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Mikulov (Czech pronunciation: [ˈmɪkulof]; German: Nikolsburg; Yiddish: ניקאלשבורג‎, Nikolshburg) is a town in the Moravia, South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic.

City Mikulov (Nicolsburg) official Seal, 1810

Geography[edit] The town is part of the historic Moravia region, located directly on the border with Lower Austria. In the south, a road border crossing leads to the neighbouring Austrian municipality of Drasenhofen. The highway is part of the European route E461 and is to be extended as the R52 expressway. Mikulov is situated between the Pavlovské vrchy hilly area and the edge of the Mikulov Highlands, stretching up to the Thaya river and the three Nové Mlýny reservoirs. The Pálava Protected Landscape Area begins in Mikulov, and so does the Moravian Karst. History[edit] After the Margraviate of Moravia was established, the settlement of Nikulsburch was first mentioned in a 1249 deed, issued by the Přemyslid margrave Ottokar II who granted it, including a castle, and the surrounding area to the Austrian noble Henry I of Liechtenstein. In 1262 the possession was confirmed by Ottokar, Bohemian king since 1253. After King Rudolf I of Germany had defeated Ottokar at the 1278 Battle on the Marchfeld, he vested Henry II of Liechtenstein with market rights in villa Nicolspurch. German citizens were called in and lived there until their expulsion in 1945 according to the Beneš decrees. Bohemian Crown[edit]

Mikulov Castle

In 1526, the Anabaptist leader Balthasar Hubmaier came from Switzerland to Nikolsburg, where he was captured and arrested by the forces of the Habsburg king Ferdinand I in the following year. The town remained in the Liechtenstein family until 1560, and in 1572 Emperor Maximilian II granted the fief to his ambassador to the Spanish court Adam von Dietrichstein. From 1575 until the 20th century, Nikolsburg remained the proprietary possession of the Dietrichstein noble family and its Mensdorff-Pouilly successors. In 1621, during the Thirty Years' War, Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein signed the Treaty of Nikolsburg with the Transylvanian prince Gabriel Bethlen at Mikulov Castle. Four years later, Emperor Ferdinand II and his aulic council met at the castle, where General Albrecht von Wallenstein received his commission and was elevated to a Duke of Friedland. Franz von Dietrichstein also established the first Piarist college north of the Alps in Nikolsburg. After a fire damaged the original Nikolsburg Castle in 1719, the Dietrichstein family reconstructed the château to its present appearance. After the Austro-Prussian War, Count Alajos Károlyi began work on a peace treaty in Nikolsburg that led to the Treaty of Prague in 1866. Jewish Mikulov[edit]

See also: Familianten

Jewish quarter (1900s)

The beginning of the Jewish settlement in Nikolsburg dates as far as 1421, when Jews were expelled from Vienna and the neighboring province of Lower Austria by the duke of Austria, Albert II of Germany. The refugees settled in the town situated close to the Austrian border, some 85 kilometres (53 miles) from the Austrian capital, under the protection of the princes of Liechtenstein, and additional settlers were brought after the expulsions of the Jews from the Moravian royal boroughs by the king Ladislaus the Posthumous after 1454.[1] The settlement grew in importance and in the first half of the 16th century Nikolsburg became the seat of the regional rabbi of Moravia, thus becoming a cultural centre of Moravian Jewry. The famous rabbi Judah Loew ben Bezalel (1525 – 1609), who is said to have created the golem of Prague, officiated here for twenty years as the second regional rabbi between 1553 and 1573.[2] Cardinal Franz von Dietrichstein, son of Adam von Dietrichstein, was a special protector of the Jews, whose taxes were necessary to finance the Thirty Years' War.[3] In the first half of the 18th century, the congregation in Nikolsburg totalled over 600 families, being the largest Jewish settlement in Moravia. The census of 1754 decreed by Empress Maria Theresa of Austria ascertained that there were some 620 families established in Nikolsburg, i.e. the Jewish population of about 3,000 comprised half of the town's inhabitants.[1] It is obvious that only a small number of Jews could make their living in the town as artisans; the rest had to become merchants. The congregation suffered severely during the Silesian wars (1740–1742, 1744–1745 and 1756–1763), when they had to furnish the monarchy with their share in the supertaxes exacted by the government of Maria Theresa from the Jews of Moravia.[3] Quite a number of Nikolsburg Jews continued to earn their livelihood in Vienna, where they were permitted to stay for some time on special passports. The freedom of residence, which was conceded to the Jews in Austria in 1848, reduced the number of resident Jews in Nikolsburg to less than one-third of the population which it contained at the time of its highest development. In 1904, there were 749 Jewish residents in the city, out of a total population of 8,192.[3] In 1938, prior to the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the city population totaled about 8,000 mostly German-speaking inhabitants. Out of these, 472 were Jewish at this time.[1] The Jewish settlement in Nikolsburg ceased to exist during World War II, as only 110 managed to emigrate in time, and 327 of Mikulov's Jews did not survive the Holocaust.[1] Following World War II, the town's German population was brutally expelled between 1945-46 by the Czech Communist Government. In 1948, Mikulov's population was around 5,200. Demographics[edit]

