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Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.[1] This may be caused by accidents, falls, hits, weapons, and other causes.[1] Major trauma is injury that has the potential to cause prolonged disability or death.

In 2013, 4.8 million people world-wide died from injuries, up from 4.3 million in 1990.[2] More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries.[2] In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from 766,000 in 1990.[2] Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the sixth-leading cause of death in the world.[3][4]

Classification

Deaths from injuries per million persons in 2012
  203-358
  359-428
  429-483
  484-559
  560-637
  638-716
  717-817
  818-939
  940-1,140
  1,141-2,961
Deaths from intentional injuries per million persons in 2012
  14-65
  66-89
  90-114
  115-137
  138-171
[2] More than 30% of these deaths were transport-related injuries.[2] In 2013, 367,000 children under the age of five died from injuries, down from 766,000 in 1990.[2] Injuries are the cause of 9% of all deaths, and are the sixth-leading cause of death in the world.[3][4]

The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by:

  • mechanism of injury;
  • objects/substances producing injury;
  • place of occurrence;
  • activity when injured;
  • the role of human intent;

and additional modules. These codes allow the identification of distributions of injuries in specific populations and case identification for more detailed research on causes and preventive efforts.[5][6]

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics developed the Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS). Under this system injuries are classified by

  • nature,
  • part of body affected,
  • source and secondary source, and
  • event or exposure.

The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.[7]

The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.[8]

By cause

By modality

By location

Skin:

  • Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.

Head:

Eyes:

Brain:

Nerves:

Soft tissue, musculoskeletal and organs:

Body:

By activity