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Christianity[note 1] is an Abrahamic monotheistic[1] religion based on the life, teachings, and miracles of Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth, known by Christians
Christians
as the Christ, or "Messiah", who is the focal point of the Christian
Christian
faiths. It is the world's largest religion,[2][3] with over 2.4 billion followers,[4][5][6] or 33% of the global population, known as Christians.[note 2] Christians
Christians
make up a majority of the population in about two-thirds of the countries and territories in the world.[6] They believe that Jesus
Jesus
is the Son of God
Son of God
and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah
Messiah
(the Christ) was prophesied in the Old Testament.[7] Christianity
Christianity
has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.[8][9][10][11][12] Christianity
Christianity
grew out of Judaism[13][14][15] and began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century.[16][17] Originating in the Roman province of Judea, it quickly spread to Europe, Syria, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Transcaucasia, Egypt, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and the Indian subcontinent, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire.[18][19][20] Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity
Christianity
spread to the Americas, Oceania, sub-Saharan Africa and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization.[21][22][23] Christian theology
Christian theology
is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed. These professions of faith state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, descended into hell, and rose from the dead, in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust in him for the remission of their sins. The creeds further maintain that Jesus
Jesus
physically ascended into heaven, where he reigns with God the Father
God the Father
in the unity of the Holy Spirit, and that he will return to judge the living and the dead and grant eternal life to his followers. His incarnation, earthly ministry, crucifixion and resurrection are often referred to as "the gospel", meaning "good news".[note 3] The term gospel also refers to written accounts of Jesus' life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John—are considered canonical and included in the Christian
Christian
Bible, as established by the 5th century[24] for the ancient undivided Catholic
Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
traditions before the East–West Schism. Throughout its history, Christianity
Christianity
has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations. Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Protestantism, and the Eastern Orthodox Church. The Catholic
Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches broke communion with each other in the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
of 1054. Protestantism
Protestantism
came into existence in the Reformation
Reformation
in the 16th century, splitting from the Catholic
Catholic
Church.[25]

Contents

1 Beliefs

1.1 Creeds 1.2 Jesus

1.2.1 Death and resurrection

1.3 Salvation 1.4 Trinity

1.4.1 Trinitarians 1.4.2 Nontrinitarianism

1.5 Scriptures

1.5.1 Catholic
Catholic
interpretation 1.5.2 Protestant
Protestant
interpretation

1.5.2.1 Clarity of Scripture 1.5.2.2 Original intended meaning of Scripture

1.6 Eschatology

1.6.1 Death and afterlife

2 Worship

2.1 Sacraments 2.2 Liturgical calendar 2.3 Symbols 2.4 Baptism 2.5 Prayer

3 History

3.1 Early Church and Christological Councils

3.1.1 End of Roman persecution under Emperor Constantine (AD 313)

3.2 Early Middle Ages 3.3 High and Late Middle Ages 3.4 Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
and Counter-Reformation 3.5 Post-Enlightenment

4 Demographics 5 Major divisions

5.1 Catholic
Catholic
Church 5.2 Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church 5.3 Oriental Orthodoxy 5.4 Assyrian Church of the East 5.5 Protestantism 5.6 Restorationism 5.7 Other

6 Christian
Christian
culture 7 Ecumenism 8 Criticism and apologetics 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References

11.1 Bibliography

12 Further reading 13 External links

Beliefs There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible
Bible
and sacred tradition on which Christianity
Christianity
is based.[26] Because of these irreconcilable differences in theology and a lack of consensus on the core tenets of Christianity, Catholics, Protestants and Orthodox often deny that members of certain other branches are Christians.[27] Creeds Main articles: Creed
Creed
§  Christian
Christian
creeds, and List of Christian creeds

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Apostles' Creed

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Nicene Creed

Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds (from Latin
Latin
credo, meaning "I believe"). They began as baptismal formulae and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants
Protestants
reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists
Baptists
have been non-creedal "in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another."[28]:p.111 Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church
Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ), the Evangelical
Evangelical
Christian Church
Christian Church
in Canada and the Churches of Christ.[29][30]:14–15[31]:123

An Eastern Christian
Christian
icon depicting Emperor Constantine and the Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
(325) as holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed
Creed
of 381

The Apostles' Creed
Creed
is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian
Christian
faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian
Christian
tradition, including the Latin Church
Latin Church
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism
Anglicanism
and Western Rite
Rite
Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity
Trinity
and God
God
the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian
Christian
doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.[32] Its main points include:

Belief in God
God
the Father, Jesus
Jesus
Christ as the Son of God, and the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell, resurrection and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful.

The Nicene Creed
Creed
was formulated, largely in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople
Constantinople
in 325 and 381 respectively [33][34] and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom
Christendom
by the First Council of Ephesus
First Council of Ephesus
in 431.[35] The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed
Creed
of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
in 451,[36] though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches,[37] taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are nevertheless also perfectly united into one person.[38] The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity
Trinity
in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."[39] Most Christians
Christians
(Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Protestant
Protestant
alike) accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the creeds mentioned above.[40] Jesus

Various depictions of Jesus

Main articles: Jesus, Jesus
Jesus
in Christianity, and Christ (title) See also: Jesus
Jesus
in comparative mythology The central tenet of Christianity
Christianity
is the belief in Jesus
Jesus
as the Son of God
God
and the Messiah
Messiah
(Christ). Christians
Christians
believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God
God
as savior of humanity and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian
Christian
concept of the Messiah
Messiah
differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish
Jewish
concept. The core Christian
Christian
belief is that through belief in and acceptance of the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God
God
and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.[41] While there have been many theological disputes over the nature of Jesus
Jesus
over the earliest centuries of Christian
Christian
history, generally Christians
Christians
believe that Jesus
Jesus
is God
God
incarnate and "true God
God
and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. As fully God, he rose to life again. According to the New Testament, he rose from the dead,[42] ascended to heaven, is seated at the right hand of the Father[43] and will ultimately return[Acts 1:9–11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy, including the resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment
Last Judgment
and final establishment of the Kingdom of God. According to the canonical gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus
Jesus
was conceived by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical gospels, although infancy gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, is well documented in the gospels contained within the New Testament, because that part of his life is believed to be most important. The biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching and deeds. Death and resurrection Main articles: Crucifixion
Crucifixion
of Jesus
Jesus
and Resurrection of Jesus

Crucifixion, representing the death of Jesus
Jesus
on the Cross, painting by Diego Velázquez, 17th century

Christians
Christians
consider the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
to be the cornerstone of their faith (see 1 Corinthians 15) and the most important event in history.[44] Among Christian
Christian
beliefs, the death and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
are two core events on which much of Christian
Christian
doctrine and theology is based.[45] According to the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
was crucified, died a physical death, was buried within a tomb and rose from the dead three days later.[Jn. 19:30–31] [Mk. 16:1] [16:6] The New Testament
New Testament
mentions several resurrection appearances of Jesus on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples, including "more than five hundred brethren at once",[1Cor 15:6] before Jesus' Ascension to heaven. Jesus' death and resurrection are commemorated by Christians
Christians
in all worship services, with special emphasis during Holy Week which includes Good Friday
Good Friday
and Easter
Easter
Sunday. The death and resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
are usually considered the most important events in Christian
Christian
theology, partly because they demonstrate that Jesus
Jesus
has power over life and death and therefore has the authority and power to give people eternal life.[46] Christian
Christian
churches accept and teach the New Testament
New Testament
account of the resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
with very few exceptions.[47] Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus
Jesus
and the proclamation of the early church.[48] Some liberal Christians
Christians
do not accept a literal bodily resurrection,[49][50] seeing the story as richly symbolic and spiritually nourishing myth. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues.[51] Paul the Apostle, an early Christian
Christian
convert and missionary, wrote, "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God
God
is useless."[1Cor 15:14] [52] Salvation Main article: Salvation (Christianity) Paul the Apostle, like Jews and Roman pagans of his time, believed that sacrifice can bring about new kinship ties, purity and eternal life.[53] For Paul, the necessary sacrifice was the death of Jesus: Gentiles who are "Christ's" are, like Israel, descendants of Abraham and "heirs according to the promise".[Gal. 3:29] [54] The God
God
who raised Jesus
Jesus
from the dead would also give new life to the "mortal bodies" of Gentile Christians, who had become with Israel the "children of God" and were therefore no longer "in the flesh".[Rom. 8:9,11,16] [53] Modern Christian
Christian
churches tend to be much more concerned with how humanity can be saved from a universal condition of sin and death than the question of how both Jews and Gentiles can be in God's family. According to both Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
doctrine, salvation comes by Jesus' substitutionary death and resurrection. The Catholic
Catholic
Church teaches that salvation does not occur without faithfulness on the part of Christians; converts must live in accordance with principles of love and ordinarily must be baptized.[55][56] Martin Luther
Martin Luther
taught that baptism was necessary for salvation, but modern Lutherans
Lutherans
and other Protestants
Protestants
tend to teach that salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God's grace, sometimes defined as "unmerited favor", even apart from baptism. Christians
Christians
differ in their views on the extent to which individuals' salvation is pre-ordained by God. Reformed
Reformed
theology places distinctive emphasis on grace by teaching that individuals are completely incapable of self-redemption, but that sanctifying grace is irresistible.[57] In contrast Catholics, Orthodox Christians
Christians
and Arminian Protestants
Protestants
believe that the exercise of free will is necessary to have faith in Jesus.[58] Trinity Main article: Trinity

The Trinity
Trinity
is the belief that God
God
is one God
God
in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit.[59]

Trinity
Trinity
refers to the teaching that the one God[1] comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons; the Father, the Son (incarnate in Jesus
Jesus
Christ) and the Holy Spirit. Together, these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead,[60][61][62] although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead.[63] In the words of the Athanasian Creed, an early statement of Christian
Christian
belief, "the Father is God, the Son is God
God
and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God".[64] They are distinct from another: the Father has no source, the Son is begotten of the Father and the Spirit proceeds from the Father. Though distinct, the three persons cannot be divided from one another in being or in operation. While some Christians
Christians
also believe that God appeared as the Father in the Old Testament, it is agreed that he appeared as the Son in the New Testament, and will still continue to manifest as the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
in the present. But still, God
God
still existed as three persons in each of these times.[65] However, traditionally there is a belief that it was the Son who appeared in the Old Testament
Old Testament
because, for example, when the Trinity
Trinity
is depicted in art, the Son typically has the distinctive appearance, a cruciform halo identifying Christ, and in depictions of the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
this looks forward to an Incarnation yet to occur. In some Early Christian sarcophagi the Logos is distinguished with a beard, "which allows him to appear ancient, even preexistent."[66] The Trinity
Trinity
is an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity. From earlier than the times of the Nicene Creed, 325, Christianity advocated[67] the triune mystery-nature of God
God
as a normative profession of faith. According to Roger E. Olson and Christopher Hall, through prayer, meditation, study and practice, the Christian community concluded "that God
God
must exist as both a unity and trinity", codifying this in ecumenical council at the end of the 4th century.[68][69] According to this doctrine, God
God
is not divided in the sense that each person has a third of the whole; rather, each person is considered to be fully God
God
(see Perichoresis). The distinction lies in their relations, the Father being unbegotten; the Son being begotten of the Father; and the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
proceeding from the Father and (in Western Christian
Christian
theology) from the Son. Regardless of this apparent difference, the three "persons" are each eternal and omnipotent. Other Christian
Christian
religions including Unitarian Universalism, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormonism
Mormonism
and others do not share those views on the Trinity. The Latin
Latin
word trias, from which trinity is derived, is first seen in the works of Theophilus of Antioch. He wrote of "the Trinity
Trinity
of God (the Father), His Word (the Son) and His Wisdom (Holy Spirit)".[70] The term may have been in use before this time. Afterwards it appears in Tertullian.[71][72] In the following century the word was in general use. It is found in many passages of Origen.[73] Trinitarians Main article: Trinitarianism Trinitarianism
Trinitarianism
denotes those Christians
Christians
who believe in the concept of the Trinity. Almost all Christian
Christian
denominations and churches hold Trinitarian beliefs. Although the words "Trinity" and "Triune" do not appear in the Bible, theologians beginning in the 3rd century developed the term and concept to facilitate comprehension of the New Testament teachings of God
God
as being Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Since that time, Christian
Christian
theologians have been careful to emphasize that Trinity
Trinity
does not imply that there are three gods (the antitrinitarian heresy of Tritheism), nor that each hypostasis of the Trinity
Trinity
is one-third of an infinite God
God
(partialism), nor that the Son and the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
are beings created by and subordinate to the Father (Arianism). Rather, the Trinity
Trinity
is defined as one God
God
in three Persons.[74] Nontrinitarianism Main article: Nontrinitarianism Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism
(or antitrinitarianism) refers to theology that rejects the doctrine of the Trinity. Various nontrinitarian views, such as adoptionism or modalism, existed in early Christianity, leading to the disputes about Christology.[75] Nontrinitarianism
Nontrinitarianism
later appeared again in the Gnosticism
Gnosticism
of the Cathars
Cathars
in the 11th through 13th centuries, among groups with Unitarian theology in the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
of the 16th century,[76] in the 18th-century Enlightenment and in some groups arising during the Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
of the 19th century. Scriptures Main articles: Bible, Biblical canon, Development of the Christian Biblical canon, and Christian
Christian
scripture

The Bible
Bible
is the sacred book in Christianity.

