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Mining
MINING is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually from an orebody , lode , vein , seam , reef or placer deposits. These deposits form a mineralized package that is of economic interest to the miner. Ores recovered by mining include metals , coal , oil shale , gemstones , limestone , chalk , dimension stone , rock salt , potash , gravel , and clay . Mining
Mining
is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining
Mining
in a wider sense includes extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water . Mining
Mining
of stones and metal has been a human activity since pre-historic times
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Krzemionki
KRZEMIONKI, also KRZEMIONKI OPATOWSKIE, is a Neolithic and early Bronze Age complex of flint mines for the extraction of Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian ) banded flints located about eight kilometers north-east of the Polish city of Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski . It is one of the largest known complex of prehistoric flint mines in Europe together with Grimes Graves
Grimes Graves
in England
England
and Spiennes in Belgium
Belgium
. The flint mining in Krzemionki
Krzemionki
began about 3900 BC and lasted until about 1600 BC. During Neolithic times the mine was used by members of the Funnelbeaker culture who spread the flint mining area far up to 300 km. The Globular Amphora Culture
Globular Amphora Culture
also used the pits and even more intensely, enlarging the area of exploration to about 500 km
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Limestone
LIMESTONE is a sedimentary rock , composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral , forams and molluscs . Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite , which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). About 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, in which water erodes the limestone over thousands to millions of years. Most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. Limestone
Limestone
has numerous uses: as a building material , an essential component of concrete ( Portland cement
Portland cement
), as aggregate for the base of roads, as white pigment or filler in products such as toothpaste or paints , as a chemical feedstock for the production of lime , as a soil conditioner , or as a popular decorative addition to rock gardens
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Gemstone
A GEMSTONE (also called a GEM, FINE GEM, JEWEL, PRECIOUS STONE or SEMI-PRECIOUS STONE) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments. However, certain rocks (such as lapis lazuli ) or organic materials that are not minerals (such as amber , jet , and pearl ) are also used for jewelry and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. Most gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in jewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. Rarity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. Apart from jewelry, from earliest antiquity engraved gems and hardstone carvings , such as cups, were major luxury art forms. A gem maker is called a lapidary or gemcutter ; a diamond worker is a diamantaire . The carvings of Carl Fabergé are significant works in this tradition
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Weapon
A WEAPON, ARM, or ARMAMENT is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm to living beings, structures, or systems. Weapons are used to increase the efficacy and efficiency of activities such as hunting , crime , law enforcement , self-defense , and warfare . In a broader context, weapons may be construed to include anything used to gain a strategic, material or mental advantage over an adversary. While just about any ordinary objects such as sticks, stones, cars, or pencils can be used as weapons, many are expressly designed for the purpose – ranging from simple implements such as clubs , swords and guns , to complicated modern intercontinental ballistic missiles , biological and cyberweapons . Something that has been re-purposed, converted, or enhanced to become a weapon of war is termed WEAPONIZED, such as a weaponized virus or weaponized lasers
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Flint
FLINT is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz , categorized as a variety of chert . It occurs chiefly as nodules and masses in sedimentary rocks, such as chalks and limestones . Inside the nodule, flint is usually dark grey, black, green, white or brown in colour, and often has a glassy or waxy appearance. A thin layer on the outside of the nodules is usually different in colour, typically white and rough in texture. From a petrological point of view, "flint" refers specifically to the form of chert which occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Similarly, "common chert" (sometimes referred to simply as "chert") occurs in limestone
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Gravel
GRAVEL /ˈɡrævəl/ is a loose aggregation of rock fragments. Gravel
Gravel
is classified by particle size range and includes size classes from granule - to boulder -sized fragments. In the Udden-Wentworth scale gravel is categorized into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64 mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic metre of gravel typically weighs about 1,800 kg (or a cubic yard weighs about 3,000 pounds). Gravel
Gravel
is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there is little traffic . Globally, far more roads are surfaced with gravel than with concrete or tarmac ; Russia
Russia
alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of gravel roads . Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concrete
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France
FRANCE (French: ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française, pronounced ), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe
Europe
, as well as several overseas regions and territories . The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea
North Sea
, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America
