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Neo-orthodoxy
Neo-orthodoxy, in Christianity, also known as theology of crisis and dialectical theology,[1][2] was a theological movement developed in the aftermath of the First World War. The movement was largely a reaction against doctrines of 19th-century liberal theology and a reevaluation of the teachings of the Reformation.[3] Karl Barth
Karl Barth
is the leading figure associated with the movement
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John Romanides
John Savvas Romanides (Greek: Ιωάννης Σάββας Ρωμανίδης; 2 March 1927, Piraeus – 1 November 2001, Athens) was an Orthodox Christian priest, author and professor who had a distinctive influence on post-war Greek Orthodox theology.Contents1 Biography 2 Theology2.1 Augustine of Hippo2.1.1 Original sin versus ancestral sin 2.1.2 Rejection of St. Augustine 2.1.3 Criticism2.2 Heaven and Hell 2.3 Theosis3 Influence 4 Works 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Sources 9 Further reading 10 External linksBiography[edit] Born in Piraeus, Greece, on 2 March 1928, his parents emigrated to the United States when he was only two months old. He grew up in Manhattan, graduating from the Hellenic College, Brookline, Massachusetts. After attending Yale Divinity School, he received his Ph.D
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Eastern Orthodox
The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church,[1][2][3][4] is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 200–260 million baptised members.[5][6][7][8] It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops in local synods,[7] although roughly half of Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Christians
Christians
live in Russia. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Constantinople
is recognised by all as primus inter pares ("first among equals") of the bishops
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Philosophical Idealism
In philosophy, Idealism
Idealism
is the group of metaphysical philosophies that asserts that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial. Epistemologically, idealism manifests as a skepticism about the possibility of knowing any mind-independent thing. In contrast to Materialism, Idealism
Idealism
asserts the primacy of consciousness as the origin and prerequisite of material phenomena. According to this view consciousness exists before and is the pre-condition of material existence. Consciousness
Consciousness
creates and determines the material and not vice versa. Idealism
Idealism
believes consciousness and mind to be the origin of the material world and aims to explain the existing world according to these principles. Idealism
Idealism
theories are mainly divided into two groups
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Immanence
Immanence
Immanence
refers to those philosophical and metaphysical theories of divine presence in which the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world. Immanence
Immanence
is usually applied in monotheistic, pantheistic, pandeistic, or panentheistic faiths to suggest that the spiritual world permeates the mundane
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Transcendence (religion)
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws. This is contrasted with immanence, where a god is said to be fully present in the physical world and thus accessible to creatures in various ways. In religious experience transcendence is a state of being that has overcome the limitations of physical existence and by some definitions has also become independent of it. This is typically manifested in prayer, séance, meditation, psychedelics and paranormal "visions". It is affirmed in various religious traditions' concept of the divine, which contrasts with the notion of a god (or, the Absolute) that exists exclusively in the physical order (immanentism), or indistinguishable from it (pantheism). Transcendence can be attributed to the divine not only in its being, but also in its knowledge
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Reason
Reason
Reason
is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.[1] It is closely associated with such characteristically human activities as philosophy, science, language, mathematics, and art and is normally considered to be a distinguishing ability possessed by humans.[2] Reason, or an aspect of it, is sometimes referred to as rationality. Reasoning is associated with thinking, cognition, and intellect. The philosophical field of logic studies ways in which humans reason formally through argument.[3] Reasoning may be subdivided into forms of logical reasoning (forms associated with the strict sense): deductive reasoning, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning; and other modes of reasoning considered more informal, such as intuitive reasoning and verbal reasoning
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Thomas Aquinas