Christianity, like other religions, has adherents whose beliefs and biblical interpretations vary. Christianity
Christianity
regards the biblical canon, the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament, as the inspired word of God. The traditional view of inspiration is that God
God
worked through human authors so that what they produced was what God
God
wished to communicate. The Greek word referring to inspiration in 2 Timothy 3:16 is theopneustos, which literally means "God-breathed".[77] Some believe that divine inspiration makes our present Bibles inerrant. Others claim inerrancy for the Bible
Bible
in its original manuscripts, although none of those are extant. Still others maintain that only a particular translation is inerrant, such as the King James Version.[78][79][80] Another closely related view is Biblical infallibility or limited inerrancy, which affirms that the Bible
Bible
is free of error as a guide to salvation, but may include errors on matters such as history, geography or science. The books of the Bible
Bible
accepted by the Orthodox, Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
churches vary somewhat, with Jews accepting only the Hebrew Bible
Bible
as canonical; there is however substantial overlap. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions, and of the councils that have convened on the subject. Every version of the Old Testament always includes the books of the Tanakh, the canon of the Hebrew Bible. The Catholic
Catholic
and Orthodox canons, in addition to the Tanakh, also include the Deuterocanonical Books
Deuterocanonical Books
as part of the Old Testament. These books appear in the Septuagint, but are regarded by Protestants
Protestants
to be apocryphal. However, they are considered to be important historical documents which help to inform the understanding of words, grammar and syntax used in the historical period of their conception. Some versions of the Bible
Bible
include a separate Apocrypha section between the Old Testament
Old Testament
and the New Testament.[81] The New Testament, originally written in Koine Greek, contains 27 books which are agreed upon by all churches. Modern scholarship has raised many issues with the Bible. While the Authorized King James Version
King James Version
is held to by many because of its striking English prose, in fact it was translated from the Erasmus Greek Bible
Bible
which in turn "was based on a single 12th Century manuscript that is one of the worst manuscripts we have available to us".[82] Much scholarship in the past several hundred years has gone into comparing different manuscripts in order to reconstruct the original text. Another issue is that several books are considered to be forgeries. The injunction that women "be silent and submissive" in 1 Timothy 2[83] is thought by many to be a forgery by a follower of Paul, a similar phrase in 1 Corinthians 14,[84] which is thought to be by Paul, appears in different places in different manuscripts and is thought to originally be a margin note by a copyist.[82] Other verses in 1 Corinthians, such as 1 Corinthians 11:2–16 where women are instructed to wear a covering over their hair "when they pray or prophesies",[85] contradict this verse. A final issue with the Bible
Bible
is the way in which books were selected for inclusion in the New Testament. Other Gospels have now been recovered, such as those found near Nag Hammadi
Nag Hammadi
in 1945, and while some of these texts are quite different from what Christians
Christians
have been used to, it should be understood that some of this newly recovered Gospel
Gospel
material is quite possibly contemporaneous with, or even earlier than, the New Testament
New Testament
Gospels. The core of the Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas, in particular, may date from as early as AD 50 (although some major scholars contest this early dating),[86] and if so would provide an insight into the earliest gospel texts that underlie the canonical Gospels, texts that are mentioned in Luke 1:1–2. The Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas contains much that is familiar from the canonical Gospels—verse 113, for example ("The Father's Kingdom is spread out upon the earth, but people do not see it"),[87] is reminiscent of Luke 17:20–21[88][89]—and the Gospel
Gospel
of John, with a terminology and approach that is suggestive of what was later termed Gnosticism, has recently been seen as a possible response to the Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas, a text that is commonly labelled proto-Gnostic. Scholarship, then, is currently exploring the relationship in the Early Church between mystical speculation and experience on the one hand and the search for church order on the other, by analyzing new-found texts, by subjecting canonical texts to further scrutiny, and by an examination of the passage of New Testament
New Testament
texts to canonical status. Catholic
Catholic
interpretation

St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City, the largest church in the world and a symbol of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

Main article: Catholic
Catholic
theology of Scripture In antiquity, two schools of exegesis developed in Alexandria
Alexandria
and Antioch. Alexandrine interpretation, exemplified by Origen, tended to read Scripture allegorically, while Antiochene interpretation adhered to the literal sense, holding that other meanings (called theoria) could only be accepted if based on the literal meaning.[90] Catholic
Catholic
theology distinguishes two senses of scripture: the literal and the spiritual.[91] The literal sense of understanding scripture is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture. The spiritual sense is further subdivided into:

The allegorical sense, which includes typology. An example would be the parting of the Red Sea being understood as a "type" (sign) of baptism.[1Cor 10:2] The moral sense, which understands the scripture to contain some ethical teaching. The anagogical sense, which applies to eschatology, eternity and the consummation of the world

Regarding exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation, Catholic
Catholic
theology holds:

The injunction that all other senses of sacred scripture are based on the literal[92][93] That the historicity of the Gospels must be absolutely and constantly held[94] That scripture must be read within the "living Tradition
Tradition
of the whole Church"[95] and That "the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome".[96]

Protestant
Protestant
interpretation

Protestants
Protestants
believe Martin Luther's basic beliefs against the Catholic Church: Sola scriptura
Sola scriptura
(by Scripture alone), Sola fide
Sola fide
(by faith alone), Sola gratia (by grace alone), Solus Christus (through Christ alone) and Soli Deo gloria
Soli Deo gloria
(glory to God
God
alone).

Clarity of Scripture Protestant
Protestant
Christians
Christians
believe that the Bible
Bible
is a self-sufficient revelation, the final authority on all Christian
Christian
doctrine, and revealed all truth necessary for salvation. This concept is known as sola scriptura.[97] Protestants
Protestants
characteristically believe that ordinary believers may reach an adequate understanding of Scripture because Scripture itself is clear (or "perspicuous"), because of the help of the Holy Spirit, or both. Martin Luther
Martin Luther
believed that without God's help Scripture would be "enveloped in darkness".[98] He advocated "one definite and simple understanding of Scripture".[98] John Calvin
John Calvin
wrote, "all who refuse not to follow the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
as their guide, find in the Scripture a clear light".[99] The Second Helvetic Confession, composed by the pastor of the Reformed
Reformed
church in Zürich (successor to Protestant
Protestant
reformer Zwingli) was adopted as a declaration of doctrine by most European Reformed
Reformed
churches.[100] Original intended meaning of Scripture Protestants
Protestants
stress the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture, the historical-grammatical method.[101] The historical-grammatical method or grammatico-historical method is an effort in Biblical hermeneutics to find the intended original meaning in the text.[102] This original intended meaning of the text is drawn out through examination of the passage in light of the grammatical and syntactical aspects, the historical background, the literary genre as well as theological (canonical) considerations.[103] The historical-grammatical method distinguishes between the one original meaning and the significance of the text. The significance of the text includes the ensuing use of the text or application. The original passage is seen as having only a single meaning or sense. As Milton S. Terry said: "A fundamental principle in grammatico-historical exposition is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection. The moment we neglect this principle we drift out upon a sea of uncertainty and conjecture."[104] Technically speaking, the grammatical-historical method of interpretation is distinct from the determination of the passage's significance in light of that interpretation. Taken together, both define the term (Biblical) hermeneutics.[102] Some Protestant
Protestant
interpreters make use of typology.[105] Eschatology Main article: Christian
Christian
eschatology

The 7th-century Khor Virap
Khor Virap
monastery in the shadow of Mount Ararat. Armenia
Armenia
was the first state to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as the state religion, in AD 301.[106]

The end of things, whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, or the end of the world, broadly speaking is Christian eschatology; the study of the destiny of humans as it is revealed in the Bible. The major issues in Christian
Christian
eschatology are the Tribulation, death and the afterlife, the Rapture, the Second Coming of Jesus, Resurrection of the Dead, Heaven and Hell, Millennialism, the Last Judgment, the end of the world and the New Heavens and New Earth. Christians
Christians
believe that the second coming of Christ will occur at the end of time after a period of severe persecution (the Great Tribulation). All who have died will be resurrected bodily from the dead for the Last Judgment. Jesus
Jesus
will fully establish the Kingdom of God
God
in fulfillment of scriptural prophecies.[107][108] Death and afterlife Most Christians
Christians
believe that human beings experience divine judgment and are rewarded either with eternal life or eternal damnation. This includes the general judgement at the resurrection of the dead as well as the belief (held by Roman Catholics,[109][110] Orthodox[111][112] and most Protestants) in a judgment particular to the individual soul upon physical death. In Roman Catholicism, those who die in a state of grace, i.e., without any mortal sin separating them from God, but are still imperfectly purified from the effects of sin, undergo purification through the intermediate state of purgatory to achieve the holiness necessary for entrance into God's presence.[113] Those who have attained this goal are called saints ( Latin
Latin
sanctus, "holy").[114] Some Christian
Christian
groups, such as Seventh-day Adventists, hold to mortalism, the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal, and is unconscious during the intermediate state between bodily death and resurrection. These Christians
Christians
also hold to Annihilationism, the belief that subsequent to the final judgement, the wicked will cease to exist rather than suffer everlasting torment. Jehovah's Witnesses hold to a similar view.[115] Worship Main article: Christian
Christian
worship See also: Mass (liturgy), Reformed
Reformed
worship, and Contemporary worship

Samples of Catholic
Catholic
religious objects—the Bible, a crucifix and a rosary

Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
described 2nd-century Christian liturgy in his First Apology (c. 150) to Emperor Antoninus Pius, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Christian
Christian
liturgical worship:

And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need.[116]

Thus, as Justin described, Christians
Christians
assemble for communal worship on Sunday, the day of the resurrection, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. Scripture readings are drawn from the Old and New Testaments, but especially the gospel accounts. Often these are arranged on an annual cycle, using a book called a lectionary. Instruction is given based on these readings, called a sermon, or homily. There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving, confession and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung. The Lord's Prayer, or Our Father, is regularly prayed.

A modern Protestant
Protestant
worship band leading a contemporary worship session

Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. A division is often made between "High" church services, characterized by greater solemnity and ritual, and "Low" services, but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship. Seventh-day Adventists meet on Saturday, while others do not meet on a weekly basis. Charismatic or Pentecostal
Pentecostal
congregations may spontaneously feel led by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
to action rather than follow a formal order of service, including spontaneous prayer. Quakers
Quakers
sit quietly until moved by the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
to speak. Some evangelical services resemble concerts with rock and pop music, dancing and use of multimedia. For groups which do not recognize a priesthood distinct from ordinary believers the services are generally led by a minister, preacher, or pastor. Still others may lack any formal leaders, either in principle or by local necessity. Some churches use only a cappella music, either on principle (for example, many Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
object to the use of instruments in worship) or by tradition (as in Orthodoxy). Nearly all forms of churchmanship celebrate the Eucharist
Eucharist
(Holy Communion), which consists of a consecrated meal. It is reenacted in accordance with Jesus' instruction at the Last Supper
Last Supper
that his followers do in remembrance of him as when he gave his disciples bread, saying, "This is my body", and gave them wine saying, "This is my blood".[117] Some Christian
Christian
denominations practice closed communion. They offer communion to those who are already united in that denomination or sometimes individual church. Catholics restrict participation to their members who are not in a state of mortal sin. Most other churches practice open communion since they view communion as a means to unity, rather than an end, and invite all believing Christians
Christians
to participate. Worship
Worship
can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. In the early church, Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship. In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching. Such children's worship is often called Sunday school
Sunday school
or Sabbath school
Sabbath school
(Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services). Sacraments Main article: Sacrament See also: Sacraments of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Anglican
Anglican
sacraments, and Lutheran
Lutheran
sacraments

2nd-century description of the Eucharist

And this food is called among us Eukaristia [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus
Jesus
Christ our Savior, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus
Jesus
who was made flesh.

