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Mikulov
Mikulov
Mikulov
(Czech pronunciation: [ˈmɪkulof]; German: Nikolsburg; Yiddish: ניקאלשבורג‎, Nikolshburg) is a town in the Moravia, South Moravian Region
South Moravian Region
of the Czech Republic.City Mikulov
Mikulov
(Nicolsburg) official Seal, 1810Geography[edit] The town is part of the historic Moravia
Moravia
region, located directly on the border with Lower Austria. In the south, a road border crossing leads to the neighbouring Austrian municipality of Drasenhofen. The highway is part of the European route E461
European route E461
and is to be extended as the R52 expressway. Mikulov
Mikulov
is situated between the Pavlovské vrchy hilly area and the edge of the Mikulov
Mikulov
Highlands, stretching up to the Thaya
Thaya
river and the three Nové Mlýny reservoirs
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Albrecht Von Wallenstein
Long Turkish War Uskok War Thirty Years' WarBattle of White Mountain Battle of Dessau Bridge Siege of Stralsund Battle of Wolgast Battle of the Alte Veste Battle of Lützen Battle of SteinauAwards Order of the Golden FleeceAlbrecht Wenzel Eusebius von Wallenstein ( pronunciation (help·info); Czech: Albrecht Václav Eusebius z Valdštejna;[1] 24 September 1583 – 25 February 1634),[2] also von Waldstein,[a] was a Bohemian[b] military leader and an Imperial Count Palatine, who offered his services and an army of 30,000 to 100,000 men to Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor
during the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
(1618–48)
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Anabaptists
Anabaptism
Anabaptism
(from Neo-Latin anabaptista,[1] from the Greek ἀναβαπτισμός: ἀνά- "re-" and βαπτισμός "baptism",[2] German: Täufer, earlier also Wiedertäufer[a]) is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. The movement is generally seen as an offshoot of Protestantism, although this view has been challenged by some Anabaptists.[3][4][5] Approximately 4 million Anabaptists live in the world today with adherents scattered across all inhabited continents
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Duchy Of Austria
The Duchy of Austria
Austria
(German: Herzogtum Österreich) was a medieval principality of the Holy Roman Empire, established in 1156 by the Privilegium Minus, when the Margraviate of Austria
Margraviate of Austria
(Ostarrîchi) was detached from Bavaria and elevated to a duchy in its own right. After the ruling dukes of the House of Babenberg
Babenberg
became extinct, the German king Rudolf I took over the dominion as the first monarch of the Habsburg
Habsburg
dynasty in 1276. Thereafter, Austria
Austria
became the ancestral homeland of the dynasty and the nucleus of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Monarchy
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Princely Family Of Liechtenstein
The House of Liechtenstein, from which the principality takes its name, is the family which reigns by constitutional, hereditary right over the nation of Liechtenstein. Only dynastic members of the family are eligible to inherit the throne. The dynasty's membership, rights and responsibilities are defined by a law of the family, which is enforced by the reigning Prince and may be altered by vote among the family's dynasts, but which may not be altered by the Government or Parliament of Liechtenstein.[1]Contents1 History 2 21st-century princely family (closest members) 3 Tree list 4 Palaces and residences 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksHistory[edit] The family comes from Castle Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
in Lower Austria, which the family possessed from at least 1140 to the 13th century, and from 1807 onwards. Heinrich I. von Liechtenstein
Liechtenstein
(d
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List Of Bohemian Monarchs
This is a list of Bohemian monarchs now also referred to as list of Czech monarchs who ruled as Dukes or Kings of Bohemia in Bohemia until the early 20th century, beginning with the establishment of the Duchy of Bohemia in 870 (from 1004 to 1806 a part of Holy Roman Empire), as Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Bohemia
from 1212, and in 1620-1918 as a part of Austria-Hungary. Following the dissolution of the monarchy, the Bohemian lands, now also referred to as Czech lands
Czech lands
became part of Czechoslovakia, and form today's Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Czechia) since 1993.Contents1 Legendary rulers of Bohemia 2 Princes of Great Moravia 3 Dukes of Bohemia (c
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Rudolf I Of Germany
Rudolf I, also known as Rudolf of Habsburg (German: Rudolf von Habsburg, Czech: Rudolf Habsburský; 1 May 1218 – 15 July 1291), was Count of Habsburg from about 1240 and the elected King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. Rudolf's election marked the end of the Great Interregnum in the Holy Roman Empire after the death of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick II in 1250. Originally a Swabian count, he was the first Habsburg to acquire the duchies of Austria
Austria
and Styria
Styria
in opposition to his mighty rival, the Přemyslid king Ottokar II of Bohemia, whom he defeated in the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld
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Battle On The Marchfeld