St. Sebastian Chapel on the Holy Hill (Svatý Kopeček)

Census year Population Ethnicity of inhabitants

year German Czechs other

1793 7440

1836 8421

1869 7173

1880 7642 7447 144 61

1890 8210 8057 79 74

1900 8092 7843 170 79

1910 8043 7787 189 67

1921 7699 6359 626 485

1930 7790 6409 898 483

1939 7886

[4] Economy[edit] Mikulov is a centre of Czech wine-making due to its favorable geographic location and climate, as well as its unique history. Mikulov is not only the centre, but the namesake of, the Moravian wine sub-region vinarská podoblast Mikulovská.[5] Twelve registered cadastral vineyard tracts (Czech: trat) are situated within the Mikulov wine village as defined under the Czech Viticulture Act.[6] Other significant economic activities in Mikulov are the machine-making and clay industries, as well as oil found at the edge of the Viennese Basin. Landmarks[edit] Mikulov's historic buildings, such as Mikulov Castle, and the surrounding wine country draw tourists from the Czech Republic and neighboring countries. Beginning in Mikulov, the 65 kilometer long Mikulov Wine Trail winds throughout the Mikulov wine region and is a part of wine tourism in the area. Other noteworthy historic sights are the Dietrichstein sepulchre, the old Jewish Quarter, and the Piarist College. Several historic churches and a synagogue, built in various architectural styles, are located in Mikulov, including the Romanesque Church of St. Václav and charnel house, the Baroque Church of St. John the Baptist, St. Sebastian Chapel on the Holy Hill (Svatý Kopeček), the neo-Gothic Eastern Christian Church of St. Nicolas, and the Altschul Synagogue. Notable residents[edit] Born in Mikulov[edit]

Johann Ferdinand Hertodt (1645–1722), German Moravian physician and writer Moses ben Avraham Avinu (?–1733), printer, author, Christian convert to Judaism Jakob Fellner (1722–1780), German Moravian Baroque architect Joseph von Sonnenfels, né Lipmann (1732–1817), Austrian and German Jewish (later Christian) jurist, novelist Anton Joseph Leeb (1769–1837), Mayor of Vienna (1835-1837) Heinrich Landesmann (1821–1902), Austrian Jewish poet and philosophical writer Heinrich Auspitz (1835–1886), Austrian Jewish dermatologist Elkan Bauer (1852–1942), Austrian Jewish composer of popular waltzes Edmund Wengraf (1860–1933, Vienna), Austrian jurist, journalist, narrative writer, novelist, essayist, poet, theatre critic Siegfried Altmann (1872–1961), Austrian Jewish educator and former Director of Das Israelitisches Blindeninstitut, a Jewish institute for blind children.[7] Moriz Jung, (1885-1915) Austrian painter and graphic artist, notable for his work for the Wiener Werkstätte Adolf Schärf (1890–1965), Austrian Social Democratic politician and President of Austria (1957-1965) Manfred Ackermann (1898–1991), Austrian Social Democratic politician Karel Krautgartner (1922–1982), Czech jazz and classical clarinetist, saxophonist, arranger, composer, conductor and teacher

Resided in Mikulov[edit]

Balthasar Hubmaier (1480–1528), Moravian German Anabaptist (Schwertler (de)) leader Leonhard Schiemer (1500-1528), Austrian Anabaptist writer Adam von Dietrichstein (1527–1590), purchaser of the Mikulov estate in 1575 Maximilian, Prince of Dietrichstein (1596–1655), grandson of Adam von Dietrichstein and owner of the Mikulov estate Aaron Samuel Kaidanover (1614-1676), Polish-Lithuanian rabbi Joseph Almosnino (1642–1689), Greek-Serbian rabbi Judah he-Hasid (1660–1700), Jewish preacher Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin (1745–1815), Polish rabbi Abraham Trebitsch (1760–1840), Austrian Jewish scholar Simcha Bunim of Peshischa (1765–1827), Polish rabbi Bonifác Buzek (1788–1839) (de), Moravian priest Abraham Neuda (1812–1854), Moravian rabbi Simon Bacher (1823–1891), Hungarian Neo-Hebraic poet Meyer Kayserling (1829–1905), German rabbi Samuel Baeck (1834–1912), German rabbi Karl (Carl) Borromäus Landsteiner (pseudonym: Arthur Landerstein; 1835, Schloß Stoitzendorf, Stoitzendorf bei Eggenburg, Lower Austria - 1909, Mikulov), Austrian Catholic theologian, author[8] Karl Renner (1870–1950), Austrian Social Democratic politician, Chancellor of Austria (1918-1920, 1945), President of Austria (1945-1950) Richard Teltscher (1888-1974), Austrian Jewish wine-merchant, patron and patriot, founder of the Jewish Central Museum for Moravia-Silesia in Mikulov