Justin Martyr[116]

In Christian
Christian
belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite, instituted by Christ, that confers grace, constituting a sacred mystery. The term is derived from the Latin
Latin
word sacramentum, which was used to translate the Greek word for mystery. Views concerning both which rites are sacramental, and what it means for an act to be a sacrament, vary among Christian
Christian
denominations and traditions.[118] The most conventional functional definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign, instituted by Christ, that conveys an inward, spiritual grace through Christ. The two most widely accepted sacraments are Baptism
Baptism
and the Eucharist
Eucharist
(or Holy Communion), however, the majority of Christians
Christians
also recognize five additional sacraments: Confirmation
Confirmation
( Chrismation
Chrismation
in the Orthodox tradition), Holy orders (ordination), Penance
Penance
(or Confession), Anointing
Anointing
of the Sick and Matrimony
Matrimony
(see Christian
Christian
views on marriage).[118] Taken together, these are the Seven Sacraments as recognized by churches in the High Church
High Church
tradition—notably Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Independent Catholic, Old Catholic, many Anglicans and some Lutherans. Most other denominations and traditions typically affirm only Baptism
Baptism
and Eucharist
Eucharist
as sacraments, while some Protestant
Protestant
groups, such as the Quakers, reject sacramental theology.[118] Christian
Christian
denominations, such as Baptists, which believe these rites do not communicate grace, prefer to call Baptism
Baptism
and Holy Communion ordinances rather than sacraments. In addition to this, the Church of the East
Church of the East
has two additional sacraments in place of the traditional sacraments of Matrimony
Matrimony
and the Anointing
Anointing
of the Sick. These include Holy Leaven
Holy Leaven
(Melka) and the sign of the cross.[119]

Baptism, specifically infant baptism, in the Lutheran
Lutheran
tradition

A penitent confessing his sins in a Ukrainian Catholic
Catholic
church

A Methodist
Methodist
minister celebrating the Eucharist

Confirmation
Confirmation
being administered in an Anglican
Anglican
church

Ordination
Ordination
of a priest in the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
tradition

Crowning during Holy Matrimony
Matrimony
in the Syro-Malabar Catholic
Catholic
Church

Service of the Sacrament
Sacrament
of Holy Unction served on Great and Holy Wednesday

Liturgical calendar Main article: Liturgical year See also: Calendar of saints

A depiction of the Nativity with a Christmas tree
Christmas tree
backdrop

Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Eastern Christians
Christians
and traditional Protestant
Protestant
communities frame worship around the liturgical year. The liturgical cycle divides the year into a series of seasons, each with their theological emphases, and modes of prayer, which can be signified by different ways of decorating churches, colours of paraments and vestments for clergy,[120] scriptural readings, themes for preaching and even different traditions and practices often observed personally or in the home. Western Christian
Christian
liturgical calendars are based on the cycle of the Roman Rite
Rite
of the Catholic
Catholic
Church,[120] and Eastern Christians
Christians
use analogous calendars based on the cycle of their respective rites. Calendars set aside holy days, such as solemnities which commemorate an event in the life of Jesus, Mary or the saints, and periods of fasting, such as Lent
Lent
and other pious events such as memoria or lesser festivals commemorating saints. Christian
Christian
groups that do not follow a liturgical tradition often retain certain celebrations, such as Christmas, Easter
Easter
and Pentecost: these are the celebrations of Christ's birth, resurrection and the descent of the Holy Spirit
Holy Spirit
upon the Church, respectively. A few denominations make no use of a liturgical calendar.[121] Symbols Main article: Christian
Christian
symbolism

The cross and the fish are two common symbols of Jesus
Jesus
Christ. The letters of the Greek word ΙΧΘΥΣ
ΙΧΘΥΣ
Ichthys
Ichthys
(fish) form an acronym for "Ίησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ", which translates into English as " Jesus
Jesus
Christ, God's Son, Savior".

Christianity
Christianity
has not generally practiced aniconism, or the avoidance or prohibition of types of images, even if the early Jewish
Jewish
Christians sects, as well as some modern denominations, preferred to some extent not to use figures in their symbols, by invoking the Decalogue's prohibition of idolatry. The cross, which is today one of the most widely recognized symbols in the world, was used as a Christian
Christian
symbol from the earliest times.[122][123] Tertullian, in his book De Corona, tells how it was already a tradition for Christians
Christians
to trace repeatedly on their foreheads the sign of the cross.[124] Although the cross was known to the early Christians, the crucifix did not appear in use until the 5th century.[125] Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish or Ichthys
Ichthys
seems to have ranked first in importance. From monumental sources such as tombs it is known that the symbolic fish was familiar to Christians
Christians
from the earliest times. The fish was depicted as a Christian
Christian
symbol in the first decades of the 2nd century.[126] Its popularity among Christians
Christians
was due principally, it would seem, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and the claim to worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter (Ίησοῦς Χριστός, Θεοῦ Υἱός, Σωτήρ), meaning, Jesus
Jesus
Christ, Son of God, Savior.[126] Other major Christian
Christian
symbols include the chi-rho monogram, the dove (symbolic of the Holy Spirit), the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Christ's sacrifice), the vine (symbolizing the necessary connectedness of the Christian
Christian
with Christ) and many others. These all derive from writings found in the New Testament.[125] Baptism Main article: Baptism

The baptism of Jesus
Jesus
depicted by Almeida Júnior

Baptism
Baptism
is the ritual act, with the use of water, by which a person is admitted to membership of the Church. Beliefs on baptism vary among denominations. Differences occur firstly on whether the act has any spiritual significance. Some, such as the Catholic
Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox churches, as well as Lutherans
Lutherans
and Anglicans, hold to the doctrine of baptismal regeneration, which affirms that baptism creates or strengthens a person's faith, and is intimately linked to salvation. Others view baptism as a purely symbolic act, an external public declaration of the inward change which has taken place in the person, but not as spiritually efficacious. Secondly, there are differences of opinion on the methodology of the act. These methods are: by immersion; if immersion is total, by submersion; by affusion (pouring); and by aspersion (sprinkling). Those who hold the first view may also adhere to the tradition of infant baptism;[127] the Orthodox Churches all practice infant baptism and always baptize by total immersion repeated three times in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit.[128][129] The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
also practices infant baptism,[130] usually by affusion, and utilizing the Trinitarian formula.[131] Prayer Main article: Prayer
Prayer
in Christianity Jesus' teaching on prayer in the Sermon
Sermon
on the Mount displays a distinct lack of interest in the external aspects of prayer. A concern with the techniques of prayer is condemned as 'pagan', and instead a simple trust in God's fatherly goodness is encouraged.[Mat. 6:5–15] Elsewhere in the New Testament
New Testament
this same freedom of access to God
God
is also emphasized.[Phil. 4:6][Jam. 5:13–19] This confident position should be understood in light of Christian
Christian
belief in the unique relationship between the believer and Christ through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.[132] In subsequent Christian
Christian
traditions, certain physical gestures are emphasized, including medieval gestures such as genuflection or making the sign of the cross. Kneeling, bowing and prostrations (see also poklon) are often practiced in more traditional branches of Christianity. Frequently in Western Christianity
Western Christianity
the hands are placed palms together and forward as in the feudal commendation ceremony. At other times the older orans posture may be used, with palms up and elbows in. Intercessory prayer is prayer offered for the benefit of other people. There are many intercessory prayers recorded in the Bible, including prayers of the Apostle Peter
Apostle Peter
on behalf of sick persons[Acts 9:40] and by prophets of the Old Testament
Old Testament
in favor of other people.[1Ki 17:19–22] In the Epistle of James, no distinction is made between the intercessory prayer offered by ordinary believers and the prominent Old Testament
Old Testament
prophet Elijah.[Jam 5:16–18] The effectiveness of prayer in Christianity
Christianity
derives from the power of God rather than the status of the one praying.[132] The ancient church, in both Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
and Western Christianity, developed a tradition of asking for the intercession of (deceased) saints, and this remains the practice of most Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and some Anglican churches. Churches of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, however, rejected prayer to the saints, largely on the basis of the sole mediatorship of Christ.[133] The reformer Huldrych Zwingli
Zwingli
admitted that he had offered prayers to the saints until his reading of the Bible
Bible
convinced him that this was idolatrous.[134] According to the Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church: " Prayer
Prayer
is the raising of one's mind and heart to God
God
or the requesting of good things from God."[135] The Book
Book
of Common Prayer
Prayer
in the Anglican tradition is a guide which provides a set order for church services, containing set prayers, scripture readings, and hymns or sung Psalms. History Main article: History of Christianity Early Church and Christological Councils Main articles: Origins of Christianity, Early Christianity, and First seven Ecumenical Councils

Chapel of Saint
Saint
Ananias, Damascus, Syria, an early example of a Christian
Christian
house of worship; built in the 1st century AD

An early circular ichthys symbol, created by combining the Greek letters ΙΧΘΥΣ
ΙΧΘΥΣ
into a wheel. Ephesus, Asia Minor.

Kadisha Valley, Lebanon, home to some of the earliest Christian monasteries in the world

Christianity
Christianity
began as a Jewish
Jewish
sect in the Levant
Levant
of the middle east in the mid-1st century. Other than Second Temple Judaism, the primary religious influences of early Christianity
Christianity
are Zoroastrianism and Gnosticism.[note 2][16][17][136] John Bowker states that Christian ideas such as "angels, the end of the world, a final judgment, the resurrection and heaven and hell received form and substance from ... Zoroastrian beliefs".[137] Its earliest development took place under the leadership of the remaining Twelve Apostles, particularly Saint Peter, and Paul the Apostle, followed by the early bishops, whom Christians
Christians
consider the successors of the Apostles. According to the Christian
Christian
scriptures, Christians
Christians
were from the beginning subject to persecution by some Jewish
Jewish
and Roman religious authorities, who disagreed with the apostles' teachings (See Split of early Christianity
Christianity
and Judaism). This involved punishments, including death, for Christians
Christians
such as Stephen[Acts 7:59] and James, son of Zebedee.[Acts 12:2] Larger-scale persecutions followed at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire, first in the year 64, when Emperor Nero
Emperor Nero
blamed them for the Great Fire of Rome. According to Church tradition, it was under Nero's persecution that early Church leaders Peter and Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus
were each martyred in Rome. Further widespread persecutions of the Church occurred under nine subsequent Roman emperors, most intensely under Decius
Decius
and Diocletian. From the year 150, Christian
Christian
teachers began to produce theological and apologetic works aimed at defending the faith. These authors are known as the Church Fathers, and study of them is called Patristics. Notable early Fathers include Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria
Alexandria
and Origen. However, Armenia
Armenia
is considered the first nation to accept Christianity
Christianity
in AD 301.[106][138][139] King Trdat IV made Christianity
Christianity
the state religion in Armenia
Armenia
between 301 and 314, it was not an entirely new religion in Armenia. It penetrated into the country from at least the third century, but may have been present even earlier.[140] End of Roman persecution under Emperor Constantine (AD 313)

An example of Byzantine pictorial art, the Deësis
Deësis
mosaic at the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople

State persecution ceased in the 4th century, when Constantine I issued an edict of toleration in 313. On 27 February 380, Emperor Theodosius I
Theodosius I
enacted a law establishing Nicene Christianity
Christianity
as the state church of the Roman Empire.[141] From at least the 4th century, Christianity
Christianity
has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.[142] Constantine was also instrumental in the convocation of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which sought to address the Arian heresy and formulated the Nicene Creed, which is still used by the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
and many Protestant churches.[40] Nicaea was the first of a series of Ecumenical (worldwide) Councils which formally defined critical elements of the theology of the Church, notably concerning Christology.[143] The Assyrian Church of the East
Assyrian Church of the East
did not accept the third and following Ecumenical Councils, and are still separate today. The presence of Christianity in Africa
Christianity in Africa
began in the middle of the 1st century in Egypt, and by the end of the 2nd century in the region around Carthage. Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist
started the Coptic Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
of Alexandria
Alexandria
in about AD 43.[144][145][146] Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity
Christianity
includes Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen
Origen
of Alexandria, Cyprian, Athanasius
Athanasius
and Augustine of Hippo. The later rise of Islam
Islam
in North Africa reduced the size and numbers of Christian
Christian
congregations, leaving only the Coptic Church in Egypt, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
and the Nubian Church in the Sudan (Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia). In terms of prosperity and cultural life, the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was one of the peaks in Christian
Christian
history and Christian
Christian
civilization,[147] and Constantinople
Constantinople
remained the leading city of the Christian
Christian
world in size, wealth and culture.[148] There was a renewed interest in classical Greek philosophy, as well as an increase in literary output in vernacular Greek.[149] Byzantine art
Byzantine art
and literature held a pre-eminent place in Europe, and the cultural impact of Byzantine art on the west during this period was enormous and of long lasting significance.[150] Early Middle Ages With the decline and fall of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west, the papacy became a political player, first visible in Pope
Pope
Leo's diplomatic dealings with Huns and Vandals.[151] The church also entered into a long period of missionary activity and expansion among the various tribes. While Arianists instituted the death penalty for practicing pagans (see Massacre of Verden
Massacre of Verden
as example), Catholicism
Catholicism
also spread among the Germanic peoples,[151] the Celtic and Slavic peoples, the Hungarians
Hungarians
and the Baltic peoples. Christianity
Christianity
has been an important part of the shaping of Western civilization, at least since the 4th century.[9][10][142] Around 500, St. Benedict
St. Benedict
set out his Monastic Rule, establishing a system of regulations for the foundation and running of monasteries.[151] Monasticism
Monasticism
became a powerful force throughout Europe,[151] and gave rise to many early centers of learning, most famously in Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Gaul, contributing to the Carolingian Renaissance
Carolingian Renaissance
of the 9th century. In the 7th century Muslims conquered Syria
Syria
(including Jerusalem), North Africa
North Africa
and Spain. Part of the Muslims' success was due to the exhaustion of the Byzantine empire
Byzantine empire
in its decades long conflict with Persia.[152] Beginning in the 8th century, with the rise of Carolingian
Carolingian
leaders, the papacy began to find greater political support in the Frankish Kingdom.[153] The Middle Ages brought about major changes within the church. Pope Gregory the Great dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration.[154] In the early 8th century, iconoclasm became a divisive issue, when it was sponsored by the Byzantine emperors. The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (787) finally pronounced in favor of icons.[155] In the early 10th century, Western Christian monasticism was further rejuvenated through the leadership of the great Benedictine monastery of Cluny.[156] Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the Christian
Christian
era.[10] High and Late Middle Ages

