
and Germany
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Ontology
Ontology
Ontology
(introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.[1] Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities and differences. A very simple definition of ontology is that it is the examination of what is meant by 'being'. In modern terms, the formal study of reality itself is in the domain of the physical sciences, while the study of personal "reality" is left to psychology
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