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Medicine
MEDICINE is the science and practice of the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease . Medicine
Medicine
encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness . Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences , biomedical research , genetics , and medical technology to diagnose , treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery , but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy , external splints and traction , medical devices , biologics , and ionizing radiation , amongst others. Medicine
Medicine
has existed for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism . In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science , most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied , under the umbrella of MEDICAL SCIENCE). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science
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Pharmaceutical Drug
A PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG (also referred to as MEDICINE, MEDICATION, or simply as DRUG) is a drug used to diagnose , cure , treat , or prevent disease . Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy ) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in various ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control , which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician , physician assistant , or qualified nurse ) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves). Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis , and biopharmaceuticals , which include recombinant proteins , vaccines , blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG ), gene therapy , monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration , biological system affected, or therapeutic effects . An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines
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Medicine (other)
MEDICINE is the modern field of medical practice and health care. MEDICINE may refer to: * Internal medicine , medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases* Other systems of medicine including: * Acupuncture
Acupuncture
* Anthroposophic medicine * Ayurveda
Ayurveda
* Chiropractic
Chiropractic
* Herbalism * Homeopathy * Native American medicine * Naturopathy * Osteopathy * Shamanism , practiced by Indigenous people of the Americas * Traditional Chinese Medicine
Medicine
(TCM) * Traditional Tibetan medicine * Medication , licensed pharmaceutical drugs (see pharmacology ) or herbal medicines CONTENTS * 1 Publications * 2 Music * 3 Other uses * 4 See also PUBLICATIONS * Medicine
Medicine
Magazine , British consumer health magazine * Medicine
Medicine
(Lippincott Williams & Wilkins journal) , an academic journal founded in 1922 and published by Lippincott Williams font-style: italic;">This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MEDICINE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Academic Medicine (journal)
ACADEMIC MEDICINE is the monthly peer-reviewed medical journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Abstracting and indexing * 3 References * 4 External links HISTORYThe journal was established in 1926 as the Bulletin of the Association of American Medical Colleges. It was renamed Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges in 1929. In 1951 it briefly became Medical Education then Journal of Medical Education. In 1989 it took its current name of Academic Medicine. In the course of its history, the journal has had nine editors. David P. Sklar is the present editor-in-chief , appointed in 2013. ABSTRACTING AND INDEXINGThe journal is abstracted and indexed in: * Index Medicus / MEDLINE / PubMed * Science Citation Index REFERENCES * ^ A B "About the Journal". Academic Medicine. Retrieved 8 October 2015. * ^ "Academic Medicine". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information
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Asclepius
ASCLEPIUS (/æsˈkliːpiəs/ ; Greek : Ἀσκληπιός, _Asklēpiós_ ; Latin : _Aesculapius_) was a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology . Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia ("Hygiene", the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process), Aglæa/Ægle (the goddess of beauty, splendor, glory, magnificence, and adornment), and Panacea (the goddess of universal remedy). He was associated with the Roman/Etruscan god Vediovis and the Egyptian Imhotep . He was one of Apollo 's sons, sharing with Apollo the epithet _Paean_ ("the Healer"). The rod of Asclepius , a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. Those physicians and attendants who served this god were known as the Therapeutae of Asclepius . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Family * 3 Mythology * 3.1 Birth * 3.2 Education and adventures * 3.3 Death * 4 Sacred places and practices * 5 In popular culture * 6 References * 7 Sources * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYThe etymology of the name is unknown. In his revised version of Frisk\'s _Griechisches etymologisches Wörterbuch_ (_Greek Etymological Dictionary_), R. S. P. Beekes gives this summary of the different attempts: "H
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Greek God
The following is a list of gods , goddesses and many other divine and semi-divine figures from Ancient Greek mythology and Ancient Greek religion . (The list does not include creatures; for these, see List of Greek mythological creatures .) CONTENTS* 1 Immortals * 1.1 Major gods and goddesses * 1.2 Primordial deities * 1.3 Titans and Titanesses * 1.4 Gigantes and other "giants" * 1.4.1 Gigantes * 1.4.2 Other "giants" * 1.5 Personified concepts * 1.6 Chthonic deities * 1.7 Sea deities * 1.8 Sky deities * 1.9 Rustic deities * 1.10 Agricultural deities * 1.11 Health
Health