mercenaries: Duchy of Swabia Duchy of Styria Duchy of Upper Bavaria Kingdom of Bohemia Duchy of Głogów Duchy of Lower Bavariamercenaries: March of Brandenburg March of Meissen Silesians PolesCommanders and leaders Rudolf I Ladislaus IV Ludwig II Frederick III Ottokar II † Henry III Otto IV Henry IStrength~30,000[1] ~21,000 (out of it 2–3,000 Rudolf's & 18,000 László's combatants)[2] ~25–30,000[1]Casualties and lossesUnknown ~12,000The Battle on the Marchfeld
Battle on the Marchfeld
(i.e. Morava Field; Czech: Bitva na Moravském poli; Hungarian: Morvamezei csata) at Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen
Jedenspeigen
took place on 26 August 1278 and was a decisive event for the history of Central Europe
Central Europe
for the following centuries
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Market Rights
Market town
Market town
or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city. A town may be correctly described as a "market town" or as having "market rights", even if it no longer holds a market, provided the legal right to do so still exists.Contents1 Brief history 2 Czech Republic 3 German-language area 4 Hungary 5 Norway 6 United Kingdom and Ireland6.1 England
England
and Wales 6.2 Ireland 6.3 Scotland7 In art and literature 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksBrief history[edit] The primary purpose of a market town is the provision of goods and services to the surrounding locality.[1] Although market towns were known in antiquity, their number increased rapidly from the 12th century
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German Bohemians
German Bohemians and German Moravians (German: Deutschböhmen und Deutschmährer (de)), also known as the Sudeten Germans (German: Sudetendeutsche (de)) in the early 20th century, were ethnic Germans living in the Kingdom of Bohemia and the Margraviate of Moravia (parts of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown) both of which came under jurisdiction of the state of Czechoslovakia in the aftermath of the dissolution of Austria-Hungary after World War I and the subsequent failure to create German Austria. Before 1945, Czechoslovakia was inhabited by over three million such German Bohemians and German Moravians,[4] comprising about 23 percent of the population of the whole republic and about 29.5 percent of the population of Bohemia and Moravia.[5] Ethnic Germans migrated into the Kingdom of Bohemia, an electoral territory of the Holy Roman Empire, since the 11th century, mostly in the border regions of the Sudetenland,[6] in a process of German expansion known as Ostsiedlung (English: Settling
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Expulsion Of Germans From Czechoslovakia
The expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after World War II
World War II
was part of a series of evacuations and expulsions of Germans from Central and Eastern Europe during and after World War II. During the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the Czech resistance groups demanded the deportation of Germans from Czechoslovakia. The decision to deport the Germans was adopted by the Czechoslovak Government-in-Exile which, beginning in 1943, sought the support of the Allies for this proposal.[1][2] The final agreement for the expulsion of the German population however was not reached until 2 August 1945 at the end of the Potsdam Conference. In the months following the end of the war "wild" expulsions happened from May until August 1945
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Beneš Decrees
The Decrees of the President of the Republic (Czech: Dekrety presidenta republiky, Slovak: Dekréty prezidenta republiky) and the Constitutional Decrees of the President of the Republic (Czech: Ústavní dekrety presidenta republiky, Slovak: Ústavné dekréty prezidenta republiky), commonly known as the Beneš decrees, were a series of laws drafted by the Czechoslovak government-in-exile
Czechoslovak government-in-exile
in the absence of the Czechoslovak parliament during the German occupation of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
in World War II
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Old Swiss Confederacy
The Old Swiss Confederacy
Old Swiss Confederacy
(Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German Orte or Stände[2]) within the Holy Roman Empire. It is the precursor of the modern state of Switzerland. It formed during the 14th century, from a nucleus in what is now Central Switzerland, expanding to include the cities of Zürich
Zürich
and Berne
Berne
by the middle of the century
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Přemyslid Dynasty
In order of seniority:BretislianConradian: Znojmo
Znojmo
(1035-1191) Brno
Brno
(1035-1200) Olomouc
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House Of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk], traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria[1] was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.[dubious – discuss] From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches
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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1558, king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
from 1526, and king of Croatia
Croatia
from 1527 until his death.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany
Germany
and developed useful relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary
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