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Mochica (also Yunga, Yunca, Chimú, Muchic, Mochika, Muchik, Chimu) is a Chimuan language formerly spoken along the northwest coast of Peru and in an inland village. First documented in 1607, the language was widely spoken in the area during the 17th and early 18th century. By the end of the 19th century the language was dying out and spoken only by a few people in the village of Etén in Chiclayo. It died out as a spoken language around 1920, but certain words and phrases continued to be used until the 1960s.[2] It is a best known as the supposed language of the Moche culture, as well as the Chimú culture/Chimor.Contents1 Linguistic category 2 Phonology2.1 Vowels3 Surviving records 4 Learning program 5 References 6 External linksLinguistic category[edit] Mochica is typologically different from the other main languages on the west coast of South America, namely the Quechuan languages, Aymara, and the Mapuche language

Uru Of Ch'imu
Uru of Ch'imu is an extinct language of the Uros, an Amerindian people. Speakers lived on reed islands in Puno
Bay in western Lake Titicaca in Peru. Ch'imu Uru was discovered in 1929 by Lehmann, whose notes are in the Library of the Ibero-American Institute
Ibero-American Institute
in Berlin

The tonada is a folk music style of Spain
and some countries of Hispanic America
Hispanic America
(mainly Argentina, Chile, Peru, Bolivia
and Venezuela)

Oblique Case
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated OBL; from Latin: casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr. OBJ) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition. A noun or pronoun in the oblique case can generally appear in any role except as subject, for which the nominative case is used.[1] The term objective case is generally preferred by modern English grammarians, where it supplanted Old English's dative and accusative.[2][3] When the two terms are contrasted, they differ in the ability of a word in the oblique case to function as a possessive attributive; whether English has an oblique rather than an objective case then depends on how "proper" or widespread one considers the dialects where such usage is employed. An oblique case often contrasts with an unmarked case, as in English oblique him and them vs. nominative he and they

Active–stative Language
An active–stative language (active language for short), also commonly called a split intransitive language, is a language in which the sole argument ("subject") of an intransitive clause (often symbolized as S) is sometimes marked in the same way as an agent of a transitive verb (that is, like a subject such as "I" or "she" in English) but other times in the same way as a direct object (such as "me" or "her" in English). The case or agreement of the intransitive argument (S) depends on semantic or lexical criteria particular to each language. The criteria tend to be based on the degree of volition, or control over the verbal action exercised by the participant. For example, if one tripped and fell, an active–stative language might require them to say the equivalent of "fell me." To say "I fell" would mean that the person had done it on purpose, such as taking a fall in boxing

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Copula (linguistics)
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated cop) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin
noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.[1] A copula is often a verb or a verb-like word, though this is not universally the case.[2] A verb that is a copula is sometimes called a copulative or copular verb. In English primary education grammar courses, a copula is often called a linking verb. In other languages, copulas show more resemblances to pronouns, as in Classical Chinese and Guarani, or may take the form of suffixes attached to a noun, as in Beja and Inuit languages. Most languages have one main copula, although some (such as Spanish, Portuguese and Thai) have more than one, and some have none. In the case of English, this is the verb to be

Language Isolate
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language. Language isolates are in effect language families consisting of a single language. Commonly cited examples include Ainu, Basque, Korean, Sumerian, and Elamite, though in each case a minority of linguists claim to have demonstrated a relationship with other languages.[1] Some sources use the term "language isolate" to indicate a branch of a larger family with only one surviving daughter. For instance, Albanian, Armenian and Greek are commonly called Indo-European isolates. While part of the Indo-European family, they do not belong to any established branch (such as the Romance, Celtic or Slavic and Germanic branches), but instead form independent branches

