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Methanol
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). Methanol
Methanol
acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Today, industrial methanol is produced in a catalytic process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanol
Methanol
is the simplest alcohol, being only a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. It is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).[11] However, unlike ethanol, methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. At room temperature, it is a polar liquid. It is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol
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Melting Point
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance
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GHS Hazard Pictograms
Hazard pictograms form part of the international Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Two sets of pictograms are included within the GHS: one for the labelling of containers and for workplace hazard warnings, and a second for use during the transport of dangerous goods. Either one or the other is chosen, depending on the target audience, but the two are not used together.[1] The two sets of pictograms use the same symbols for the same hazards, although certain symbols are not required for transport pictograms
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Boiling Point
The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid[1][2] and the liquid changes into a vapor. The boiling point of a liquid varies depending upon the surrounding environmental pressure. A liquid in a partial vacuum has a lower boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. A liquid at high pressure has a higher boiling point than when that liquid is at atmospheric pressure. For a given pressure, different liquids boil at different temperatures
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Aqueous Solution
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Miscible
Miscibility
Miscibility
/mɪsɪˈbɪlɪti/ is the property of substances to mix in all proportions (that is, to fully dissolve in each other at any concentration), forming a homogeneous solution. The term is most often applied to liquids, but applies also to solids and gases. Water
Water
and ethanol, for example, are miscible because they mix in all proportions.[1] By contrast, substances are said to be immiscible if there are certain proportions in which the mixture does not form a solution. For example, butanone (methyl ethyl ketone) is significantly soluble in water, but these two solvents are not miscible because they are not soluble in all proportions.[2]Contents1 Organic compounds 2 Metals 3 Effect of entropy 4 Determination 5 See also 6 ReferencesOrganic compounds[edit] In organic compounds, the weight percent of hydrocarbon chain often determines the compound's miscibility with water
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Vapor Pressure
Vapor
Vapor
pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system. The equilibrium vapor pressure is an indication of a liquid's evaporation rate. It relates to the tendency of particles to escape from the liquid (or a solid). A substance with a high vapor pressure at normal temperatures is often referred to as volatile. The pressure exhibited by vapor present above a liquid surface is known as vapor pressure. As the temperature of a liquid increases, the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the kinetic energy of the molecules increases, the number of molecules transitioning into a vapor also increases, thereby increasing the vapor pressure. The vapor pressure of any substance increases non-linearly with temperature according to the Clausius–Clapeyron relation
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Magnetic Susceptibility
In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted χ) is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material. The susceptibility indicates whether a material is attracted into or repelled out of a magnetic field, which in turn has implications for practical applications. Quantitative measures of the magnetic susceptibility also provide insights into the structure of materials, providing insight into bonding and energy levels. If the magnetic susceptibility is greater than zero, the substance is said to be "paramagnetic"; the magnetization of the substance is higher than that of empty space. If the magnetic susceptibility is less than zero, the substance is "diamagnetic"; it tends to exclude a magnetic field from its interior
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Refractive Index
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium. It is defined as n = c v , displaystyle n= frac c v , where c is the speed of light in vacuum and v is the phase velocity of light in the medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.333, meaning that light travels 1.333 times faster in vacuum than in the water. Refraction
Refraction
of a light rayThe refractive index determines how much the path of light is bent, or refracted, when entering a material. This is the first documented use of refractive indices and is described by Snell's law
Snell's law
of refraction, n1 sinθ1 = n2 sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence and refraction, respectively, of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2
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Safety Data Sheet
A safety data sheet (SDS),[1] material safety data sheet (MSDS), or product safety data sheet (PSDS) is an important component of product stewardship, occupational safety and health, and spill-handling procedures. SDS formats can vary from source to source within a country depending on national requirements. SDSs are a widely used system for cataloging information on chemicals, chemical compounds, and chemical mixtures. SDS information may include instructions for the safe use and potential hazards associated with a particular material or product. The SDS should be available for reference in the area where the chemicals are being stored or in use. There is also a duty to properly label substances on the basis of physico-chemical, health or environmental risk
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Globally Harmonized System Of Classification And Labelling Of Chemicals
The Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) is an internationally agreed-upon standard managed by the United Nations
United Nations
that was set up to replace the assortment of hazardous material classification and labelling schemes previously used around the world. Core elements of the GHS include standardized hazard testing criteria, universal warning pictograms, and harmonized safety data sheets which provide users of dangerous goods with a host of information. The system acts as a complement to the UN Numbered system of regulated hazmat transport. Implementation is managed through the UN Secretariat
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Density
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:[1] ρ = m V displaystyle rho = frac m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume,[2] although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging
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GHS Hazard Statement
Hazard statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases about the hazards of chemical substances and mixtures that can be translated into different languages.[1][2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known R-phrases, which they are intended to replace. Hazard statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[3]an identification of the product one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary) a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary precautionary statements, indicating how the product should be handled to minimize risks to the user (as well as to other people and the general environment) the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer).Each hazard statement is designated a code, starting with the letter H and followed by three digits
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GHS Precautionary Statements
Precautionary statements form part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). They are intended to form a set of standardized phrases giving advice about the correct handling of chemical substances and mixtures, which can be translated into different languages.[1][2] As such, they serve the same purpose as the well-known S-phrases, which they are intended to replace. Precautionary statements are one of the key elements for the labelling of containers under the GHS, along with:[3]an identification of the product; one or more hazard pictograms (where necessary) a signal word – either Danger or Warning – where necessary hazard statements, indicating the nature and degree of the risks posed by the product the identity of the supplier (who might be a manufacturer or importer)Each precautionary statement is designated a code, starting with the letter P and followed by three digits
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NFPA 704
"NFPA 704: Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" or "safety square" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions taken during the initial stages of an emergency response.Contents1 Codes 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCodes[edit]The four divisions are typically color-coded with red indicating flammability, blue indicating level of health hazard, yellow for chemical reactivity, and white containing codes for special hazards. Each of health, flammability and reactivity is rated on a scale from 0 (no hazard) to 4 (severe risk)
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Flash Point
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source. The flash point may sometimes be confused with the autoignition temperature, which is the temperature at which the vapor ignites spontaneously without an ignition source. The fire point is the lowest temperature at which vapors of the material will keep burning after being ignited and the ignition source removed
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