deities * 1.12 Other deities * 2 Mortals * 2.1 Deified mortals * 2.2 Heroes * 2.3 Notable women * 2.4 Kings * 2.5 Seers/oracles * 2.6 Amazons * 2.7 Inmates of Tartarus * 2.8 Minor figures * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links IMMORTALSThe Greeks created images of their deities for many purposes. A temple would house the statue of a god or goddess, or multiple deities, and might be decorated with relief scenes depicting myths. Divine images were common on coins. Drinking cups and other vessels were painted with scenes from Greek myths. MAJOR GODS AND GODDESSES DEITY DESCRIPTION _ APHRODITE (Ἀφροδίτη, Aphroditē_) Goddess of beauty, love, desire, and pleasure
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Rod Of Asclepius
In Greek mythology , the ROD OF ASCLEPIUS (Greek : Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού Rávdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode
Unicode
symbol: ⚕), also known as the STAFF OF ASCLEPIUS (sometimes also spelled ASKLEPIOS or AESCULAPIUS) and as the ASKLEPIAN, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius , a deity associated with healing and medicine. The symbol has continued to be used in modern times, where it is associated with medicine and health care, yet frequently confused with the staff of the god Hermes
Hermes
, the caduceus . Theories have been proposed about the Greek origin of the symbol and its implications. CONTENTS* 1 Greek mythology and Greek society * 1.1 Theories * 2 Modern use * 2.1 Confusion with the caduceus * 3 Standard representation * 4 See also * 5 References GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND GREEK SOCIETYThe Rod of Asclepius takes its name from the god Asclepius , a deity associated with healing and medicinal arts in Greek mythology. Asclepius' attributes, the snake and the staff, sometimes depicted separately in antiquity, are combined in this symbol. The most famous temple of Asclepius was at Epidaurus
Epidaurus
in north-eastern Peloponnese
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Snake
SNAKES are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder SERPENTES. Like all squamates , snakes are ectothermic , amniote vertebrates covered in overlapping scales . Many species of snakes have skulls with several more joints than their lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with their highly mobile jaws . To accommodate their narrow bodies, snakes' paired organs (such as kidneys) appear one in front of the other instead of side by side, and most have only one functional lung . Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca . Lizards have evolved elongate bodies without limbs or with greatly reduced limbs about twenty five times indepenently via convergent evolution , leading to many lineages of legless lizards and snakes. Legless lizards resemble snakes, but several common groups of legless lizards have eyelids and external ears, which snakes lack, although this rule is not universal (see Amphisbaenia, Dibamidae, and Pygopodidae). Living snakes are found on every continent except Antarctica, and on most smaller land masses; exceptions include some large islands, such as Ireland, Iceland, Greenland, the Hawaiian archipelago , and the islands of New Zealand, and many small islands of the Atlantic and central Pacific oceans. Additionally, sea snakes are widespread throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans
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Science
SCIENCE (from Latin _scientia_, meaning "knowledge") :58 is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe . Contemporary science is typically subdivided into the natural sciences , which study the material universe ; the social sciences , which study people and societies; and the formal sciences , which study logic and mathematics . The formal sciences are often excluded as they do not depend on empirical observations. Disciplines which use science, like engineering and medicine , may also be considered to be applied sciences . From classical antiquity through the 19th century, science as a type of knowledge was more closely linked to philosophy than it is now, and in the Western world the term "natural philosophy " once encompassed fields of study that are today associated with science, such as astronomy , medicine, and physics . However, during the Islamic Golden Age foundations for the scientific method were laid by Ibn al-Haytham in his _ Book of Optics _. While the classification of the material world by the ancient Indians and Greeks into air, earth, fire and water was more philosophical, medieval Middle Easterns used practical and experimental observation to classify materials. In the 17th and 18th centuries, scientists increasingly sought to formulate knowledge in terms of physical laws
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Diagnosis
DIAGNOSIS is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. Diagnosis is used in many different disciplines with variations in the use of logic , analytics , and experience to determine "cause and effect ". In systems engineering and computer science , it is typically used to determine the causes of symptoms, mitigations, and solutions
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Therapy
THERAPY (often abbreviated TX, TX, or TX) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis . In the medical field, it is usually synonymous with TREATMENT (also abbreviated TX or TX). Among psychologists and other mental health professionals, including psychiatrists , psychiatric nurse practitioners, counselors, and clinical social workers, the term may refer specifically to psychotherapy (sometimes dubbed 'talking therapy'). The English word _therapy_ comes via Latin _therapīa_ from Greek : θεραπεία and literally means "curing" or "healing". As a rule, each therapy has indications and contraindications . CONTENTS * 1 Semantic field * 2 Types of therapies * 2.1 By chronology, priority, or intensity * 2.1.1 Levels of care * 2.1.2 Lines of therapy * 2.2 By intent * 2.3 By therapy composition * 2.3.1 By matter * 2.3.2 By energy * 2.3.3 By human interaction * 2.3.4 By animal interaction * 2.3.5 By meditation * 2.3.6 By reading * 2.3.7 By creativity * 2.3.8 By sleeping and waking * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links SEMANTIC FIELDThe words _CARE_, _THERAPY_, _TREATMENT_, and _INTERVENTION_ overlap in a semantic field , and thus they can be synonymous depending on context . Moving rightward through that order, the connotative level of holism decreases and the level of specificity (to concrete instances) increases