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Museum Of Ethnology, Hamburg
The Museum of Ethnology, Hamburg
(German: Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg), founded in 1879, is today one of the largest museums of ethnology in Europe. The approximately 350,000 objects in the collection are visited every year by about 180,000 visitors. It lies in the Rotherbaum
quarter of the Eimsbüttel
borough in Hamburg. History[edit] The museum originated as a small ethnographic collection of the city library, begun in 1849. This collection later became part of the Museum for Natural History in Hamburg, and in 1867 was opened to the public as "Die Ethnographische oder Sammlung für Völkerkunde im Anschluss an das Naturhistorische Museum in Hamburg". The collection, which at that time numbered 645 objects, was curated by Adolph Oberdörfer and Ferdinand Worlée

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Codex Martínez Compañón
The Codex Martínez Compañón
Codex Martínez Compañón
(c.1782–1785), is a manuscript edited by the bishop of Trujillo, Peru, Baltasar Jaime Martínez Compañón, containing 1,411 watercolours and 20 musical scores documenting life in his diocese.[1][2] The musical examples in the bishop's text were probably written out by Pedro José Solis, maestro de capilla of Trujillo Cathedral
Trujillo Cathedral
from 1781 to 1823.[3]Contents1 The 1,411 illustrations1.1 External links to galleries2 The 20 musical examples2.1 Recordings3 References 4 External linksThe 1,411 illustrations[edit] The watercolour illustrations contain pictures of the life of the Indians, clothing, customs, and also extensive natural history. External links to galleries[edit]selection of thumbnails of treesThe 20 musical examples[edit]Trujillo CathedralThe pieces are mainly short, 2 or 3 minutes each

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs. Particularly in the study of Semitic languages, suffixes are called afformatives, as they can alter the form of the words. In Indo-European studies, a distinction is made between suffixes and endings (see Proto-Indo-European root). Suffixes can carry grammatical information or lexical information. An inflectional suffix is sometimes called a desinence[1] or a grammatical suffix[2] or ending

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Quingnam Language
The Quingnam language
Quingnam language
was a pre-Columbian language that was spoken by the Chimú people, who lived in the former territories of the Mochicas: an area north of the Chicama Chao River Valley. At the height of Chimú conquests, the language was spoken extensively from the Jequetepeque River
Jequetepeque River
in the north, to the Carabayllo (near present-day Lima) in the south. Fishermen along the Chimú coast spoke a language called Lengua Pescadora (fisherman language) by Spanish missionaries, and disambiguated as Yunga Pescadora by linguists; this may be the same as Quingnam

Morrope District
Morrope District is one of twelve districts of the province Lambayeque in Peru.[1] References[edit]^ (in Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática. Banco de Información Distrital Archived 2008-04-23 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved April 11, 2008.v t eDistricts of Lambayeque Region PeruChiclayoCayalti Chiclayo Chongoyape Etén Etén Puerto José Leonardo Ortíz La Victoria Lagunas Monsefú Nueva Arica Oyotún Patapo Picsi Pimentel Pomalca Pucalá Reque Saña Santa Rosa TumánFerreñafeCañaris Ferreñafe Incahuasi Manuel Antonio Mesones Muro Pitipo Pueblo NuevoLambayequeChochope Illimo Jayanca Lambayeque Mochumi Morrope Motupe Olmos Pacora Salas San José TúcumeThis Lambayeque Region
Lambayeque Region
geography article is a stub

Willem Adelaar
Willem F. H. Adelaar (born at The Hague
The Hague
in 1948) is a Dutch linguist specializing in Native American languages, specially those of the Andes. He is Professor of indigenous American Linguistics and Cultures at Leiden University.[1] He has written broadly about the Quechua, Aymara and Mapuche languages. His main works are his 2004 The languages of the Andes, an overview of the indigenous languages of the Andean region, which is considered a "classic" in the field.[2] His Dutch language publications about the history and religion of the Inca and translations of Quechua chronicles have met with a broad public. A specialist on minority languages and language endangerment, he is also editor of UNESCO's "Interactive Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger".[2] In 1994 he was given a newly created Professorial chair in "Languages and Cultures of Native America" at the University of Leiden

International Congress Of Americanists
The International Congress of Americanists (ICA) is an international academic conference for research in multidisciplinary studies of the Americas

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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966