Pope Urban II
Pope Urban II
at the Council of Clermont, where he preached the First Crusade

In the west, from the 11th century onward, older cathedral schools developed into universities (see University
University
of Oxford, University of Paris
University of Paris
and University
University
of Bologna.) The traditional medieval universities—evolved from Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant
Protestant
church schools—then established specialized academic structures for properly educating greater numbers of students as professionals. Prof. Walter Rüegg, editor of A History of the University
University
in Europe, reports that universities then only trained students to become clerics, lawyers, civil servants and physicians.[157] Originally teaching only theology, universities steadily added subjects including medicine, philosophy and law, becoming the direct ancestors of modern institutions of learning.[158] The university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian
Christian
setting.[159][160] Prior to the establishment of universities, European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian
Christian
cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD.[161] Accompanying the rise of the "new towns" throughout Europe, mendicant orders were founded, bringing the consecrated religious life out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. The two principal mendicant movements were the Franciscans[162] and the Dominicans[163] founded by St. Francis and St. Dominic
St. Dominic
respectively. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe. Another new order were the Cistercians, whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. In this period church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights, culminating in the orders of Romanesque and Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
and the building of the great European cathedrals.[164] From 1095 under the pontificate of Urban II, the Crusades
Crusades
were launched.[165] These were a series of military campaigns in the Holy Land and elsewhere, initiated in response to pleas from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I
Alexios I
for aid against Turkish expansion. The Crusades ultimately failed to stifle Islamic aggression and even contributed to Christian
Christian
enmity with the sacking of Constantinople
Constantinople
during the Fourth Crusade.[166] Over a period stretching from the 7th to the 13th century, the Christian Church
Christian Church
underwent gradual alienation, resulting in a schism dividing it into a so-called Latin
Latin
or Western Christian
Christian
branch, the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church,[167] and an Eastern, largely Greek, branch, the Orthodox Church. These two churches disagree on a number of administrative, liturgical and doctrinal issues, most notably papal primacy of jurisdiction.[168][169] The Second Council of Lyon
Second Council of Lyon
(1274) and the Council of Florence
Council of Florence
(1439) attempted to reunite the churches, but in both cases the Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
refused to implement the decisions and the two principal churches remain in schism to the present day. However, the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
has achieved union with various smaller eastern churches. Beginning around 1184, following the crusade against the Cathar heresy,[170] various institutions, broadly referred to as the Inquisition, were established with the aim of suppressing heresy and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity
Christianity
through conversion and prosecution.[171] Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
and Counter-Reformation

Martin Luther
Martin Luther
started the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
in 1517 with the Ninety-Five Theses, going against the Catholic
Catholic
interpretation of the Bible.

Main articles: Protestant
Protestant
Reformation
Reformation
and Counter-Reformation See also: European wars of religion 15th-century Renaissance
Renaissance
brought about a renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. Another major schism, the Reformation, resulted in the splintering of the Western Christendom
Christendom
into several branches.[172] Martin Luther
Martin Luther
in 1517 protested against the sale of indulgences and soon moved on to deny several key points of Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine.[173] Other reformers like Zwingli, Oecolampadius, Calvin, Knox and Arminius further criticized Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
teaching and worship. These challenges developed into the movement called Protestantism, which repudiated the primacy of the pope, the role of tradition, the seven sacraments and other doctrines and practices.[173] The Reformation
Reformation
in England
England
began in 1534, when King Henry VIII had himself declared head of the Church of England. Beginning in 1536, the monasteries throughout England, Wales and Ireland
Ireland
were dissolved.[174] Thomas Müntzer, Andreas Karlstadt
Andreas Karlstadt
and other theologians perceived both the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and the confessions of the Magisterial Reformation
Reformation
as corrupted. Their activity brought about the Radical Reformation, which gave birth to various Anabaptist
Anabaptist
denominations.

Michelangelo's Pietà
Michelangelo's Pietà
in St. Peter's Basilica, The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was among the patronages of the Renaissance.[175][176][177]

Partly in response to the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal, known as the Counter- Reformation
Reformation
or Catholic
Catholic
Reform.[178] The Council of Trent clarified and reasserted Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
doctrine. During the following centuries, competition between Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
and Protestantism
Protestantism
became deeply entangled with political struggles among European states.[179] Meanwhile, the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
in 1492 brought about a new wave of missionary activity. Partly from missionary zeal, but under the impetus of colonial expansion by the European powers, Christianity
Christianity
spread to the Americas, Oceania, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Throughout Europe, the divides caused by the Reformation
Reformation
led to outbreaks of religious violence and the establishment of separate state churches in Europe. Lutheranism
Lutheranism
spread into northern, central and eastern parts of present-day Germany, Livonia
Livonia
and Scandinavia. Anglicanism
Anglicanism
was established in England
England
in 1534. Calvinism
Calvinism
and its varieties (such as Presbyterianism) were introduced in Scotland, the Netherlands, Hungary, Switzerland
Switzerland
and France. Arminianism
Arminianism
gained followers in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Frisia. Ultimately, these differences led to the outbreak of conflicts in which religion played a key factor. The Thirty Years' War, the English Civil War
English Civil War
and the French Wars of Religion
Religion
are prominent examples. These events intensified the Christian
Christian
debate on persecution and toleration.[180] Post-Enlightenment

A depiction of Madonna and Child
Madonna and Child
in a 19th-century Kakure Kirishitan Japanese woodcut

In the era known as the Great Divergence, when in the West the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific revolution
Scientific revolution
brought about great societal changes, Christianity
Christianity
was confronted with various forms of skepticism and with certain modern political ideologies such as versions of socialism and liberalism.[181] Events ranged from mere anti-clericalism to violent outbursts against Christianity
Christianity
such as the Dechristianisation during the French Revolution,[182] the Spanish Civil War and certain Marxist movements, especially the Russian Revolution and the persecution of Christians
Christians
in the Soviet Union under state atheism.[183][184][185][186] Especially pressing in Europe
Europe
was the formation of nation states after the Napoleonic era. In all European countries, different Christian denominations found themselves in competition, to greater or lesser extents, with each other and with the state. Variables are the relative sizes of the denominations and the religious, political and ideological orientation of the state. Urs Altermatt of the University of Fribourg, looking specifically at Catholicisms in Europe, identifies four models for the European nations. In traditionally Catholic
Catholic
countries such as Belgium, Spain
Spain
and to some extent Austria, religious and national communities are more or less identical. Cultural symbiosis and separation are found in Poland, Ireland
Ireland
and Switzerland, all countries with competing denominations. Competition is found in Germany, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and again Switzerland, all countries with minority Catholic
Catholic
populations who to a greater or lesser extent did identify with the nation. Finally, separation between religion (again, specifically Catholicism) and the state is found to a great degree in France
France
and Italy, countries where the state actively opposed itself to the authority of the Catholic
Catholic
Church.[187] The combined factors of the formation of nation states and ultramontanism, especially in Germany
Germany
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
but also in England
England
(to a much lesser extent[188]), often forced Catholic churches, organizations and believers to choose between the national demands of the state and the authority of the Church, specifically the papacy. This conflict came to a head in the First Vatican Council, and in Germany
Germany
would lead directly to the Kulturkampf, where liberals and Protestants
Protestants
under the leadership of Bismarck managed to severely restrict Catholic
Catholic
expression and organization. Christian
Christian
commitment in Europe
Europe
dropped as modernity and secularism came into their own in Europe,[189] particularly in the Czech Republic and Estonia,[190] while religious commitments in America have been generally high in comparison to Europe. The late 20th century has shown the shift of Christian
Christian
adherence to the Third World and southern hemisphere in general, with the western civilization no longer the chief standard bearer of Christianity. Some Europeans (including diaspora), Indigenous peoples of the Americas
Americas
and natives of other continents have revived their respective peoples' historical folk religions. Approximately 7.1 to 10% of Arabs are Christians,[191] most prevalent in Egypt, Syria
Syria
and Lebanon. Demographics Main articles: Christianity
Christianity
by country, Christian
Christian
population growth, and Christian
Christian
denominations by membership See also: Christendom
Christendom
and Christian
Christian
state With around 2.4 billion adherents,[4][5] split into three main branches of Catholic, Protestant
Protestant
and Eastern Orthodox, Christianity
Christianity
is the world's largest religion.[3] The Christian
Christian
share of the world's population has stood at around 33% for the last hundred years, which says that one in three persons on earth are Christians. This masks a major shift in the demographics of Christianity; large increases in the developing world have been accompanied by substantial declines in the developed world, mainly in Europe
Europe
and North America.[192] According to a 2015 Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
study, within the next four decades, Christians
Christians
will remain the world's largest religion; and by 2050, the Christian
Christian
population is expected to exceed 3 billion.[193]:60 As a percentage of Christians, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
(both Eastern and Oriental) are declining, while Protestants
Protestants
and other Christians
Christians
are on the rise.[194][195][196] The so-called popular Protestantism[note 4] is one of the fastest growing religious categories in the world.[197][198] Christianity
Christianity
is the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas
Americas
and Southern Africa. In Asia, it is the dominant religion in Georgia, Armenia, East Timor
East Timor
and the Philippines.[199] However, it is declining in many areas including the Northern and Western United States,[200] Oceania
Oceania
(Australia and New Zealand), northern Europe
Europe
(including Great Britain,[201] Scandinavia and other places), France, Germany, the Canadian provinces of Ontario, British Columbia
British Columbia
and Quebec, and parts of Asia (especially the Middle East – due to the Christian emigration,[202][203][204] South Korea,[205] Taiwan,[206] and Macau[207]). The Christian
Christian
population is not decreasing in Brazil, the Southern United States[208] and the province of Alberta, Canada,[209] but the percentage is decreasing. In countries such as Australia[210] and New Zealand,[211] the Christian
Christian
population are declining in both numbers and percentage. Despite the declining numbers, Christianity
Christianity
remains the dominant religion in the Western World, where 70% are Christians.[6] A 2011 Pew Research Center survey found that 76.2% of Europeans, 73.3% in Oceania and about 86.0% in the Americas
Americas
(90.0% in Latin
Latin
America and 77.4% in North America) identified themselves as Christians.[6][212][213][214] By 2010 about 157 countries and territories in the world had Christian majorities.[3] However, there are many charismatic movements that have become well established over large parts of the world, especially Africa, Latin America and Asia.[215][216][217][218][219] Since 1900, primarily due to conversion, Protestantism
Protestantism
has spread rapidly in Africa, Asia, Oceania
Oceania
and Latin
Latin
America.[220] From 1960 to 2000, the global growth of the number of reported Evangelical Protestants
Evangelical Protestants
grew three times the world's population rate, and twice that of Islam.[221] St. Mary's University
University
study estimated about 10.2 million Muslim
Muslim
convert to Christianity
Christianity
in 2015.[222] as well a significant numbers of Muslims converts to Christianity
Christianity
in Afghanistan,[223] Albania,[222] Azerbaijan[224][225] Algeria,[226][227] Belgium,[228] France,[227] Germany,[229] Iran,[230] India,[227] Indonesia,[231] Malaysia,[232] Morocco,[227][233] Russia,[227] Netherlands,[234] Saudi Arabia,[235] Tunisia,[222] Turkey,[227][236][237][238] Kazakhstan,[239] Kyrgyzstan,[222] Kosovo,[240] United States,[241] and Central Asia.[242][243] It is also reported that Christianity
Christianity
is popular among people of different backgrounds in India (mostly Hindus),[244][245] and Malaysia,[246] Mongolia,[247] Nigeria,[248] Vietnam,[249] Singapore,[250] Indonesia,[251][252] China,[253] Japan,[254] and South Korea.[255] In most countries in the developed world, church attendance among people who continue to identify themselves as Christians
Christians
has been falling over the last few decades.[256] Some sources view this simply as part of a drift away from traditional membership institutions,[257] while others link it to signs of a decline in belief in the importance of religion in general.[258] Europe's Christian
Christian
population, though in decline, still constitutes the largest geographical component of the religion.[259] According to data from the 2012 European Social Survey, around a third of European Christians
Christians
say they attend services once a month or more,[260] Conversely about more than two-thirds of Latin American Christians
Christians
and according to the World Values Survey about 90% of African Christians
Christians
(in Ghana, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa
South Africa
and Zimbabwe) said they attended church regularly.[260] Christianity, in one form or another, is the sole state religion of the following nations: Argentina (Roman Catholic),[261] Tuvalu (Reformed), Tonga
Tonga
(Methodist), Norway (Lutheran),[262][263][264] Costa Rica (Roman Catholic),[265] Kingdom of Denmark (Lutheran),[266] England
England
(Anglican),[267] Georgia (Georgian Orthodox),[268] Greece (Greek Orthodox),[269] Iceland (Lutheran),[270] Liechtenstein (Roman Catholic),[271] Malta (Roman Catholic),[272] Monaco (Roman Catholic),[273] and Vatican City
Vatican City
(Roman Catholic).[274] There are numerous other countries, such as Cyprus, which although do not have an established church, still give official recognition and support to a specific Christian
Christian
denomination.[275]

