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Nasamones
The Nasamones were a nomadic Berber tribe inhabiting southeast Libya. They were mistakenly believed to be a Numidian people, along with the Garamantes.[1] History[edit] The Nasamones were centered in the oases of Augila and Siwa in the Libyan Desert. They used war chariots, like the Garamantes. They were known to attack the Greek colonies in Cyrenaica. During the Peloponnesian War, the citizens of Euesperides
Euesperides
received aid from the Spartan general Gylippus, who helped defend the town from the Nasamones on his way to Sicily. Later, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
recounts that the Nasamones defeated the Psylli tribe in a war, expelling them from the area
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Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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Pliny The Elder
Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian. Spending most of his spare time studying, writing, and investigating natural and geographic phenomena in the field, Pliny wrote the encyclopedic Naturalis Historia
Naturalis Historia
(Natural History), which became an editorial model for encyclopedias. His nephew, Pliny the Younger, wrote of him in a letter to the historian Tacitus:For my part I deem those blessed to whom, by favour of the gods, it has been granted either to do what is worth writing of, or to write what is worth reading; above measure blessed those on whom both gifts have been conferred
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Musulamii
The Musulamii
Musulamii
were a confederation of the Berber Gaetulian tribes,[1] who inhabited the desert regions of what is today known as Chotts Regions in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria, as well as the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, which was annexed to the Roman empire in 44 AD
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Islamic Conquests
Islamic expansion:   under Muhammad, 622–632   under Rashidun
Rashidun
caliphs, 632–661   under Umayyad caliphs, 661–750BelligerentsSee list Sasanian Empire Lakhmids Byzantine
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Libya
Libya
Libya
(/ˈlɪbiə/ ( listen); Arabic: ليبيا‎),[6][7] officially the State of Libya
Libya
(Arabic: دولة ليبيا‎ Dawlat Lībyā),[citation needed][dubious – discuss] is a sovereign state in the Maghreb
Maghreb
region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt
Egypt
to the east, Sudan
Sudan
to the southeast, Chad
Chad
and Niger
Niger
to the south, and Algeria
Algeria
and Tunisia
Tunisia
to the west. The country is made of three historical regions, Tripolitania, Fezzan, and Cyrenaica
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Procopius
Procopius
Procopius
of Caesarea
Caesarea
(Greek: Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokópios ho Kaisareús; Latin: Procopius Caesariensis; c. 500 – c. after 565) was a prominent late antique Byzantine Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.[a] Accompanying the Byzantine general Belisarius
Belisarius
in Emperor Justinian's wars, Procopius
Procopius
became the principal Byzantine historian of the 6th century, writing the History of the Wars, the Buildings, and the Secret History
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Eastern Roman Empire
The Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.[2] During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
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Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 6th century
6th century
to the 10th century
10th century
CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
of European history. The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the decline of the Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire
and preceded the High Middle Ages (c. 10th to 13th centuries). The Early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
overlap with Late Antiquity. The term "Late Antiquity" is used to emphasize elements of continuity with the Roman Empire, while "Early Middle Ages" is used to emphasize developments characteristic of the later medieval period. The period saw a continuation of trends begun during late classical antiquity, including population decline, especially in urban centres, a decline of trade, and increased immigration
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Late Antiquity
Late antiquity
Late antiquity
is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world, and the Near East. The development of the periodization has generally been accredited to historian Peter Brown, after the publication of his seminal work The World of Late Antiquity (1971). Precise boundaries for the period are a continuing matter of debate, but Brown proposes a period between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Generally, it can be thought of as from the end of the Roman Empire's Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