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Preventive Medicine
PREVENTIVE HEALTHCARE (alternately PREVENTIVE MEDICINE or PROPHYLAXIS) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment. Just as health encompasses a variety of physical and mental states, so do disease and disability, which are affected by environmental factors , genetic predisposition , disease agents, and lifestyle choices. Health, disease, and disability are dynamic processes which begin before individuals realize they are affected. Disease prevention relies on anticipatory actions that can be categorized as primal, primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. Each year, millions of people die of preventable deaths. A 2004 study showed that about half of all deaths in the United States
United States
in 2000 were due to preventable behaviors and exposures. Leading causes included cardiovascular disease , chronic respiratory disease , unintentional injuries, diabetes , and certain infectious diseases. This same study estimates that 400,000 people die each year in the United States
United States
due to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle . According to estimates made by the World Health
Health
Organization (WHO), about 55 million people died worldwide in 2011, two thirds of this group from non-communicable diseases, including cancer , diabetes , and chronic cardiovascular and lung diseases
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Disease
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition that affects part or all of an organism and that consists of a disorder of a structure or function. The study of disease is called pathology , which includes the study of cause. Disease
Disease
is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens or by internal dysfunctions, particularly of the immune system , such as an immunodeficiency , or by a hypersensitivity , including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (e.g. malaria by _Plasmodium_ ssp.), the term _disease_ is often misleadingly used even in the scientific literature in place of its causal agent, the pathogen. This language habit can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged. In humans, _disease_ is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain , dysfunction , distress , social problems , or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries , disabilities , disorders , syndromes , infections , isolated symptoms , deviant behaviors , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: _lingua latīna_, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages . The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet . Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium , in the Italian Peninsula . Through the power of the Roman Republic , it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages , such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian . Latin
Latin
and French have contributed many words to the English language . Latin
Latin
and Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
roots are used in theology , biology , and medicine . By the late Roman Republic (75 BC), Old Latin had been standardised into Classical Latin . Vulgar Latin was the colloquial form spoken during the same time and attested in inscriptions and the works of comic playwrights like Plautus and Terence
Terence

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Health Care
HEALTH CARE or HEALTHCARE is the maintenance or improvement of health via the diagnosis , treatment , and prevention of disease , illness , injury , and other physical and mental impairments in human beings. Healthcare is delivered by health professionals (providers or practitioners) in allied health professions , chiropractic , physicians , physician associates, dentistry , midwifery , nursing , medicine , optometry , pharmacy , psychology , and other health professions . It includes the work done in providing primary care , secondary care , and tertiary care , as well as in public health . Access to health care may vary across countries, groups, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. Countries and jurisdictions have different policies and plans in relation to the personal and population-based health care goals within their societies. Healthcare systems are organisations established to meet the health needs of target populations. Their exact configuration varies between national and subnational entities. In some countries and jurisdictions, health care planning is distributed among market participants, whereas in others, planning occurs more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies
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Health
HEALTH is the level of functional and metabolic efficiency of a living organism . In humans it is the ability of individuals or communities to adapt and self-manage when facing physical, mental, psychological and social changes with environment. The World Health Organization (WHO) defined health in its broader sense in its 1948 constitution as "a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." This definition has been subject to controversy, in particular as lacking operational value, the ambiguity in developing cohesive health strategies, and because of the problem created by use of the word "complete". Other definitions have been proposed, among which a recent definition that correlates health and personal satisfaction. Classification systems such as the WHO Family of International Classifications , including the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD), are commonly used to define and measure the components of health
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