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Mozarabic
Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus. Mozarabic descends from Late Latin
Late Latin
and early Romance dialects spoken in Hispania
Hispania
from the 5th to the 8th centuries and was spoken until the 13th century when it was displaced, mostly by Castilian (which became modern Spanish).[2] This set of Latin
Latin
dialects came to be called the Mozarabic language
Mozarabic language
by 19th-century Spanish scholars who studied medieval Al-Andalus, though there never was a common language standard. The term is inaccurate, because it refers to the Christians who spoke Andalusi Romance, as a part of the Romance dialectic linguistic continuum in the Iberian Peninsula, but it was also spoken by Jews, and Muslims, as large parts of the population converted to Islam
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Dialect Continuum
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible. That happens, for example, across large parts of India
India
(the Indo-Aryan languages) or the Arab world
Arab world
(Arabic). Historically, it also happened in various parts of Europe
Europe
such as between Portugal, southern Belgium (Wallonia) and southern Italy
Italy
(Western Romance languages) and between Flanders
Flanders
and Austria
Austria
(German dialects). Leonard Bloomfield used the name dialect area.[1] Charles F
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Late Latin
Late Latin
Latin
is the scholarly name for the written Latin
Latin
of Late Antiquity.[1] The English dictionary definition of Late Latin
Latin
dates this period from the 3rd to the 6th centuries AD,[2][3] extending in the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
of southwestern Europe to the 7th century.[1] This somewhat-ambiguously-defined period fits between Classical Latin and Medieval Latin. There is no scholarly consensus about exactly when Classical Latin
Latin
should end or exactly when Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
should begin. However, Late Latin
Latin
is characterized (with variations and disputes) by an identifiable style. Being a written language, Late Latin
Latin
is not identical with Vulgar. The latter served as Proto-Romance, a reconstructed ancestor of the Romance languages
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Hispania
Hispania
Hispania
(/hɪˈspænjə, -eɪniə/; Latin: [hɪsˈpaːnia]) was the Roman and Greek name for the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Republic, Hispania
Hispania
was divided into two provinces: Hispania
Hispania
Citerior and Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior. During the Principate, Hispania Ulterior
Hispania Ulterior
was divided into two new provinces, Baetica
Baetica
and Lusitania, while Hispania Citerior was renamed Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis. Subsequently, the western part of Tarraconensis
Tarraconensis
was split off, first as Hispania
Hispania
Nova, later renamed Callaecia (or Gallaecia, whence modern Galicia)
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Lenition
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous. The word lenition itself means "softening" or "weakening" (from Latin
Latin
lenis = weak). Lenition can happen both synchronically (i.e. within a language at a particular point in time) and diachronically (i.e. as a language changes over time)
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Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedManners of articulationObstruent    Stop     Affricate     Fricative        Strident            SibilantSonorant    Nasal     Approximant        Semivowel    Vowel     Vibrant        Flap/Tap         TrillLiquid    Rhotic     LateralOcclusive ContinuantAirstreamsEgressive Ingressive Ejective Implosive Nonexplosive Lingual (clicks) Linguo-pulmonic Linguo-ejective PercussiveSee alsoArticulatory phonetics Aspirated consonant No au
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Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
Arabic
is the form of the Arabic language
Arabic language
used in Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD. The orthography of the Qurʾān was not developed for the standardized form of Classical Arabic; rather, it shows the attempt on the part of writers to record an archaic form of Old Higazi. Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
(MSA) is its direct descendant used today throughout the Arab world
Arab world
in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertainment content;[1] it is also used in modernized versions of the Quran
Quran
and revised editions of poetries and novels from Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
times (7th to 9th centuries)
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Murcia
Murcia
Murcia
(/ˈmʊərsiə/ or /ˈmɜːrʃə/, Spanish: [ˈmurθja]) is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community
Autonomous Community
of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region). The population of the metropolitan area was 689,591 in 2010. It is located on the Segura
Segura
River, in the Southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, noted by a climate with hot summers, mild winters, and relatively low precipitation. Murcia
Murcia
was founded by the emir of Cordoba Abd ar-Rahman II
Abd ar-Rahman II
in 825 with the name Mursiyah (Arabic: مرسية). Nowadays, it is mainly a services city and a university town
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Replacement Character
Specials is a short Unicode
Unicode
block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 code points, five are assigned as of Unicode
Unicode
10.0:U+FFF9 INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION ANCHOR, marks start of annotated text U+FFFA INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION SEPARATOR, marks start of annotating character(s) U+FFFB INTERLINEAR ANNOTATION TERMINATOR, marks end of annotation block U+FFFC  OBJECT REPLACEMENT CHARACTER, placeholder in the text for another unspecified object, for example in a compound document. U+FFFD � REPLACEMENT CHARACTER used to replace an unknown, unrecognized or unrepresentable character U+FFFE <noncharacter-FFFE> not a character. U+FFFF <noncharacter-FFFF> not a character.FFFE and FFFF are not unassigned in the usual sense, but guaranteed not to be a Unicode
Unicode
character at all
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Seville
Seville
Seville
(/səˈvɪl/; Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa], locally [seˈβi(ɟ)ʝa] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir. The inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos (feminine form: sevillanas) or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville
Seville
has a municipal population of about 703,000 as of 2011[update], and a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain
Spain
and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres (2 sq mi), contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies
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Endonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical place, or a group of people, or a language or dialect
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Exonym
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect. It is a common name used only outside the place, group, or linguistic community in question. An endonym or autonym is an internal name for a geographical place, or a group of people, or a language or dialect
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Linguistic Meaning
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.[1][2]Contents1 The sources of ambiguity1.1 Pragmatics 1.2 Semantic meaning 1.3 Conceptual meaning2 Semiotics 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksThe sources of ambiguity[edit]This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)Ambiguity means confusion about what is conveyed, since the current context may lead to different interpretations of meaning. Many words in many languages have multiple definitions. Ambiguity is an effect of a rupture of the rule of identity in the context of the exchange of information
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Veneto
Veneto
Veneto
(/ˈveɪnəˌtoʊ/ or /ˈvɛnətoʊ/,[4] Italian: [ˈvɛːneto]; Venetian: Vèneto, Venetian pronunciation: ['vɛːneto][5])[6] is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is about five million, ranking fifth in Italy. The region's capital and most populous city is Venice. Veneto
Veneto
was part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the 5th century AD. Later, after a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice
Venice
until 1797. Venice
Venice
ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence
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