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Moon
The MOON is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth, being Earth's only permanent natural satellite . It is the fifth-largest natural satellite in the Solar System, and the largest among planetary satellites relative to the size of the planet that it orbits (its primary ). Following Jupiter's satellite Io , the Moonis second-densest satellite among those whose densities are known. The Moonis thought to have formed about 4.51 billion years ago, not long after Earth. There are several hypotheses for its origin; the most widely accepted explanation is that the Moonformed from the debris left over after a giant impact between Earthand a Mars-sized body called Theia
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Natural Satellite
A NATURAL SATELLITE or MOON is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body ). In the Solar System there are six planetary satellite systems containing 178 known natural satellites. Four IAU -listed dwarf planets are also known to have natural satellites: Pluto , Haumea , Makemake , and Eris . As of January 2012 , over 200 minor-planet moons have been discovered. The Earth– Moon
Moon
system is unique in that the ratio of the mass of the Moon
Moon
to the mass of Earth is much greater than that of any other natural-satellite–planet ratio in the Solar System (although there are minor-planet systems with even greater ratios, notably the Pluto –Charon system). At 3,474 km (2,158 miles) across, Earth's Moon
Moon
is 0.27 times the diameter of Earth
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Full Moon
A FULL MOON is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon
Moon
is completely illuminated as seen from Earth
Earth
. This occurs when Earth
Earth
is located directly between the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
(more exactly, when the ecliptic longitudes of the Sun
Sun
and Moon
Moon
differ by 180 degrees). This means that the hemisphere of the Moon
Moon
that is facing Earth
Earth
(the near side ) is almost fully illuminated by the Sun
Sun
and appears round (while the far side is almost completely unlit). When the full moon moves into Earth\'s shadow , a lunar eclipse occurs, and all or part of the Moon's face may appear reddish due to the Rayleigh scattering of blue light in Earth\'s atmosphere
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Northern Hemisphere
Coordinates : 90°0′0″N 0°0′0″E / 90.00000°N 0.00000°E / 90.00000; 0.00000 Northern Hemisphere highlighted in blue. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image due to Antarctica
Antarctica
not being shown, but in reality are the same size. Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
from above the North Pole
North Pole
The NORTHERN HEMISPHERE is the half of Earth
Earth
that is north of the equator . For other planets in the Solar System
Solar System
, north is defined as being in the same celestial hemisphere relative to the invariable plane of the solar system as Earth's North
North
pole
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List Of Adjectivals And Demonyms Of Astronomical Bodies
The adjectival forms of the names of astronomical bodies are not always easily predictable. Attested adjectival forms of the larger bodies are listed below, along with non-obvious derivations of some smaller bodies; in some cases these are accompanied by their demonymic equivalents, which denote purported inhabitants of these bodies. For Classical (Greco-Roman) names, the adjectival form is normally derived from the genitive case , which may differ from the nominative case used in English for the noun form. For instance, for a large portion of names ending in -s, the genitive and therefore the adjective changes the -s to a -d, -t, or -r, as in Isis–Isidian and Ceres–Cererian; occasionally an -n has been lost from the noun form, and reappears in the adjective, as in Pluto–Plutonian and Atlas–Atlantean. Many of the more recent or more obscure names are only attested in mythological or literary contexts, rather than in specifically astronomical contexts
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Osculating Orbit
In astronomy , and in particular in astrodynamics , the OSCULATING ORBIT of an object in space at a given moment in time is the gravitational Kepler orbit (i.e. ellipse or other conic) that it _would have_ about its central body if perturbations were not present. That is, it is the orbit that coincides with the current orbital state vectors (position and velocity). The word "osculate" derives from a Latin word meaning "to kiss". Its use in this context derives from the fact that, at any point in time, an object's osculating orbit is precisely tangent to its actual orbit, with the tangent point being the object's location – and has the same curvature as the orbit would have in the absence of perturbing forces
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Apsis
An APSIS (Greek : ἁψίς; plural APSIDES /ˈæpsᵻdiːz/ , Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit . The word comes via Latin from Greek and is cognate with apse . For elliptic orbits about a larger body, there are two apsides, named with the prefixes _peri-_ (from περί _(peri)_, meaning 'near') and _ap-_, or _apo-_ (from ἀπ(ό) _(ap(ó))_, meaning 'away from') added to a reference to the thing being orbited. * For a body orbiting the Sun , the point of least distance is the PERIHELION (/ˌpɛrᵻˈhiːliən/ ), and the point of greatest distance is the APHELION (/æpˈhiːliən/ )
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Semi-major Axis