Demographics of major traditions within Christianity
Christianity
(Pew Research Center, 2010 data)[276]

Tradition Followers % of the Christian
Christian
population % of the world population Follower dynamics Dynamics in- and outside Christianity

Catholic
Catholic
Church 1,094,610,000 50.1 15.9 Growing Declining

Protestantism 800,640,000 36.7 11.6 Growing Growing

Orthodoxy 260,380,000 11.9 3.8 Declining Declining

Other Christianity 28,430,000 1.3 0.4 Growing Growing

Christianity 2,184,060,000 100 31.7 Growing Stable

The global distribution of Christians: Countries colored a darker shade have a higher proportion of Christians.[277]

Countries with 50% or more Christians
Christians
are colored purple while countries with 10% to 50% Christians
Christians
are colored pink

Nations with Christianity
Christianity
as their state religion are in blue

Nations with Christianity
Christianity
as their state religion (detailed map; see legend for more)

Distribution of Roman Catholics

Distribution of Protestants

Distribution of Eastern Orthodox

Distribution of Oriental Orthodox

Other Christians
Christians
by number: black - more than 10 million; red - more than 1 million

Major divisions Further information: List of Christian
Christian
denominations and List of Christian
Christian
denominations by number of members The three primary divisions of Christianity
Christianity
are Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
and Protestantism.[31]:14[278] However, there are other present[279] and historical[280] Christian
Christian
groups that do not fit neatly into one of these primary categories. The Nicene Creed
Creed
is accepted as authoritative by most Christians, including the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican
Anglican
and major Protestant churches.[281] There is a diversity of doctrines and practices among groups calling themselves Christian. These groups are sometimes classified under denominations, though for theological reasons many groups reject this classification system.[282] A broader distinction that is sometimes drawn is between Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity
and Western Christianity, which has its origins in the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
(Great Schism) of the 11th century. In addition to the Lutheran
Lutheran
and Reformed
Reformed
(or Calvinist) branches of the Reformation, there is Anglicanism
Anglicanism
after the English Reformation. The Anabaptist
Anabaptist
tradition was largely ostracized by the other Protestant
Protestant
parties at the time, but has achieved a measure of affirmation in more recent history. Adventist, Baptist, Methodist, Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and other Protestant
Protestant
confessions arose in the following centuries. Catholic
Catholic
Church Main article: Catholic
Catholic
Church

Pope
Pope
Francis, the current leader of the Catholic
Catholic
Church

The Catholic Church
Catholic Church
consists of those particular Churches, headed by bishops, in communion with the Pope, the Bishop
Bishop
of Rome, as its highest authority in matters of faith, morality and Church governance.[283][284] Like Eastern Orthodoxy, the Roman Catholic Church, through apostolic succession, traces its origins to the Christian
Christian
community founded by Jesus
Jesus
Christ.[285][286] Catholics maintain that the "one, holy, catholic and apostolic church" founded by Jesus
Jesus
subsists fully in the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church, but also acknowledges other Christian
Christian
churches and communities[287][288] and works towards reconciliation among all Christians.[287] The Catholic faith is detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church.[289][290] The 2,834 sees[291] are grouped into 24 particular autonomous Churches (the largest of which being the Latin
Latin
Church), each with its own distinct traditions regarding the liturgy and the administering the sacraments.[292] With more than 1.1 billion baptized members, the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
is the largest Christian
Christian
church and represents over half of all Christians
Christians
as well as one sixth of the world's population.[293][294][295] Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church Main article: Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
Cathedral of Christ the Saviour
in Moscow
Moscow
is the tallest Eastern Orthodox Christian
Christian
church in the world.

The Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
consists of those churches in communion with the Patriarchal Sees of the East, such as the Ecumenical Patriarch
Patriarch
of Constantinople.[296] Like the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
also traces its heritage to the foundation of Christianity
Christianity
through apostolic succession and has an episcopal structure, though the autonomy of its component parts is emphasized, and most of them are national churches. A number of conflicts with Western Christianity
Western Christianity
over questions of doctrine and authority culminated in the Great Schism. Eastern Orthodoxy
Eastern Orthodoxy
is the second largest single denomination in Christianity, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.[6][294][297] Oriental Orthodoxy Main article: Oriental Orthodoxy The Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
churches (also called "Old Oriental" churches) are those eastern churches that recognize the first three ecumenical councils—Nicaea, Constantinople
Constantinople
and Ephesus—but reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon
and instead espouse a Miaphysite
Miaphysite
christology. The Oriental Orthodox
Oriental Orthodox
communion consists of six groups: Syriac Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, Eritrean Orthodox, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church
(India) and Armenian Apostolic
Armenian Apostolic
churches.[298] These six churches, while being in communion with each other are completely independent hierarchically.[299] These churches are generally not in communion with Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Churches with whom they are in dialogue for erecting a communion.[300] Assyrian Church of the East Main article: Assyrian Church of the East The Assyrian Church of the East, with an unbroken patriarchate established in the 17th century, is an independent Eastern Christian denomination which claims continuity from the Church of the East
Church of the East
– in parallel to the Catholic
Catholic
patriarchate established in the 16th century that evolved into the Chaldean Catholic
Catholic
Church, an Eastern Catholic
Catholic
church in full communion with the Pope. Protestantism Main article: Protestantism

Part of a series on

Protestantism

Topics

Reformation Great Awakenings History Culture Demographics Persecution Criticism

Major branches

Adventism Anabaptism Anglicanism Baptist
Baptist
churches Calvinism Lutheranism Methodism Pentecostalism

Minor branches

Hussitism Waldensianism Plymouth Brethren Holiness movement Quakerism Multiple others

Interdenominational movements

Evangelicalism Charismatic movement Neo-charismatic movement

Other developments

Arminianism Pietism Puritanism Neo-orthodoxy Paleo-orthodoxy Christian
Christian
fundamentalism Modernism and liberalism

Related movements

Nondenominational churches House churches

v t e

In the 16th century, Martin Luther, and subsequently Huldrych Zwingli
Zwingli
and John Calvin, inaugurated what has come to be called Protestantism. Luther's primary theological heirs are known as Lutherans. Zwingli
Zwingli
and Calvin's heirs are far broader denominationally, and are broadly referred to as the Reformed tradition.[301] The oldest Protestant
Protestant
groups separated from the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, often followed by further divisions.[301] In the 18th century, for example, Methodism
Methodism
grew out of Anglican minister John Wesley's evangelical and revival movement.[302] Several Pentecostal
Pentecostal
and non-denominational churches, which emphasize the cleansing power of the Holy Spirit, in turn grew out of Methodism.[303] Because Methodists, Pentecostals and other evangelicals stress "accepting Jesus
Jesus
as your personal Lord and Savior",[304] which comes from Wesley's emphasis of the New Birth,[305] they often refer to themselves as being born-again.[306][307] Estimates of the total number of Protestants
Protestants
are very uncertain, but it seems clear that Protestantism
Protestantism
is the second largest major group of Christians
Christians
after Roman Catholicism
Catholicism
in number of followers (although the Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
is larger than any single Protestant denomination).[294] Often that number is put at more than 800 million, corresponding to nearly 40% of world's Christians.[194] The majority of Protestants
Protestants
are members of just a handful of denominational families, i.e. Adventists, Anglicans, Baptists, Reformed (Calvinists),[308] Lutherans, Methodists and Pentecostals.[194] Nondenominational, evangelical, charismatic, neo-charismatic, independent and other churches are on the rise, and constitute a significant part of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity.[309] A special grouping are the Anglican
Anglican
churches descended from the Church of England
England
and organized in the Anglican
Anglican
Communion. Some Anglican churches consider themselves both Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic.[310] Some Anglicans consider their church a branch of the "One Holy Catholic Church" alongside of the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
churches, a concept rejected by the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and some Eastern Orthodox.[311][312] While Anglicans, Lutherans
Lutherans
and the Reformed
Reformed
branches of Protestantism originated in the Magisterial Reformation, other Protestant
Protestant
groups such as the Anabaptists
Anabaptists
originated in the Radical Reformation
Reformation
and are distinguished by their rejection of infant baptism; they believe in baptism only of adult believers — credobaptism. ( Anabaptists
Anabaptists
are made up mostly of Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites
Hutterites
and Schwarzenau Brethren/German Baptist
Baptist
groups.) [313] Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant
Protestant
tenets identify themselves simply as "Christians" or "born-again Christians". They typically distance themselves from the confessionalism and/or creedalism of other Christian
Christian
communities[314] by calling themselves "non-denominational" or "evangelical". Often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations.[315]

Restorationism Main article: Restorationism

A 19th-century drawing of Joseph Smith
Joseph Smith
and Oliver Cowdery
Oliver Cowdery
receiving the Aaronic priesthood from John the Baptist. Latter Day Saints believe that the Priesthood ceased to exist after the death of the Apostles
Apostles
and therefore needed to be restored.

The Second Great Awakening, a period of religious revival that occurred in the United States during the early 1800s, saw the development of a number of unrelated churches. They generally saw themselves as restoring the original church of Jesus
Jesus
Christ rather than reforming one of the existing churches.[316] A common belief held by Restorationists was that the other divisions of Christianity
Christianity
had introduced doctrinal defects into Christianity, which was known as the Great Apostasy.[317] In Asia, Iglesia ni Cristo
Iglesia ni Cristo
is a known restorationist religion that was established during the early 1900s. Some of the churches originating during this period are historically connected to early 19th-century camp meetings in the Midwest and Upstate New York. American Millennialism
Millennialism
and Adventism, which arose from Evangelical
Evangelical
Protestantism, influenced the Jehovah's Witnesses movement and, as a reaction specifically to William Miller, the Seventh-day Adventists. Others, including the Christian
Christian
Church (Disciples of Christ), Evangelical
Evangelical
Christian Church
Christian Church
in Canada,[318][319] Churches of Christ, and the Christian
Christian
churches and churches of Christ, have their roots in the contemporaneous Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement, which was centered in Kentucky and Tennessee. Other groups originating in this time period include the Christadelphians
Christadelphians
and Latter Day Saint
Saint
movement. While the churches originating in the Second Great Awakening
Second Great Awakening
have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly. Other Various smaller Independent Catholic
Catholic
communities, such as the Old Catholic
Catholic
Church, include the word Catholic
Catholic
in their title, and arguably have more or less liturgical practices in common with the Catholic
Catholic
Church, but are no longer in full communion with the Holy See. Esoteric Christians
Christians
regard Christianity
Christianity
as a mystery religion,[320][321] and profess the existence and possession of certain esoteric doctrines or practices,[322][323] hidden from the public but accessible only to a narrow circle of "enlightened", "initiated", or highly educated people.[324][325] Some of the esoteric Christian
Christian
institutions include the Rosicrucian Fellowship, the Anthroposophical Society and Martinism. Messianic Judaism
Judaism
(or Messianic Movement) is the name of a Christian movement comprising a number of streams, whose members may consider themselves Jewish. The movement originated in the 1960s and 1970s, and it blends elements of religious Jewish
Jewish
practice with evangelical Christianity. Messianic Judaism
Judaism
affirms Christian
Christian
creeds such as the messiahship and divinity of "Yeshua" (the Hebrew name of Jesus) and the Triune Nature of God, while also adhering to some Jewish
Jewish
dietary laws and customs.[326] Christian
Christian
culture Main articles: Christian culture
Christian culture
and Role of Christianity
Christianity
in civilization Further information: Protestant
Protestant
culture, Cultural Christian, and Christian
Christian
influences in Islam

Set of pictures showcasing Christian culture
Christian culture
and famous Christian leaders