South America
and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Fossil Water
FOSSIL WATER or PALEOWATER is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer , for millennia. Other types of fossil water can include subglacial lakes , such as Antarctica's Lake Vostok , and even ancient water on other planets. UNESCO
UNESCO
defines fossil groundwater as water that infiltrated usually millennia ago and often under climatic conditions different from the present, and that has been stored underground since that time. — Dr Karin Kemper, Non-Renewable Groundwater
Groundwater
Resources: A guidebook socially-sustainable management for water-policy makers, UNESCO
UNESCO
2006 Determining the time since water infiltrated usually involves analyzing isotopic signatures
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Greenschist
GREENSCHISTS are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures usually produced by regional metamorphism , typically 300–450 °C (570–840 °F) and 2–10 kilobars (14,500–58,000 psi). Greenschists commonly have an abundance of green minerals such as chlorite , serpentine , and epidote , and platy minerals such as muscovite and platy serpentine. The platiness causes the tendency to split, or have schistosity . Other common minerals include quartz , orthoclase , talc , carbonate minerals and amphibole (actinolite ). It is a general field petrologic term for metamorphic or altered mafic volcanic rock . A GREENSTONE is sometimes a greenschist but can also be rock types without any schistosity, especially metabasalt (spilite or picrite). The green is due to abundant green chlorite , actinolite and epidote minerals that dominate the rock. However, basalts may remain quite black if primary pyroxene does not revert to chlorite or actinolite
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Radiocarbon Dating
RADIOCARBON DATING (also referred to as CARBON DATING or CARBON-14 DATING) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon (14 C), a radioactive isotope of carbon . The method was developed by Willard Libby in the late 1940s and soon became a standard tool for archaeologists. Libby received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in 1960. The radiocarbon dating method is based on the fact that radiocarbon is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen . The resulting radiocarbon combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide , which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis ; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants
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Ceramic
A CERAMIC is an inorganic compound , non-metallic, solid material comprising metal , non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. This article gives an overview of ceramic materials from the point of view of materials science . The crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline, vitrified , and often completely amorphous (e.g., glasses ). Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware , stoneware , and porcelain . Varying crystallinity and electron consumption in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators (extensively researched in ceramic engineering ). With such a large range of possible options for the composition/structure of a ceramic (e.g
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Swaziland
Coordinates : 26°30′S 31°30′E / 26.500°S 31.500°E / -26.500; 31.500 Kingdom of Swaziland Umbuso weSwatini (Swazi ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Siyinqaba" (Swati ) "We are a fortress" "We are a mystery/riddle" "We hide ourselves away" ANTHEM: Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi Location of Swaziland
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Negev Desert
The NEGEV (Hebrew : הַנֶּגֶב‎, Tiberian vocalization
Tiberian vocalization
: han-Néḡeḇ ; Arabic : النقب‎‎ an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel
Israel
. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba
Beersheba
(pop. 203,604), in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat
Eilat
. It contains several development towns , including Dimona
Dimona
, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon , as well as a number of small Bedouin cities, including Rahat and Tel as-Sabi and Lakyah. There are also several kibbutzim , including Revivim and Sde Boker ; the latter became the home of Israel's first Prime Minister , David Ben-Gurion
David Ben-Gurion
, after his retirement from politics
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Vein (geology)
In geology , a VEIN is a distinct sheetlike body of crystallized minerals within a rock . Veins form when mineral constituents carried by an aqueous solution within the rock mass are deposited through precipitation . The hydraulic flow involved is usually due to hydrothermal circulation . Veins are classically thought of as being the result of growth of crystals on the walls of planar fractures in rocks, with the crystal growth occurring normal to the walls of the cavity, and the crystal protruding into open space. This certainly is the method for the formation of some veins. However, it is rare in geology for significant open space to remain open in large volumes of rock, especially several kilometers below the surface. Thus, there are two main mechanisms considered likely for the formation of veins: open-space filling and crack-seal growth
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Chemical Synthesis
CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product , or several products. This happens by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory usage, this tends to imply that the process is reproducible, reliable, and established to work in multiple laboratories. A chemical synthesis begins by selection of compounds that are known as reagents or reactants. Various reaction types can be applied to these to synthesize the product, or an intermediate product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask . Many reactions require some form of work-up procedure before the final product is isolated
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