Rabbis[edit]

Judah Löw ben Bezaleel, the first rabbi of Nikolsburg, chief rabbi of Moravia, officiated in Nikolsburg about 1553–1573 Judah Löb Eilenburg (1574–1618) Gabriel ben Chajjim ben Sinaj (1618–1624) Yom-Ṭob Lipmann Heller (1624– ) Pethahiah ben Joseph (1631–1637) Abraham ben Mordechaj Jaffe (1637–1647) Menahem Mendel Krochmal (1648–1661) Gershon Ashkenazi (1661– ) Aaron Jacob ben Ezekiel ( –1671) Judah Löb, son of Menahem Krochmal (1672–1684) Eliezer Mendel Fanta (1684–1690) David Oppenheim (1690–1702) Gabriel Eskeles (1709–1718) Bernard Eskeles (1718–1753) Moses Lwow-Lemburger (1753–1757) Gershon Politz (1757–1772) Shmuel "S(c)hmelke" (ben Hirsh Halevi) Horowitz of Nikolsburg (1772–1778) Gershon Chajes (1780–1789) Mordecai Benet (1789–1829) Nahum Trebitsch (1831–1842) Samson Raphael Hirsch (1847–1851) Hirsch Teltscher (1851–1853) Isak Weinberger (1853–1855) Solomon Quetsch (1855–1856) Mayer Feuchtwang (1861–1888) David Feuchtwang (1892–1903), also chief rabbi of Vienna; Son of Mayer Moritz Levin (since 1903–1918) Alfred Willmann (1919–1938)

Twin towns – sister cities[edit] Mikulov is twinned with:

Bardejov, Slovakia / Katzrin, Israeli settlement in the Golan Heights Šumperk, Czech Republic Galanta, Slovakia Tuchów, Poland Laa an der Thaya, Austria

Gallery[edit]

Main place and sgraffit house

Main place view towards the chapel

Castle in Mikulov

Castle park

Synagogue in the former Jewish ghetto

Synagogue, inside

See also[edit]

Dietrichstein tomb Lednice - Valtice area Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape Old Hungarian alphabet of Nikolsburg Ostlandkreuz

References[edit]

^ a b c d Nezhodová, Soňa. The Jewish Mikulov (Židovský Mikulov). 1. ed. Brno: Matice moravská, 2006, 423 p. ISBN 80-86488-28-4 ^ Moravia and its castles ^ a b c Jewish Encyclopedia, "Jewish Nikolsburg", Retrieved 2011-01-30 ^ Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960, sv.9. 1984 ^ Wine of the Czech Republic, "Mikulov Wine Region Archived 2011-07-19 at the Wayback Machine.", Retrieved 2011-01-30 ^ Czech Wine Law, "Viticulture Act of 2004 Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine.", pg 87-90, Retrieved 2011-01-30 ^ Center for Jewish History Digital Collections, "Sigfried Altmann Collection", Retrieved 2011-01-30 ^ aeiou Encyclopedia, "Landsteiner, Karl[permanent dead link]", Retrieved 2011-01-30

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mikulov.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jewish community in Mikulov.

Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Nikolsburg.

Official Mikulov City Website Mikulov Regional Museum Wine of Czech Republic Presentation of Mikulov with a photo gallery Nikolsburg (Jewish Encyclopedia) Jewish Nikolsburg Organization

v t e

Towns, market towns and villages of Břeclav District

Bavory Boleradice Borkovany Bořetice Brod nad Dyjí Brumovice Břeclav Březí Bulhary Diváky Dobré Pole Dolní Dunajovice Dolní Věstonice Drnholec Hlohovec Horní Bojanovice Horní Věstonice Hrušky Hustopeče Jevišovka Kašnice Klentnice Klobouky u Brna Kobylí Kostice Krumvíř Křepice Kurdějov Ladná Lanžhot Lednice Mikulov Milovice Moravská Nová Ves Moravský Žižkov Morkůvky Němčičky Nikolčice Novosedly Nový Přerov Pavlov Perná Podivín Popice Pouzdřany Přítluky Rakvice Sedlec Starovice Starovičky Strachotín Šakvice Šitbořice Tvrdonice Týnec Uherčice Valtice Velké Bílovice Velké Hostěrádky Velké Němčice Velké Pavlovi

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