Western culture, throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian
Christian
culture, and a large portion of the population of the Western hemisphere can be described as cultural Christians. The notion of "Europe" and the "Western World" has been intimately connected with the concept of " Christianity
Christianity
and Christendom" many even attribute Christianity
Christianity
for being the link that created a unified European identity.[327] Though Western culture
Western culture
contained several polytheistic religions during its early years under the Greek and Roman empires, as the centralized Roman power waned, the dominance of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
was the only consistent force in Europe.[328] Until the Age of Enlightenment,[329] Christian culture
Christian culture
guided the course of philosophy, literature, art, music and science.[328][330] Christian
Christian
disciplines of the respective arts have subsequently developed into Christian
Christian
philosophy, Christian art, Christian
Christian
music, Christian
Christian
literature etc. Christianity
Christianity
has had a significant impact on education as the church created the bases of the Western system of education,[331] and was the sponsor of founding universities in the Western world; as the university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian
Christian
setting.[159][160] Historically, Christianity
Christianity
has often been a patron of science and medicine. It has been prolific in the foundation of schools, universities and hospitals, and many Catholic
Catholic
clergy;[332] Jesuits in particular,[333][334] have been active in the sciences throughout history and have made significant contributions to the development of science.[335] Protestantism
Protestantism
also has had an important influence on science. According to the Merton Thesis, there was a positive correlation between the rise of English Puritanism
Puritanism
and German Pietism on the one hand and early experimental science on the other.[336] The Civilizing influence of Christianity
Christianity
includes social welfare,[337] founding hospitals,[338] economics (as the Protestant
Protestant
work ethic),[339][340] politics,[341] architecture,[342] literature,[343] personal hygiene,[344][345] and family life.[346] Eastern Christians
Christians
(particularly Nestorian Christians) contributed to the Arab Islamic Civilization during the reign of the Ummayad and the Abbasid by translating works of Greek philosophers
Greek philosophers
to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic.[347][348][349] They also excelled in philosophy, science, theology and medicine.[350][351][352] And many scholars of the House of Wisdom
House of Wisdom
were of Christian
Christian
background.[353] Christians
Christians
have made a myriad of contributions to human progress in a broad and diverse range of fields,[354] including philosophy,[355] science and technology,[332][356][357][358][359] fine arts and architecture,[360] politics, literatures, music,[361] and business.[362] According to 100 Years of Nobel Prizes
Nobel Prizes
a review of Nobel prizes award between 1901 and 2000 reveals that (65.4%) of Nobel Prizes Laureates, have identified Christianity
Christianity
in its various forms as their religious preference.[363] Postchristianity[364] is the term for the decline of Christianity, particularly in Europe, Canada, Australia and to a minor degree the Southern Cone, in the 20th and 21st centuries, considered in terms of postmodernism. It refers to the loss of Christianity's monopoly on values and world view in historically Christian
Christian
societies. Cultural Christians
Christians
are secular people with a Christian
Christian
heritage who may not believe in the religious claims of Christianity, but who retain an affinity for the popular culture, art, music and so on related to it. Another frequent application of the term is to distinguish political groups in areas of mixed religious backgrounds. Ecumenism Main article: Ecumenism

Ecumenical worship service at the monastery of Taizé
Taizé
in France

Christian
Christian
groups and denominations have long expressed ideals of being reconciled, and in the 20th century, Christian
Christian
ecumenism advanced in two ways.[365] One way was greater cooperation between groups, such as the World Evangelical
Evangelical
Alliance founded in 1846 in London or the Edinburgh Missionary Conference
Edinburgh Missionary Conference
of Protestants
Protestants
in 1910, the Justice, Peace and Creation Commission of the World Council of Churches
World Council of Churches
founded in 1948 by Protestant
Protestant
and Orthodox churches, and similar national councils like the National Council of Churches in Australia
National Council of Churches in Australia
which includes Roman Catholics.[365] The other way was institutional union with United and uniting churches, a practice that can be traced back to unions between Lutherans
Lutherans
and Calvinists in early 19th-century Germany. Congregationalist, Methodist
Methodist
and Presbyterian churches united in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada,[366] and in 1977 to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The Church of South India
Church of South India
was formed in 1947 by the union of Anglican, Baptist, Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches.[367] The ecumenical, monastic Taizé
Taizé
Community is notable for being composed of more than one hundred brothers from Protestant
Protestant
and Catholic
Catholic
traditions.[368] The community emphasizes the reconciliation of all denominations and its main church, located in Taizé, Saône-et-Loire, France, is named the "Church of Reconciliation".[368] The community is internationally known, attracting over 100,000 young pilgrims annually.[369] Steps towards reconciliation on a global level were taken in 1965 by the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
and Orthodox churches mutually revoking the excommunications that marked their Great Schism
Schism
in 1054;[370] the Anglican
Anglican
Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
International Commission (ARCIC) working towards full communion between those churches since 1970;[371] and some Lutheran
Lutheran
and Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
churches signing the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification in 1999 to address conflicts at the root of the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. In 2006, the World Methodist
Methodist
Council, representing all Methodist
Methodist
denominations, adopted the declaration.[372] Criticism and apologetics Main articles: Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
and Criticism of Christianity

A copy of the Summa Theologica, a famous Christian
Christian
apologetic work

Criticism of Christianity
Criticism of Christianity
and Christians
Christians
goes back to the Apostolic Age, with the New Testament
New Testament
recording friction between the followers of Jesus
Jesus
and the Pharisees
Pharisees
and scribes (e.g. Matthew 15:1–20 and Mark 7:1–23).[373] In the 2nd century, Christianity
Christianity
was criticized by the Jews on various grounds, e.g. that the prophecies of the Hebrew Bible
Bible
could not have been fulfilled by Jesus, given that he did not have a successful life.[374] Additionally a sacrifice to remove sins in advance, for everyone or as a human being, did not fit to the Jewish
Jewish
sacrifice ritual, furthermore God
God
is said to judge people on their deeds instead of their beliefs.[375][376] One of the first comprehensive attacks on Christianity
Christianity
came from the Greek philosopher Celsus, who wrote The True Word, a polemic criticizing Christians
Christians
as being unprofitable members of society.[377][378] In response, the church father Origen
Origen
published his treatise Contra Celsum, or Against Celsus, a seminal work of Christian
Christian
apologetics, which systematically addressed Celsus's criticisms and brought Christianity
Christianity
a level of academic respectability.[378] By the 3rd century, criticism of Christianity
Christianity
had mounted, partly as a defense against it. Wild rumors about Christians
Christians
were widely circulated, claiming that they were atheists and that, as part of their rituals, they devoured human infants and engaged in incestuous orgies.[379][380] The Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry wrote the fifteen-volume Adversus Christianos as a comprehensive attack on Christianity, in part building on the teachings of Plotinus.[381][382] By the 12th century, the Mishneh Torah
Mishneh Torah
(i.e., Rabbi
Rabbi
Moses Maimonides) was criticizing Christianity
Christianity
on the grounds of idol worship, in that Christians
Christians
attributed divinity to Jesus
Jesus
who had a physical body.[383] In the 19th century, Nietzsche
Nietzsche
began to write a series of polemics on the "unnatural" teachings of Christianity
Christianity
(e.g. sexual abstinence), and continued his criticism of Christianity
Christianity
to the end of his life.[384] In the 20th century, the philosopher Bertrand Russell expressed his criticism of Christianity
Christianity
in Why I Am Not a Christian, formulating his rejection of Christianity
Christianity
in the setting of logical arguments.[385] Criticism of Christianity
Criticism of Christianity
continues to date, e.g. Jewish
Jewish
and Muslim theologians criticize the doctrine of the Trinity
Trinity
held by most Christians, stating that this doctrine in effect assumes that there are three Gods, running against the basic tenet of monotheism.[386] New Testament
New Testament
scholar Robert M. Price
Robert M. Price
has outlined the possibility that some Bible
Bible
stories are based partly on myth in "The Christ Myth Theory and its problems".[387] Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
aims to present a rational basis for Christianity. The word "apologetic" comes from the Greek word "apologeomai", meaning "in defense of". Christian apologetics
Christian apologetics
has taken many forms over the centuries, starting with Paul the Apostle. The philosopher Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
presented five arguments for God's existence in the Summa Theologica, while his Summa contra Gentiles
Summa contra Gentiles
was a major apologetic work.[388][389] Another famous apologist, G. K. Chesterton, wrote in the early twentieth century about the benefits of religion and, specifically, Christianity. Famous for his use of paradox, Chesterton explained that while Christianity
Christianity
had the most mysteries, it was the most practical religion.[390][391] He pointed to the advance of Christian
Christian
civilizations as proof of its practicality.[392] The physicist and priest John Polkinghorne, in his Questions of Truth
Questions of Truth
discusses the subject of religion and science, a topic that other Christian
Christian
apologists such as Ravi Zacharias, John Lennox and William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig
have engaged, with the latter two men opining that the inflationary Big Bang model is evidence for the existence of God.[393] See also

Book: Abrahamic religions Book: Christianity Book: Christianity: A History

Christian
Christian
mythology Christianity
Christianity
and politics Christianity
Christianity
and Theosophy Church architecture Manichaeism One true church Outline of Christianity

Christianity
Christianity
portal Religion
Religion
portal Spirituality
Spirituality
portal

Notes

^ From Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
Greek: Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin
Latin
suffixes -ian and -itas. ^ a b The term "Christian" (Greek Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch[Acts 11:26] about 44 AD, meaning "followers of Christ". The name was given by the non- Jewish
Jewish
inhabitants of Antioch
Antioch
to the disciples of Jesus. In the New Testament
New Testament
the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints", and "believers". The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Greek Χριστιανισμός) was by Ignatius of Antioch, around 100 AD.[1] ^ "Good news" is a translation of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
term εὐαγγέλιον euangélion, from which the terms evangelical and evangelism derive. ^ A flexible term; defined as all forms of Protestantism
Protestantism
with the notable exception of the historical denominations deriving directly from the Protestant
Protestant
Reformation.