Catholicism portal Philosophy portalvte Part of a series onChristianity JesusChrist Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion ResurrectionBibleFoundations Old Testament New Testament Gospel Canon Books Church Creed New CovenantTheology God Trinity Father Son Holy SpiritApologetics Baptism Christology History of theology Mission SalvationHistoryTradition Mary Apostolic Age Apostles Jewish Christian Peter Paul Ante-Nicene Period Church Fathers Constantine Councils Augustine East–West Schism Crusades Aquinas Luther ReformationRelated topics Art Criticism Ecumenism Liturgy Music Other religion
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Natural Theology
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God
God
based on reason and ordinary experience of nature. This distinguishes it from revealed theology, which is based on scripture and/or religious experiences, and also from transcendental theology, which is based on a priori reasoning. Marcus Terentius Varro
Marcus Terentius Varro
(116 BC – 27 BC) established a distinction between political theology (the social functions of religion), natural theology and mythical theology. His terminology became part of the Stoic tradition and then Christianity
Christianity
through St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas. Natural theology is thus a type of philosophy, the object of which is explanation of the nature of the gods, or of one supreme God
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Doctrine
Doctrine (from Latin: doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the essence of teachings in a given branch of knowledge or belief system. The Greek analogue is the etymology of catechism.[1] Often doctrine specifically suggests a body of religious principles as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily; doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine
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God
In monotheistic thought, God
God
is conceived of as the Supreme Being
Supreme Being
and the principal object of faith.[3] The concept of God, as described by theologians, commonly includes the attributes of omniscience (all-knowing), omnipotence (unlimited power), omnipresence (present everywhere), divine simplicity, and as having an eternal and necessary existence. In agnostic thought, the existence of God
God
is unknown and/or unknowable
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Revelation
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.Contents1 Description 2 Background 3 Types3.1 Individual revelation 3.2 Public revelation4 Methods4.1 Verbal 4.2 Non-verbal propositional5 Epistemology 6 In various religions6.1 Bahá'í 6.2 Christianity6.2.1 Latter Day Saint movement6.3 Hinduism 6.4 Islam 6.5 Judaism6.5.1 Prophets7 Recent revelations 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksDescription[edit] Some religions have religious texts which they view as divinely or supernaturally revealed or inspired
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First World War
Allied victoryCentral Powers' victory on the Eastern Front nullified by defeat on the Western Front Fall of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
and foundation of the Soviet Union Formation of new countries in Europe
Europe
and the Middle East Transfer of German colonies
German colonies
and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers Establishment of the League of Nations
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Christos Yannaras
Christos Yannaras
Christos Yannaras
(Greek: Χρήστος Γιανναράς; born 10 April 1935) is a Greek philosopher, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
theologian and author of more than 50 books which have been translated into many languages. He is a professor emeritus of philosophy at the Panteion University of Social and Political Sciences, Athens.Yannaras was born in Athens. He studied theology at the University of Athens
Athens
and philosophy at the University of Bonn
University of Bonn
(Germany) and the University of Paris
University of Paris
(France). He received a Ph.D. from the Faculty of Theology
Theology
at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
(Greece)
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Torah Im Derech Eretz
Torah
Torah
im Derech Eretz (Hebrew: תורה עם דרך ארץ‬ – Torah
Torah
with "the way of the land"[1]) is a philosophy of Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
articulated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Samson Raphael Hirsch
Samson Raphael Hirsch
(1808–88), which formalizes a relationship between traditionally observant Judaism
Judaism
and the modern world. Some refer to the resultant mode of Orthodox Judaism as Neo-Orthodoxy.Contents1 Derech Eretz1.1 Appropriate behaviour and good character 1.2 Earning a livelihood 1.3 Knowledge of the natural world 1.4 Knowledge of culture and society2 Rabbi
Rabbi
S.R
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Protestant Reformation
Electors of SaxonyFrederick III John Frederick ICounter-Reformation Catholic
Catholic
Church Council of TrentPolitics of the Counter-ReformationAnti-Protestantism Criticism Holy Roman EmperorsCharles V Ferdinand IIPolitical and religious conflicts Thirty Years' War French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War War of the Three Kingdoms German Peasants' War Wars of Kappel Schmalkaldic WarArt and literaturePainting and sculptureNorthern Mannerism
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