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Mokosh
MOKOš (Old East Slavic : Мокошь) is a Slavic goddess mentioned in the Primary Chronicle , protector of women's work and women's destiny. She watches over spinning and weaving, shearing of sheep, and protects women in child birth. Mokosh
Mokosh
is the Great Mother , Mat Zemlya . Mokoš was the only female deity whose idol was erected by Vladimir the Great in his Kiev
Kiev
sanctuary along with statues of other major gods ( Perun
Perun
, Hors
Hors
, Dažbog , Stribog , and Simargl
Simargl
). CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and origin * 2 Myth * 3 Christianization * 4 Traces of Mokosh
Mokosh
in the toponyms * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGY AND ORIGIN Mokosh
Mokosh
probably means moisture
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Moksha
MOKSHA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: मोक्ष, mokṣa), also called VIMOKSHA, VIMUKTI and MUKTI, is a term in Hinduism
Hinduism
and Hindu
Hindu
philosophy which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra , the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu
Hindu
traditions, moksha is a central concept and included as one of the four aspects and goals of human life; the other three goals are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism
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Mokshas
The MOKSHAS (also Mokshans, Moksha people, in Moksha : Мокшет/Mokšet) are a Mordvinian ethnic group belonging to the Volgaic branch of the Finno-Ugric peoples
Finno-Ugric peoples
who live in the Russian Federation , mostly near the Volga and Moksha rivers, a tributary of the Oka River . Their native language is Mokshan , one of the two surviving members of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic language
Uralic language
family. According to the 1994 Russian census, 49% of the autochthonal Finnic population in Mordovia identified themselves as Mokshas, totaling more than 180,000 people. Most Mokshas
Mokshas
belong to the Russian Orthodox Church
Russian Orthodox Church
; other religions practised by Mokshas
Mokshas
include Lutheranism
Lutheranism
and paganism
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Moksha Language
The MOKSHA LANGUAGE (Moksha: мокшень кяль, translit. mokšeny käl) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages , with around 130,000 native speakers. Moksha is the majority language in the western part of Mordovia . Its closest relative is the Erzya language , with which it is not mutually intelligible . Moksha is also considered to be closely related to the extinct Meshcherian and Muromian languages. CONTENTS * 1 Official status * 2 Education * 3 Dialects * 4 Phonology * 4.1 Vowels * 4.2 Consonants * 4.2.1 Devoicing * 4.3 Stress * 5 Grammar * 6 Writing system
Writing system
* 7 Literature * 8 Common expressions (Moksha–Russian–English) * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 Bibliography * 12 External links OFFICIAL STATUSMoksha is one of the three official languages in Mordovia (the others being Erzya and Russian)
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Radoslav Katičić
RADOSLAV KATIčIć (pronounced ; born in Zagreb
Zagreb
, July 3, 1930) is a Croatian linguist , classical philologist , Indo-Europeanist , Slavist and Indologist , one of the most prominent Croatian scholars in the field of humanities . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Work * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHY Radoslav Katičić was born on July 3, 1930 in Zagreb. In his birth city he attended primary school , and in 1949 he graduated at the Classical gymnasium . At the Faculty of Humanities
Humanities
and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb
Zagreb
, he received a degree in Classical Philology in 1954. The same year he started working as a part-time librarian at the Seminar for Classical Philology at the same faculty. His first scientific works were on the subjects of Ancient Greek philology and Byzantine studies
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Kikimora
KIKIMORA (Russian : кики́мора; IPA: ) is a legendary creature , a female house spirit in Slavic (especially Eastern) mythology . Her role in the house is usually juxtaposed with that of the domovoy , whereas one of them is considered a "bad" spirit, and the other, a "good" one. When the kikimora inhabits a house, she lives behind the stove or in the basement, and usually produces noises similar to those made by the mice or by scratching in order to obtain food. Kikimory (in plural) were the first traditional explanation for sleep paralysis . She is also known to start stove burners,flip bowls,and place pots on electronics in order to "cook" her own food. Kikimora
Kikimora
has been known to start numerous electric machines, also talking to little girls and disguising herself as a little boy
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Christianization Of Kievan Rus'
The CHRISTIANIZATION OF KIEVAN RUS\' took place in several stages. In early 867, Patriarch Photius of Constantinople
Constantinople
announced to other Orthodox patriarchs that the Rus\' , baptised by his bishop, took to Christianity
Christianity
with particular enthusiasm. Photius's attempts at Christianizing the country seem to have entailed no lasting consequences, since the Primary Chronicle and other Slavonic sources describe the tenth-century Rus' as firmly entrenched in paganism. Following the Primary Chronicle, the definitive Christianization