References

^ a b Christianity's status as monotheistic is affirmed in, among other sources, the Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia (article "Monotheism"); William F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; H. Richard Niebuhr; About.com, Monotheistic Religion
Religion
resources; Kirsch, God Against the Gods; Woodhead, An Introduction to Christianity; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Monotheism; The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, monotheism; New Dictionary of Theology, Paul, pp. 496–99; Meconi. " Pagan
Pagan
Monotheism
Monotheism
in Late Antiquity". p. 111f. ^ Zoll, Rachel (19 December 2011). "Study: Christian
Christian
population shifts from Europe". Associated Press. Retrieved 25 February 2012.  ^ a b c "The Global Religious Landscape: Christianity" (PDF). Pew Research Center. December 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.  ^ a b 33.39% of ~7.2 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World". The World Factbook. CIA.  ^ a b " Christianity
Christianity
2015: Religious Diversity and Personal Contact" (PDF). gordonconwell.edu. January 2015. Retrieved 29 May 2015.  ^ a b c d e ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Global Christianity". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 17 August 2012.  ^ Woodhead, Linda (2004). Christianity: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University
University
Press. pp. n.p.  ^ Religions in Global Society – Page 146, Peter Beyer – 2006 ^ a b Cambridge University
University
Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects, p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era. ^ a b c Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity
Christianity
and Western Civilization (1953), Stanford University
University
Press, p.2: "That certain distinctive features of our Western civilization
Western civilization
— the civilization of western Europe
Europe
and of America— have been shaped chiefly by Judaeo – Graeco – Christianity, Catholic
Catholic
and Protestant." ^ Horst Hutter, University
University
of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato. ^ Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization
Western civilization
is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization. ^ Stephen
Stephen
Benko (1984). Pagan
Pagan
Rome and the Early Christians. Indiana University
University
Press. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-253-34286-7.  ^ Doris L. Bergen (9 November 2000). Twisted Cross: The German Christian
Christian
Movement in the Third Reich. Univ of North Carolina Press. pp. 60–. ISBN 978-0-8078-6034-2.  ^ Catherine Cory (13 August 2015). Christian
Christian
Theological Tradition. Routledge. pp. 20–. ISBN 978-1-317-34958-7.  ^ a b Robinson 2000, p. 229 ^ a b Esler. The Early Christian
Christian
World. p. 157f. ^ Religion
Religion
in the Roman Empire, Wiley-Blackwell, by James B. Rives, page 196 ^ Catholic
Catholic
encyclopedia New Advent ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, pp. 301–03. ^ Muslim- Christian
Christian
Relations. Amsterdam University
University
Press. 2006. ISBN 978-90-5356-938-2. Retrieved 18 October 2007. The enthusiasm for evangelization among the Christians
Christians
was also accompanied by the awareness that the most immediate problem to solve was how to serve the huge number of new converts. Simatupang said, if the number of the Christians
Christians
were double or triple, then the number of the ministers should also be doubled or tripled and the tole of the laity should be maximized and Christian
Christian
service to society through schools, universities, hospitals and orphanages, should be increased. In addition, for him the Christian mission
Christian mission
should be involved in the struggle for justice amid the process of modernization.  ^ Fred Kammer (1 May 2004). Doing Faith
Faith
Justice. Paulist Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-8091-4227-9. Retrieved 18 October 2007. Theologians, bishops, and preachers urged the Christian
Christian
community to be as compassionate as their God
God
was, reiterating that creation was for all of humanity. They also accepted and developed the identification of Christ with the poor and the requisite Christian duty to the poor. Religious congregations and individual charismatic leaders promoted the development of a number of helping institutions-hospitals, hospices for pilgrims, orphanages, shelters for unwed mothers-that laid the foundation for the modern "large network of hospitals, orphanages and schools, to serve the poor and society at large."  ^ Christian Church
Christian Church
Women: Shapers of a Movement. Chalice Press. March 1994. ISBN 978-0-8272-0463-8. Retrieved 18 October 2007. In the central provinces of India they established schools, orphanages, hospitals, and churches, and spread the gospel message in zenanas.  ^ Herbermann, Charles George (1908). The Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company,. pp. 272, 273. ISBN 978-1174601828.  ^ S. T. Kimbrough, ed. (2005). Orthodox and Wesleyan Scriptural understanding and practice. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-301-4.  ^ Olson, The Mosaic of Christian
Christian
Belief. ^ Ehrman, Bart (2003). "Introduction: Recouping Our Losses". Lost Christianities: the battles for scripture and the faiths we never knew. Oxford, New York: Oxford University
University
Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-19-518249-1. Many of these Christian
Christian
groups, of course, refuse to consider other such groups Christian.  ^ Avis, Paul (2002) The Christian
Christian
Church: An Introduction to the Major Traditions, SPCK, London, ISBN 0-281-05246-8 paperback ^ White, Howard A. The History of the Church. ^ Cummins, Duane D. (1991). A handbook for Today's Disciples in the Christian Church
Christian Church
(Disciples of Christ) (Revised ed.). St Louis, MO: Chalice Press. ISBN 0-8272-1425-1.  ^ a b Ron Rhodes, The Complete Guide to Christian
Christian
Denominations, Harvest House Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0-7369-1289-4 ^ Pelikan/Hotchkiss, Creeds and Confessions of Faith
Faith
in the Christian Tradition. ^ ""We Believe in One God….": The Nicene Creed
Creed
and Mass". Catholics United for the Fath. February 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2014. (Registration required (help)).  ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, "Arianism". ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "Council of Ephesus". ^ Christian
Christian
History Institute, First Meeting of the Council of Chalcedon. ^ Peter Theodore Farrington (February 2006). "The Oriental Orthodox Rejection of Chalcedon". Glastonbury Review. The British Orthodox Church (113). Archived from the original on 19 June 2008.  ^ Pope
Pope
Leo I, Letter to Flavian ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "Athanasian Creed". ^ a b "Our Common Heritage as Christians". The United Methodist Church. Archived from the original on 14 January 2006. Retrieved 31 December 2007.  ^ Metzger/Coogan, Oxford Companion to the Bible, pp. 513, 649. ^ Acts 2:24, 2:31–32, 3:15, 3:26, 4:10, 5:30, 10:40–41, 13:30, 13:34, 13:37, 17:30–31, Romans 10:9, 1 Cor. 15:15, 6:14, 2 Cor. 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, 1 Thess. 11:10, Heb. 13:20, 1 Pet. 1:3, 1:21 ^ Wikisource:Nicene Creed ^ Hanegraaff. Resurrection: The Capstone in the Arch of Christianity. ^ "The Significance of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus
Jesus
for the Christian". Australian Catholic
Catholic
University
University
National. Archived from the original on 1 September 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2007.  ^ John, 5:24, 6:39–40, 6:47, 10:10, 11:25–26, and 17:3 ^ This is drawn from a number of sources, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation
Reformation
including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book
Book
of Concord. ^ Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament
New Testament
Christology, p. 11. ^ A Jesus
Jesus
Seminar conclusion: "in the view of the Seminar, he did not rise bodily from the dead; the resurrection is based instead on visionary experiences of Peter, Paul, and Mary." ^ Funk. The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus
Jesus
Really Do?. ^ Lorenzen. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection Jesus
Jesus
Christ Today, p. 13. ^ Ball/Johnsson (ed.). The Essential Jesus. ^ a b Eisenbaum, Pamela (Winter 2004). "A Remedy for Having Been Born of Woman: Jesus, Gentiles, and Genealogy in Romans" (PDF). Journal of Biblical Literature. 123 (4): 671–702. doi:10.2307/3268465. JSTOR 3268465. Retrieved 3 April 2009. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ Wright, N.T. What Saint
Saint
Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus
Paul of Tarsus
the Real Founder of Christianity? (Oxford, 1997), p. 121. ^ CCC 846; Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 14 ^ See quotations from Council of Trent
Council of Trent
on Justification at Justforcatholics.org ^ Westminster Confession, Chapter X Archived 28 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.; Spurgeon, A Defense of Calvinism
Calvinism
Archived 10 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Grace and Justification". Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010.  ^ Definition of the Fourth Lateran Council
Fourth Lateran Council
quoted in Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
§253. ^ Kelly. Early Christian
Christian
Doctrines. pp. 87–90. ^ Alexander. New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. p. 514f. ^ McGrath. Historical Theology. p. 61. ^ Metzger/Coogan. Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 782. ^ Kelly. The Athanasian Creed. ^ Oxford, "Encyclopedia Of Christianity, pg1207 ^ Heidi J. Hornik and Mikeal Carl Parsons, Interpreting Christian
Christian
Art: Reflections on Christian
Christian
art, Mercer University
University
Press, 2003, ISBN 0-86554-850-1, pp. 32–35. ^ Examples of ante-Nicene statements:

Hence all the power of magic became dissolved; and every bond of wickedness was destroyed, men's ignorance was taken away, and the old kingdom abolished God
God
Himself appearing in the form of a man, for the renewal of eternal life. — St. Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
in Letter to the Ephesians, ch.4, shorter version, Roberts-Donaldson translation

We have also as a Physician the Lord our God
God
Jesus
Jesus
the Christ the only-begotten Son and Word, before time began, but who afterwards became also man, of Mary the virgin. For 'the Word was made flesh.' Being incorporeal, He was in the body; being impassible, He was in a passable body; being immortal, He was in a mortal body; being life, He became subject to corruption, that He might free our souls from death and corruption, and heal them, and might restore them to health, when they were diseased with ungodliness and wicked lusts — St. Ignatius of Antioch
Ignatius of Antioch
in Letter to the Ephesians, ch.7, shorter version, Roberts-Donaldson translation

The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: ...one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion, and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and His manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father 'to gather all things in one,' and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, 'every knee should bow, of things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the earth, and that every tongue should confess; to him, and that He should execute just judgment towards all... — St. Irenaeus
Irenaeus
in Against Heresies, ch.X, v.I, Donaldson, Sir James (1950), Ante Nicene Fathers, Volume 1: Apostolic Fathers, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., ISBN 978-0802880871 

For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Savior Jesus
Jesus
Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water —  Justin Martyr
Justin Martyr
in First Apology, ch. LXI, Donaldson, Sir James (1950), Ante Nicene Fathers, Volume 1: Apostolic Fathers, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, ISBN 978-0802880871 