(c. 235 – 284) to, in the East, the Muslim conquests
Muslim conquests
in the mid-7th century
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Cassius Dio
Cassius Dio or Dio Cassius[note 2] (/ˈkæʃəs ˈdiːoʊ/; c. 155–235)[note 3] was a Roman statesman and historian of Greek origin. He published 80 volumes of history on Ancient Rome, beginning with the arrival of Aeneas
Aeneas
in Italy. The volumes documented the subsequent founding of Rome (753 BC), the formation of the Republic (509 BC), and the creation of the Empire (31 BC), up until 229 AD. Written in Ancient Greek over 22 years, Dio's work covers approximately 1,000 years of history. Many of his 80 books have survived intact, or as fragments, providing modern scholars with a detailed perspective on Roman history.Contents1 Biography 2 Roman History 3 Literary style 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit] Lucius Cassius Dio was the son of Cassius Apronianus, a Roman senator, who was born and raised at Nicaea
Nicaea
in Bithynia
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Creta Et Cyrenaica
Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(Latin: Provincia Creta et Cyrenaica) was a senatorial province of the Roman empire, established in 67 BC. It comprised the island of Crete
Crete
and the region of Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
in present-day Libya.Contents1 Apion's will and Roman rule of Cyrenaica 2 Roman conquest of Crete 3 Province3.1 List of Roman governors4 ReferencesApion's will and Roman rule of Cyrenaica[edit] Ptolemy Apion, the last king of the Hellenistic
Hellenistic
Kingdom of Cyrenaica left his kingdom to the Roman Republic when he died childless in 96BCE.[1] Rome readily accepted this inheritance from Ptolemy Apion but preferred to leave the administration to local rulers, rather than enforcing direct control. However, by the 70s BC, civil uprisings by Jewish settlers began to destabilise the province and the Senate was forced to take action
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Augustus
Augustus
Augustus
(Latin: Imperator
Imperator
Caesar Divi filius Augustus;[note 1] 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who served as the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome
Rome
from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.[note 2] His status as the founder of the Roman Principate
Principate
has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in human history.[1][2] He was born Gaius Octavius Thurinus into an old and wealthy equestrian branch of the plebeian gens Octavia. His maternal great-uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated in 44 BC, and Octavius was named in Caesar's will as his adopted son and heir
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Publius Sulpicius Quirinus
Publius Sulpicius Quirinius
Quirinius
(c. 51 BC – AD 21) was a Roman aristocrat. After the banishment of the ethnarch Herod Archelaus
Herod Archelaus
from the tetrarchy of Judea
Judea
in AD 6, Quirinius
Quirinius
was appointed legate governor of Syria, to which the province of Judaea had been added for the purpose of a census.[1]Contents1 Life 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] Born into an undistinguished family in the neighborhood of Lanuvium, a Latin town near Rome, Quirinius
Quirinius
followed the normal pathway of service for an ambitious young man of his social class
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Sicily
Sicily
Sicily
(/ˈsɪsɪli/ SISS-i-lee; Italian: Sicilia [siˈtʃiːlja], Sicilian: Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. It is an autonomous region of Italy, in Southern Italy
Italy
along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana. Sicily
Sicily
is located in the central Mediterranean Sea, south of the Italian Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Strait of Messina. Its most prominent landmark is Mount Etna, the tallest active volcano in Europe,[4] and one of the most active in the world, currently 3,329 m (10,922 ft) high
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Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
(/saɪrəˈneɪ.ɪkə/ SY-rə-NAY-ik-ə; Latin: Cyrenaica (Provincia), Ancient Greek: Κυρηναία (ἐπαρχία) Kyrēnaíā (eparkhíā), after the city of Cyrene; Arabic: برقة‎ Barqah) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as Pentapolis ("Five Cities") in antiquity, it formed part of the Roman province
Roman province
of Crete
Crete
and Cyrenaica, later divided into Libya Pentapolis and Libya
Libya
Sicca. During the Islamic period, the area came to be known as Barqa, after the city of Barca. Cyrenaica
Cyrenaica
was the name of an administrative division of Italian Libya from 1927 until 1943, then under British military and civil administration from 1943 until 1951, and finally in the Kingdom of Libya
Libya
from 1951 until 1963
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