In geometry , the MAJOR AXIS of an ellipse is its longest diameter : a line segment that runs through the center and both foci , with ends at the widest points of the perimeter . The SEMI-MAJOR AXIS is one half of the major axis, and thus runs from the centre, through a focus , and to the perimeter. Essentially, it is the radius of an orbit at the orbit's two most distant points. For the special case of a circle, the semi-major axis is the radius . One can think of the semi-major axis as an ellipse's _long radius_. The length of the semi-major axis a {displaystyle a} of an ellipse is related to the semi-minor axis 's length b {displaystyle b} through the eccentricity e {displaystyle e} and the semi-latus rectum {displaystyle ell } , as follows: b = a 1 e 2 , = a ( 1 e 2 ) , a = b 2
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Orbital Eccentricity
The ORBITAL ECCENTRICITY of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle . A value of 0 is a circular orbit, values between 0 and 1 form an elliptical orbit, 1 is a parabolic escape orbit , and greater than 1 is a hyperbola . The term derives its name from the parameters of conic sections , as every Kepler orbit is a conic section. It is normally used for the isolated two-body problem , but extensions exist for objects following a rosette orbit through the galaxy. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Etymology * 3 Calculation * 4 Examples * 5 Mean eccentricity * 6 Climatic effect * 7 Exoplanets * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links DEFINITION e=0 e=0.5 Orbits in a two-body system for two values of the eccentricity, e. In a two-body problem with inverse-square-law force, every orbit is a Kepler orbit
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Orbital Period
The ORBITAL PERIOD is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun , moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars , or binary stars . For objects in the Solar System , this is often referred to as the SIDEREAL PERIOD, determined by a 360° revolution of one celestial body around another, e.g. the Earth orbiting the Sun. The name _sidereal_ is added as it implies that the object returns to the same position relative to the fixed stars projected in the sky . When describing orbits of binary stars, the orbital period is usually referred to as just the PERIOD. For example, Jupiter has a sidereal period of 11.86 years while the main binary star Alpha Centauri AB has a period of about 79.91 years
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Day
A DAY is a unit of time . In common usage, it is either an interval equal to 24 hours or daytime , the consecutive period of time during which the Sun is above the horizon. The period of time during which the Earth completes one rotation with respect to the Sun is called a _solar day _. Several definitions of this universal human concept are used according to context, need and convenience. In 1960, the second was redefined in terms of the orbital motion of the Earth, and was designated the SI base unit of time . The unit of measurement "day", redefined in 1960 as 86 400 SI seconds and symbolized _d_, is not an SI unit, but is accepted for use with SI
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Orbital Speed
The ORBITAL SPEED of a body, generally a planet , a natural satellite , an artificial satellite , or a multiple star , is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. It can be used to refer to either the mean orbital speed, i.e. the average speed as it completes an orbit, or the speed at a particular point in its orbit such as perihelia . The orbital speed at any position in the orbit can be computed from the distance to the central body at that position, and the specific orbital energy , which is independent of position: the kinetic energy is the total energy minus the potential energy
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Metre Per Second
METRE PER SECOND ( American English : METER PER SECOND) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar ) and velocity (vector quantity which specifies both magnitude and a specific direction), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds . The SI unit symbols are m·s−1, m s−1, m/s, or m/s, sometimes (unofficially) abbreviated as "mps". Where metres per second are several orders of magnitude too slow to be convenient, such as in astronomical measurements, velocities may be given in kilometres per second, where 1 km/s is 1000 metres per second, sometimes unofficially abbreviated as "kps"
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Orbital Inclination
ORBITAL INCLINATION measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body. It is expressed as the angle between a reference plane and the orbital plane or axis of direction of the orbiting object. For a satellite orbiting the Earth directly above the equator, the plane of the satellite's orbit is the same as the Earth's equatorial plane, and the satellite's orbital inclination is 0°. The general case is that the satellite's orbit is tilted; it spends half an orbit over the northern hemisphere and half over the southern. If the orbit swung between 20° north latitude and 20° south latitude, then its orbital inclination would be 20°. CONTENTS* 1 Orbits * 1.1 Natural and artificial satellites * 1.2 Exoplanets and multiple star systems * 2 Other meaning * 3 Calculation * 4 See also * 5 References ORBITSThe inclination is one of the six orbital elements describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit
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Ecliptic
The ECLIPTIC is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun
Sun
appears to follow over the course of a year ; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system . The term also refers to the plane of this path, which is coplanar with Earth\'s orbit around the Sun
Sun
(and hence the Sun's apparent orbit around Earth
Earth
). The ecliptic is not normally noticeable from Earth's surface because Earth
Earth
rotates , carrying the observer through the cycles of sunrise and sunset , which obscure the Sun's apparent motion against the background of fixed stars
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