^ Olson, Roger E. (2002). The Trinity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8028-4827-7.  ^ Fowler. World Religions: An Introduction for Students. p. 58. ^ Theophilus of Antioch
Theophilus of Antioch
Apologia ad Autolycum II 15 ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 50. ^ Tertullian
Tertullian
De Pudicitia chapter 21 ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 53. ^ Moltman, Jurgen. The Trinity
Trinity
and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God. Tr. from German. Fortress Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8006-2825-X ^ Harnack, History of Dogma. ^ Pocket Dictionary of Church History Nathan P. Feldmeth p.135 "Unitarianism. Unitarians emerged from Protestant
Protestant
Christian
Christian
beginnings in the sixteenth century with a central focus on the unity of God
God
and subsequent denial of the doctrine of the Trinity" ^ Virkler, Henry A. (2007). Ayayo, Karelynne Gerber, ed. Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids, USA: Baker Academic. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8010-3138-0.  ^ "Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture". Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. (§105–108) ^ Second Helvetic Confession, Of the Holy Scripture Being the True Word of God ^ Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, online text ^ Metzger/Coogan, Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 39. ^ a b Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: the story behind who changed the Bible
Bible
and why. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco ISBN 978-0060738174 pages 209, 183 ^ "1 Timothy 2:11–12 NIV – A woman should learn in quietness and". Bible
Bible
Gateway. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "1 corinthians 14:34–35 NIV – Women should remain silent in the". Bible
Bible
Gateway. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "1 corinthians 11:2–16 NIV – On Covering the Head in Worship
Worship
– I". Bible
Bible
Gateway. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Wright, N.T. (1992). The New Testament
New Testament
and the People of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. pp. 435–443. ISBN 978-0-8006-2681-5.  ^ "The Gospel
Gospel
of Thomas Collection – Translations and Resources". Gnosis.org. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Luke 17:20–21 NIV – The Coming of the Kingdom of God". Bible Gateway. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ "Reflections on religions". Mmnet.com.au. Retrieved 12 March 2013.  ^ Kelly. Early Christian
Christian
Doctrines. pp. 69–78. ^ Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture § 115–118. Archived 25 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Thomas Aquinas, "Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses" Archived 6 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, §116 Archived 25 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19) Archived 31 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, "The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture" § 113. Archived 25 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, "The Interpretation of the Heritage of Faith" § 85. Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Keith A. Mathison (2001). "Introduction". The Shape of Sola Scriptura. Canon Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-885767-74-5.  ^ a b Foutz, Scott David. " Martin Luther
Martin Luther
and Scripture". Quodlibet Journal. Archived from the original on 14 April 2000. Retrieved 16 June 2014.  ^ John Calvin, Commentaries on the Catholic
Catholic
Epistles 2 Peter 3:14–18 ^ "The Second Helvetic Confession, Chapter 2 – Of Interpreting the Holy Scriptures; and of Fathers, Councils, and Traditions". Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). 11 December 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2015.  ^ Sproul. Knowing Scripture, pp. 45–61; Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (article 6). ^ a b Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical
Evangelical
Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book
Book
House. p. 565. ISBN 978-0-8010-3413-8.  ^ Johnson, Elliott (1990). Expository hermeneutics : an introduction. Grand Rapids Mich.: Academie Books. ISBN 978-0-310-34160-4.  ^ Terry, Milton (1974). Biblical hermeneutics : a treatise on the interpretation of the Old and New Testaments. Grand Rapids Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House. p. 205.  (1890 edition page 103, view1, view2) ^ e.g., in his commentary on Matthew 1 (§III.1). Matthew Henry interprets the twin sons of Judah, Phares and Zara, as an allegory of the Gentile and Jewish
Jewish
Christians. For a contemporary treatment, see Glenny, Typology: A Summary Of The Present Evangelical
Evangelical
Discussion. ^ a b Gill, N.S. "Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?". About.com. Retrieved 8 October 2011. Armenia
Armenia
is considered the first nation to have adopted Christianity
Christianity
as the state religion in a traditional date of c. A.D. 301.  ^ Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologicum, Supplementum Tertiae Partis questions 69 through 99 ^ Calvin, John. "Institutes of the Christian
Christian
Religion, Book
Book
Three, Ch. 25". www.reformed.org. Retrieved 1 January 2008.  ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "Particular Judgment". ^ Ott, Grundriß der Dogmatik, p. 566. ^ David Moser, What the Orthodox believe concerning prayer for the dead. ^ Ken Collins, What Happens to Me When I Die?. ^ "Audience of 4 August 1999". Vatican.va. 4 August 1999. Retrieved 19 November 2010.  ^ Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "The Communion of Saints". ^ "The death that Adam brought into the world is spiritual as well as physical, and only those who gain entrance into the Kingdom of God will exist eternally. However, this division will not occur until Armageddon, when all people will be resurrected and given a chance to gain eternal life. In the meantime, "the dead are conscious of nothing." What is God's Purpose for the Earth?" Official Site of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower, 15 July 2002. ^ a b Justin Martyr, First Apology §LXVII ^ Ignazio Silone, Bread and Wine (1937). ^ a b c Cross/Livingstone. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. p. 1435f. ^ Holy Apostolic Catholic
Catholic
Assyrian Church of the East, Archdiocese of Australia, New Zealand and Lebanon. ^ a b Fortescue, Adrian (1912). " Christian
Christian
Calendar". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 18 July 2014.  ^ Hickman. Handbook of the Christian
Christian
Year. ^ "ANF04. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian, Part Fourth; Minucius Felix; Commodian; Origen, Parts First and Second Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org. 1 June 2005. Retrieved 5 May 2009.  ^ Minucius Felix speaks of the cross of Jesus
Jesus
in its familiar form, likening it to objects with a crossbeam or to a man with arms outstretched in prayer (Octavius of Minucius Felix, chapter XXIX). ^ "At every forward step and movement, at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the sign." (Tertullian, De Corona, chapter 3) ^ a b Dilasser. The Symbols of the Church. ^ a b Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia, "Symbolism of the Fish". ^ "Through Baptism
Baptism
we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God; we become members of Christ, are incorporated into the Church and made sharers in her mission" (Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, 1213 Archived 22 July 2016 at the Wayback Machine.); "Holy Baptism
Baptism
is the sacrament by which God
God
adopts us as his children and makes us members of Christ's Body, the Church, and inheritors of the kingdom of God" ( Book
Book
of Common Prayer, 1979, Episcopal ); " Baptism
Baptism
is the sacrament of initiation and incorporation into the body of Christ" (By Water and The Spirit – The Official United Methodist
Methodist
Understanding of Baptism (PDF) Archived 13 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.; "As an initiatory rite into membership of the Family
Family
of God, baptismal candidates are symbolically purified or washed as their sins have been forgiven and washed away" (William H. Brackney, Doing Baptism
Baptism
Baptist Style – Believer's Baptism
Baptism
Archived 7 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.) ^ "After the proclamation of faith, the baptismal water is prayed over and blessed as the sign of the goodness of God's creation. The person to be baptized is also prayed over and blessed with sanctified oil as the sign that his creation by God
God
is holy and good. And then, after the solemn proclamation of "Alleluia" ( God
God
be praised), the person is immersed three times in the water in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit" ( Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
in America: Baptism). ^ "In the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
we totally immerse, because such total immersion symbolizes death. What death? The death of the "old, sinful man". After Baptism
Baptism
we are freed from the dominion of sin, even though after Baptism
Baptism
we retain an inclination and tendency toward evil.", Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of Australia, article " Baptism
Baptism
Archived 30 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine.". ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
403, 1231, 1233, 1250, 1252. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
1240. ^ a b Alexander, T. D.; Rosner, B. S, eds. (2001). "Prayer". New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.  ^ Ferguson, S. B. & Packer, J. (1988). "Saints". New Dictionary of Theology. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.  ^ Madeleine Gray, The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation, (Sussex Academic Press, 2003), page 140. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church: Part Four – Christian
Christian
Prayer". Va. Retrieved 19 November 2010. [dead link] ^ Rennie, Bryan. "Zoroastrianism: The Iranian Roots of Christianity".  ^ Bowker, John (1997). World Religions: The Great Faiths Explored & Explained. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 13. ISBN 0-7894-1439-2.  ^ "The World Factbook: Armenia". CIA. Retrieved 8 October 2011.  ^ Brunner, Borgna (2006). Time Almanac with Information Please 2007. New York: Time Home Entertainment. p. 685. ISBN 978-1-933405-49-0.  ^ Theo Maarten van Lint (2009). "The Formation of Armenian Identity in the First Millenium". Church History and Religious Culture. 89 (1/3,): 269.  ^ Theodosian Code XVI.i.2, in: Bettenson. Documents of the Christian Church. p. 31. ^ a b Orlandis, A Short History of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
(1993), preface. ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 37f. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, the author of Ecclesiastical History in the 4th century, states that St. Mark came to Egypt
Egypt
in the first or third year of the reign of Emperor Claudius, i.e. 41 or 43 AD. "Two Thousand years of Coptic Christianity" Otto F.A. Meinardus p28. ^ Neil Lettinga. "A History of the Christian Church
Christian Church
in Western North Africa". Archived from the original on 30 July 2001.  ^ "Allaboutreligion.org". Allaboutreligion.org. Archived from the original on 16 November 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2010.  ^ Cameron 2006, pp. 42. ^ Cameron 2006, pp. 47. ^ Browning 1992, pp. 198–208. ^ Browning 1992, p. 218. ^ a b c d Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 238–42. ^ Mullin, 2008, p. 88. ^ Mullin, 2008, p. 93–4. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 244–47. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, p. 260. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 278–81. ^ Rudy, The Universities
Universities
of Europe, 1100–1914, p. 40 ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 305, 312, 314f.. ^ a b Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University
University
as a European Institution", in: A History of the University
University
in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities
Universities
in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University
University
Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX ^ a b Verger, Jacques (1999). Culture, enseignement et société en Occident aux XIIe et XIIIe siècles (in French) (1st ed.). Presses universitaires de Rennes in Rennes. ISBN 286847344X. Retrieved 17 June 2014.  ^ Riché, Pierre (1978): " Education
Education
and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century", Columbia: University
University
of South Carolina Press, ISBN 0-87249-376-8, pp. 126–7, 282–98 ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 303–07, 310f., 384–86. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 305, 310f., 316f. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 321–23, 365f. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 292–300. ^ Riley-Smith. The Oxford History of the Crusades. ^ The Western Church was called Latin
Latin
at the time by the Eastern Christians
Christians
and non Christians
Christians
due to its conducting of its rituals and affairs in the Latin
Latin
language ^ "The Great Schism: The Estrangement of Eastern and Western Christendom". Orthodox Information Centre. Retrieved 26 May 2007.  ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 91 ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 300, 304–05. ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 310, 383, 385, 391. ^ Simon. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. p. 7. ^ a b Simon. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. pp. 39, 55–61. ^ Schama. A History of Britain. pp. 306–10. ^ National Geographic, 254. ^ Jensen, De Lamar (1992), Renaissance
Renaissance
Europe, ISBN 0-395-88947-2 ^ Levey, Michael (1967). Early Renaissance. Penguin Books.  ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, pp. 242–44. ^ Simon. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. pp. 109–120. ^ A general overview about the English discussion is given in Coffey, Persecution and Toleration
Toleration
in Protestant
Protestant
England
England
1558–1689. ^ Novak, Michael (1988). Catholic
Catholic
social thought and liberal institutions: Freedom with justice. Transaction. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-88738-763-0.  ^ Mortimer Chambers, The Western Experience (vol. 2) chapter 21. ^ Religion
Religion
and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival, and Revival, by Christopher Marsh, page 47. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2011. ^ Inside Central Asia: A Political and Cultural History, by Dilip Hiro. Penguin, 2009. ^ Adappur, Abraham (2000). Religion
Religion
and the Cultural Crisis in India and the West. Intercultural Publications. ISBN 978-81-85574-47-9. Forced Conversion under Atheistic Regimes: It might be added that the most modern example of forced "conversions" came not from any theocratic state, but from a professedly atheist government — that of the Soviet Union under the Communists.  ^ Geoffrey Blainey; A Short History of Christianity; Viking; 2011; p.494" ^ Altermatt, Urs (2007). "Katholizismus und Nation: Vier Modelle in europäisch-vergleichender Perspektive". In Urs Altermatt, Franziska Metzger. Religion
Religion
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Jesus
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Jewish
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Christian
narrative of creation'. ... William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig
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God
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Toleration
in Protestant
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England 1558–1689. Pearson Education
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(2000). Cross, F. L.; Livingstone, E. A. (ed.). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian
Christian
Church. Oxford University
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Press (1997). ISBN 0-19-211655-X. Deppermann, Klaus. Melchior Hoffman: Social Unrest and Apocalyptic Vision in the Age of Reformation. ISBN 0-567-08654-2. Dilasser, Maurice. The Symbols of the Church. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press (1999). ISBN 0-8146-2538-X Duffy, Eamon. Saints and Sinners, a History of the Popes. Yale University
University
Press (1997). ISBN 0-300-07332-1 Elwell, Walter A.; Comfort, Philip Wesley. Tyndale Bible
Bible
Dictionary, Tyndale House Publishers (2001). ISBN 0-8423-7089-7. Esler, Philip F. The Early Christian
Christian
World. Routledge (2004). Farrar, F.W. Mercy and Judgment. A Few Last Words On Christian Eschatology
Eschatology
With Reference to Dr. Pusey's, "What Is Of Faith?". Macmillan, London/New York (1904). Ferguson, Sinclair; Wright, David, eds. New Dictionary of Theology. consulting ed. Packer, James. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press (1988). ISBN 0-85110-636-6 Foutz, Scott. Martin Luther
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and Scripture Martin Luther
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and Scripture. Fowler, Jeaneane D. World Religions: An Introduction for Students, Sussex Academic Press (1997). ISBN 1-898723-48-6. Fuller, Reginald H. The Foundations of New Testament
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Year. Abingdon Press (1986). ISBN 0-687-16575-X Hinnells, John R. The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion (2005). Hitchcock, Susan Tyler. Geography of Religion. National Geographic Society (2004) ISBN 0-7922-7313-3 Kelly, J.N.D. Early Christian
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Doctrines. Kelly, J.N.D. The Athanasian Creed. Harper & Row, New York (1964). Kirsch, Jonathan. God
God
Against the Gods. Kreeft, Peter. Catholic
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Christianity. Ignatius Press (2001) ISBN 0-89870-798-6 Letham, Robert. The Holy Trinity
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in Scripture, History, Theology, and Worship. P & R Publishing (2005). ISBN 0-87552-000-6. Lorenzen, Thorwald. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection Jesus
Jesus
Christ Today. Smyth & Helwys (2003). ISBN 1-57312-399-4. McLaughlin, R. Emmet, Caspar Schwenckfeld, reluctant radical: his life to 1540, New Haven: Yale University
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Values
and Lifestyles. FT Press (2003). ISBN 0-13-065480-9 Marthaler, Berard. Introducing the Catechism of the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Traditional Themes and Contemporary Issues. Paulist Press
Paulist Press
(1994). ISBN 0-8091-3495-0 Mathison, Keith. The Shape of Sola Scriptura
The Shape of Sola Scriptura
(2001). McClintock, John, Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological, and Ecclesiastical Literature. Harper &Brothers, original from Harvard University
University
(1889) McGrath, Alister E. Christianity: An Introduction. Blackwell Publishing (2006). ISBN 1-4051-0899-1. McGrath, Alister E. Historical Theology. McManners, John. Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Oxford University
University
Press (1990). ISBN 0-19-822928-3. Meconi, David Vincent. " Pagan
Pagan
Monotheism
Monotheism
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John Knox
Press (2008). Norman, Edward. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
Church, An Illustrated History. University
University
of California (2007) ISBN 978-0-520-25251-6 Olson, Roger E., The Mosaic of Christian
Christian
Belief. InterVarsity Press (2002). ISBN 978-0-8308-2695-7. Orlandis, Jose, A Short History of the Catholic
Catholic
Church. Scepter Publishers (1993) ISBN 1-85182-125-2 Ott, Ludwig. Grundriß der Dogmatik. Herder, Freiburg (1965). Otten, Herman J. Baal or God? Liberalism
Liberalism
or Christianity, Fantasy vs. Truth: Beliefs and Practices of the Churches of the World Today.... Second ed. New Haven, Mo.: Lutheran
Lutheran
News, 1988. Pelikan, Jaroslav; Hotchkiss, Valerie (ed.) Creeds and Confessions of Faith
Faith
in the Christian
Christian
Tradition. Yale University
University
Press (2003). ISBN 0-300-09389-6. Putnam, Robert D. Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society. Oxford University
University
Press (2002). Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford History of the Crusades. New York: Oxford University
University
Press, (1999). Robinson, George (2000). Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs and Rituals. New York: Pocket Books. ISBN 978-0-671-03481-8.  Schama, Simon . A History of Britain. Hyperion (2000). ISBN 0-7868-6675-6. Servetus, Michael. Restoration of Christianity. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press (2007). Simon, Edith. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. Time-Life Books (1966). ISBN 0-662-27820-8. Smith, J.Z. (1998). Spitz, Lewis. The Protestant
Protestant
Reformation. Concordia Publishing House (2003). ISBN 0-570-03320-9. Sproul, R.C. Knowing Scripture. Spurgeon, Charles. A Defense of Calvinism. Sykes, Stephen; Booty, John; Knight, Jonathan. The Study of Anglicanism. Augsburg Fortress Publishers (1998). ISBN 0-8006-3151-X. Talbott, Thomas. Three Pictures of God
God
in Western Theology" (1995). Ustorf, Werner. "A missiological postscript", in: McLeod, Hugh; Ustorf, Werner (ed.). The Decline of Christendom
Christendom
in Western Europe, 1750–2000. Cambridge University
University
Press (2003). Walsh, Chad. Campus Gods on Trial. Rev. and enl. ed. New York: Macmillan Co., 1962, t.p. 1964. xiv, [4], 154 p. Woodhead, Linda. An Introduction to Christianity. Woods, Thomas E. (2005). How the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
Built Western Civilization. Washington, DC: Regnery. 

Further reading

Gill, Robin (2001). The Cambridge companion to Christian
Christian
ethics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 0-521-77918-9.  Gunton, Colin E. (1997). The Cambridge companion to Christian doctrine. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University
University
Press. ISBN 0-521-47695-X.  MacCulloch, Diarmaid. Christianity: The First Three Thousand Years (Viking; 2010) 1,161 pages; survey by leading historian MacMullen, Ramsay (2006). Voting About God
God
in Early Church Councils. New Haven, CT: Yale University
University
Press. ISBN 0-300-11596-2.  Padgett, Alan G.; Sally Bruyneel (2003). Introducing Christianity. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. ISBN 1-57075-395-4.  Price, Matthew Arlen; Collins, Michael (1999). The story of Christianity. New York: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0467-0.  Ratzinger, Joseph (2004). Introduction To Christianity
Christianity
(Communio Books). San Francisco: Ignatius Press. ISBN 1-58617-029-5.  Roper, J.C., Bp. (1923), et al.. Faith
Faith
in God, in series, Layman's Library of Practical Religion, Church of England
Church of England
in Canada, vol. 2. Toronto, Ont.: Musson Book
Book
Co. N.B.: The series statement is given in the more extended form which appears on the book's front cover. Tucker, Karen; Wainwright, Geoffrey (2006). The Oxford history of Christian
Christian
worship. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 0-19-513886-4.  Wagner, Richard (2004). Christianity
Christianity
for Dummies. For Dummies. ISBN 0-7645-4482-9.  Webb, Jeffrey B. (2004). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Christianity. Indianapolis, Ind: Alpha Books. ISBN 1-59257-176-X.  Wills, Garry, "A Wild and Indecent Book" (review of David Bentley Hart, The New Testament: A Translation, Yale University
University
Press, 577 pp.), The New York Review of Books, vol. LXV, no. 2 (8 February 2018), pp. 34–35. Discusses some pitfalls in interpreting and translating the New Testament. Woodhead, Linda (2004). Christianity: a very short introduction. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University
University
Press. ISBN 0-19-280322-0. 

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