Christianization
of Kievan Rus\' dates from the year 988 (the year is disputed ), when Vladimir the Great
Vladimir the Great
was baptized in Chersonesus and proceeded to baptize his family and people in Kiev
Kiev

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Nomad
A NOMAD (Greek : νομάς, nomas, plural νομάδες, nomades; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral tribe ) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another. Among the various ways nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer , the pastoral nomad owning livestock , or the "modern" peripatetic nomad. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world. Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method. Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover. Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe , tundra , or ice and sand , where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources
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Kurgan Stelae
KURGAN STELAE (Mongolian : хүн чулуу; Russian : каменные бабы; Ukrainian : Баби кам'яні "stone babas"; Kyrgyz : балбал ) or BALBALS (балбал balbal, most probably from a Turkic word balbal meaning "ancestor" or "grandfather" or the Mongolic word "barimal" which means "handmade statue") are anthropomorphic stone stelae , images cut from stone, installed atop, within or around kurgans (i.e. tumuli ), in kurgan cemeteries, or in a double line extending from a kurgan. The stelae are also described as "obelisks" or "statue menhirs ". Spanning more than three millennia, they are clearly the product of various cultures
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Eastern Europe
EASTERN EUROPE is the eastern part of the European continent . There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical , geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct ". One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek , Byzantine
Byzantine
, Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
, Russian , and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Boris Rybakov
BORIS ALEXANDROVICH RYBAKOV (Russian : Бори́с Алекса́ндрович Рыбако́в, 3 June 1908, Moscow
Moscow
— 27 December 2001) was a Soviet and Russian historian who personified the anti-Normanist vision of Russian history. Rybakov held a chair in Russian history at the Moscow
Moscow
University since 1939, was a deputy dean of the university in 1952-54, and administered the Russian History Institute for 40 years. His first groundbreaking monograph was the Handicrafts of Ancient Rus (1948), which sought to demonstrate the economic superiority of Kievan Rus to contemporary Western Europe
Western Europe

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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Zaria (goddess)
In Slavic mythology
Slavic mythology
, ZORYA (alternately, ZORA, ZARIA, ZARYA, ZORY, ZORE = "Dawn"; ZORZA in Polish, ZARA-ZARANICA (Belarusian : Зара-Зараніца ), ZVEZDA, ZWEZDA, DANICA = "Star") are the two guardian goddesses , known as the Auroras . They guard and watch over the winged doomsday hound, Simargl
Simargl
, who is chained to the star Polaris
Polaris
in the constellation Ursa Minor
Ursa Minor
, the "little bear". If the chain ever breaks, the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end. The Zoryas represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. The Zoryas serve the sun god Dažbog , who in some myths is described as their father. ZORYA UTRENNYAYA, the Morning Star, opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot's departure. At dusk, ZORYA VECHERNYAYA—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return
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Živa (goddess)
ŽIVA, also ŽIVENA, ŻIWIA, SIVA, SIEBA or RAZIVIA, was the Slavic goddess of life and fertility. She was worshipped throughout what is now Poland
Poland
, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
, Slovakia
Slovakia
, and Germany
Germany
(and especially the Elbe
Elbe
(Labe) river valley), before Christianity
Christianity
expanded into the area. Her name means "living, being, existing". Živa is mentioned in The Baptism on the Savica , an epic -lyric poem by the Slovene national poet France Prešeren . CONTENTS * 1 Known references * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links KNOWN REFERENCESHelmold names Ziva (Siwa) the main goddess of the Polabs. Dlugosh, speaking about Polish gods, writes: Zywye - Vita
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Zorya
In Slavic mythology
Slavic mythology
, ZORYA (alternately, ZORA, ZARIA, ZARYA, ZORY, ZORE = "Dawn"; ZORZA in Polish, ZARA-ZARANICA (Belarusian : Зара-Зараніца ), ZVEZDA, ZWEZDA, DANICA = "Star") are the two guardian goddesses , known as the Auroras . They guard and watch over the winged doomsday hound, Simargl
Simargl
, who is chained to the star Polaris
Polaris
in the constellation Ursa Minor
Ursa Minor
, the "little bear". If the chain ever breaks, the hound will devour the constellation and the universe will end. The Zoryas represent the Morning Star and the Evening Star. The Zoryas serve the sun god Dažbog , who in some myths is described as their father. ZORYA UTRENNYAYA, the Morning Star, opens the gates to his palace every morning for the sun-chariot's departure. At dusk, ZORYA VECHERNYAYA—the Evening Star—closes the palace gates once more after his return
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